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Getting Started with Git: A Primer for SVN and TFS Users

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I gave this presentation at the Israeli ALM User Group.

This is part 1 of a 2 part series on Git and Git workflows and introduces the most basic Git functionality, especially as it differs from the Subversion and TFS version control systems.

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Getting Started with Git: A Primer for SVN and TFS Users

  1. 1. Getting Started with Git a primer for svn and tfs users Noam Kfir | Sela Group | 2014
  2. 2. Agenda  VCS Overview  Git in a Nutshell  Q&A
  3. 3. Version Control Systems (VCS) •Backup code and other resources • Restore previous states Reversibility •Share with the team •Make available to automated processes Concurrency •Comments, tags and other metadata •Communication Annotation
  4. 4. Approaches to Version Control Centralized One Authority Connected File System* Distributed Arbitrary Authority Disconnected Database
  5. 5. Basic Product Comparison TFS Workspace Changesets One stage: check in SVN Working Copy Changesets One stage: commit Git Full Repository Snapshots Two stages: commit + push
  6. 6. Commits Are Local  Modify only the local repository index  Do not modify the remote repository  Every commit:  Creates a snapshot  Creates a new revision  Receives a new unique SHA-1 ref identifier  Supports completely disconnected workflows
  7. 7. More Advantages of Local Commits  Can accumulate multiple commits before integrating  Easier to group related commits  History can be cleaned up before pushing changes  More control over local environment
  8. 8. Snapshots over Deltas Faster operations Complex merges Rewriting history Advanced workflows
  9. 9. Installing Git on Windows   Chocolatey: cinst git  TortoiseGit  GitExtensions  Visual Studio Team Explorer  And many more…
  10. 10. Configuration  Configuration Cascade  local  per repository  global  per user  system  per machine  Most common configurations are global  Some basic settings    core.autocrlf
  11. 11. Excluding Files and Folders  Avoid storing user-specific and temporary files in the remote repository, by using the .gitignore file  The .gitignore file supports wildcards  Ignored files do not appear in the git status command output
  12. 12. Getting Started  git init repository-name Create a new repository  git remote add name url Link the local repository to a remote repository  git clone repository-url Copy and link an existing remote repository
  13. 13. Bare Repositories  No working folder  Contents nearly identical to non-bare .git folder  By convention, .git extension appended to bare repository name  Created with git init --bare or git clone repository --bare  Central repositories are almost always bare  Local repositories are almost never bare
  14. 14. Branches  A branch in Git points to a commit  It is not a container or a folder that stores files  git checkout [-b] branch Switch to the specified branch [after creating it]  git branch List and manage branches
  15. 15. Revision Selection and refs  Git uses special files to store information about its history  Every commit has a SHA-1 identifier – called the ref  You can refer to any commit, including remote commits, using the ref or a shorter ref  The revision selection syntax is very flexible. A few examples:  HEAD~1  HEAD^^  master..branch  a1b2c3d
  16. 16. The Stage  Files ready to be committed are “on the stage”  Supports precise atomic commits – files and individual changes  git add files Stage files and/or changes to be committed  git status See an overview of the local changes  git commit -m message Create a commit with the staged changes  Some commands use the --cached parameter to refer to the stage
  17. 17. Working with Remote Repositories  git pull repository Fetch and merge  git fetch repository Fetch the latest version from the remote repository  git merge source-branch Merge the changes from the specified branch  git push repository Send the local commits to the remote repository
  18. 18. The Edit/Stage/Commit Sequence  git pull  (modify files)  git add file_or_folder  git status  git commit –m "Modified something or other”  git push
  19. 19. Merge Without Fear  Merging is central to git  Different types of merge strategies  Usually selected automatically  Can be specified manually  pull = fetch + merge
  20. 20. Merge vs. Rebase git merge Copy Adds to history Usually safe Good for traceability Leaves messy history git rebase Move Rewrites history Can be dangerous Good for cleanup Makes history more linear
  21. 21. Rich Featureset Stash Log Branches refspec Merge Algorithms Aliases grep Tags Hooks .gitignore cherry-pick reflog reset revert Patches Remotes diff and difftool Hosting Tracking Branches Bare Repositories Conflict Resolution SSH Line Endings bisect GC Submodules Forks …
  22. 22. Summary  Git is a very rich distributed version control system  Its distributed snapshot nature makes it extremely flexible and suitable for many different types of work environments  From individual programmers to small co-located teams to massive distributed teams  From open source projects to corporations  Git supported most of the workflows supported by TFS and SVN, but also offers additional benefits
  23. 23. Thank You!