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10.the industrial revolution,its effect on growth of town planning from the 17 th to 18th century

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10.the industrial revolution,its effect on growth of town planning from the 17 th to 18th century

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10.the industrial revolution,its effect on growth of town planning from the 17 th to 18th century

  1. 1. The industrial revolution, its effects on growth of town planning from the 17th to 20th centuries The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making things at home and started making things in factories!
  2. 2.  The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a major effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times.  Industrialization: a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing)
  3. 3. Background of Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it changed the productive capacity of England, Europe and United States.
  4. 4. Industrial Revolution: New Machines Throughout the Industrial Revolution there were several new inventions and machines transformed the time era. Such as the telegraph, cotton gin, steam engine, and the telephone.
  5. 5. Steam Engine The steam engine was the first engine that had a widespread use. It was mainly used to power locomotives.
  6. 6. Cotton Gin The cotton gin was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney. The cotton gin was a device that made picking the seeds out of cotton so much faster. It helped improve the production rate of cotton in the Americas.
  7. 7. Growth of Industry  Growth of factories As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with new machines (e.g., To house these new machines, manufacturers built the first factories New machines and factories increased production By the 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engines
  8. 8. Migration to Cities Urbanization • the movement of people to cities • Changes in farming, rising population, and an increase in demand for workers led people to move from farms to the cities to work in factories • Small towns near natural resources and cities near factories grew instantly
  9. 9. Technology  The Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances in technology  Which of these three inventions most changed the way that raw materials, goods, and people moved?
  10. 10. The Impact of the Railroad • Transportation innovation that most changed the way raw materials, goods, and people moved • Allowed communication and trade between places previously deemed too far
  11. 11. Housing Tenement = a substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by the poor  Built cheaply  Multiple stories  No running water  No toilet  Sewer down the middle of street  Trash thrown out into street  Crowded (5+ people living in one room)  Breeding grounds for diseases  Pollution from factory smoke
  12. 12. How did industrialization change the way of life? Changes brought by industrialization Cities Living Conditions Working Conditions Class Tensions Factories Size ↑ No safety codes Sickness Long hours, Little pay Dangerous conditions Large gaps between the rich and the poor The rise of the middle class
  13. 13. Positive Effects  Increased world productivity  Growth of railroads (faster and more efficient transportation of goods and people)  New entrepreneurs emerged  (more money = more technology/inventions)  New inventions improved quality of life for many  Labor eventually organized (unions) to improve working conditions
  14. 14. Advantages of the Industrial Revolution  Goods were able to be produced much more cheaply  There were greater job opportunities  There was an increase in wealth and in general quality of life  An independent urban manufacturing business force arose  New inventions and innovations occurred; information spread, making the world “smaller”  Spurred the rise of large cities
  15. 15. Negative Effects: Factory Life  Child labor used in factories & mines  Miserable (dirty, cramped) and dangerous (fingers, limbs, & lives lost) working conditions  Monotonous(boring) work with heavy, noisy, repetitive machinery  Long working hours –  six days a week, with little pay  Rigid schedules ruled each day  Gas, candle & oil lamps  created soot and smoke in factories  Diseases such as pneumonia & tuberculosis spread through factories
  16. 16. continue  Labor unrest leads to demonstrations (sometimes violent) Strikes take place Women were paid less than men (were actually preferred) Indentured workers Employers had a more impersonal relationship with employees Tenement housing was poorly constructed, crowded, and cold Human and industrial waste contaminated water supplies – typhoid and cholera spread
  17. 17. continue  Air pollution increased over cities and industrial areas  Technological changes eroded the balance of power in Europe  Contributed to the growth of imperialism and communism (Marx’s & Engels’ theories)  Produced weaponry that gave Western nations a military advantage over developing nations
  18. 18. Social Effects  Increase in population of cities  Women and children enter the workplace as cheap labor  Rise of labor unions  Introduction of reforms  Laws to protect children in the workplace  Minimum wage and maximum hour laws  Federal safety and health standards  Growth of the middle class  Increased production and higher demand for raw materials = growth of worldwide trade  Expansion of education  Women’s increased demands for suffrage
  19. 19. Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society The Industrial Revolution had both positive and negative effects. Some negative effects were death and illness because of working conditions. Some positive effects were cheaper prices and quicker production rates.

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