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Nelson Mandela was awarded the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for his work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa. See: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-wall.html
Most of my work involves facilitating consensus agreements on the design and implementation model for particular programmes, for particular target audiences at particular moments in time – hence I work mostly in a transactional space (but that does not mean that other perspectives do not also influence decisions made). I have the greatest affinity for systems thinking and hermeneutics but also draw frequently on other perspectives. Similarly, my dominant teaching approach is influenced by cognitive and social constructivism, but it is also influenced by aspects of associationist/behaviourist theory on the one hand and connectivist and neuroscience theory on the other.
OER Africa defines PAR as ‘collaborative research, education and action used to gather information to use for change on social issues’. It involves people who are concerned about or affected by an issue and who take a leading role in producing and using knowledge about it. A PAR approach has the following features: It is driven by participants; It offers a democratic model of who can produce, own and use knowledge; It is collaborative at every stage, involving discussion, pooling skills and working together; It is intended to result in some action, change or improvement on the issue being researched. By its very nature, PAR requires strong engagement with, and leadership from, key participants to be effective. A specific research methodology for the PAR agenda will emerge through specific engagement with our partner institutions. Pain, R. et al. Participatory Action Participatory Action Research Toolkit: An Introduction to Using PAR as an Approach to Learning, Research and Action. Durham University.
Challenge: institutional lead within a PAR process; own voice and assumptions but tempered by context and feedback on draft documents. Attempts at triangulation through document review, discussion and interviews and direct in-country observation.
Because OER allows flexibility in module and course design and in the long-term, cuts costs No Royalties; Choose how to share; Freely available Allows contextualisation of existing quality resources Facilitates conversations about institutional and national policy necessary to support quality teaching, learning and research OER is a tool that enables Africa to share with the rest of the world its wealth of knowledge!
OER is a powerful tool towards transforming higher education in Africa. This is a transformation that will see Africa take its rightful place as a major actor in the transformation of our societies, livelihoods, economies, politics, the practice of science and the performance of the arts. Africa’s contribution to the global knowledge economy is vital.
Picture: http://static.goal.com/100000/100084.jpg Quote from : http://www.unicef.org/sowc99/sowc99a.pdf – The State of the World’s Children (1999) [downloaded Sept 20th 2014) Kofi Annan was awarded the Peace Prize for having revitalized the UN and for having given priority to human rights. The Nobel Committee also recognized his commitment to the struggle to contain the spreading of the HIV virus in Africa and his declared opposition to international terrorism. (http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2001/annan-facts.html) He served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
Utilising Open Education Resources in support of curriculum transformation at Africa Nazarene University: a participatory action research approach
Utilising Open Educational Resources in support
of curriculum transformation at Africa
Education is the
weapon which you
can use to change
Nelson Mandela (1918 – 2013)
Nobel Laureate, 1993
1. OER Africa has facilitated engagement with OER in
Africa since 2008
2. Currently it is engaged intensively with four
institutions: OUT, UFS, UP and ANU
3. ANU has experienced increased demand for non-
traditional, non-campus-based provision
4. MoU, D. study
5. Duration of engagement 2013 to date
6. Duration of study <2015-2016>
Ontology Determinist X Non-determinist
Epistemology Idealist X Realist
Positivist X Interpretivist
Education paradigm Transmission Transaction X Transformation Transcendence
Critical rationalism x
Systems theory X
Critical theory x
African philosophy x/
Post modernism x
Pedagogical choices Particular limited uses of
behaviourist / associationist
theory; learning as
purposeful and linked to
providing these are open to
change; belief in connecting
ideas in increasingly
complex ways – from
concrete to abstract, from
known to unknown
Practice informed primarily by cognitive and social
constructivist approaches seeking to work towards
consensus understandings that allow teams of
people to work together towards agreed common
goals in communities of learning and practice.
groups to work towards
work plans, there is
need to create some
dissonance to challenge
uncritical group think;
agree that technology
opens new possibilities
for learning; believe
learning should be
• Lead participant
» Analytic autoethnography – self, setting, others> theory
• Data sources
– Documents: existing internal, existing external, created in process
– Workshops: 4 + 3
– FGDs: 10 + 10
– IIs: 6 + 10
– OER maturity analysis and planning tool x2
– 5 Kenya visits and 1 SA study visit
• Analysis and review: iterative reports and chapters
QUESTIONS, FINDINGS AND
Utilising OER at ANU
• What conditions are necessary for successfully mainstreaming the use of OER in support of
curricular and pedagogic transformation in a mixed mode higher education institution such
as Africa Nazarene University?
– What kinds of pedagogical transformation are envisaged at ANU and within what
timeframes are these changes expected to be introduced? How does this align with the
OER community’s understanding of the transformative educational potential of OER?
– To what extent can use of OER constitute an effective catalyst in driving or supporting
these envisaged pedagogical changes?
– In what ways can a focus on pedagogical transformation serve to embed effective OER
practices into mainstream institutional activities and systems, rather than these
practices operating parallel to the mainstream?
– What opportunities already exist within ANU that can be used to drive this kind of
pedagogical transformation and how can these opportunities most effectively be
– What policy, procedural, systemic, cultural, and logistical challenges and barriers inhibit
these changes within ANU?
– What strategies need to be implemented to overcome these challenges?
– What levels of institutional political support or championing are needed for changes
made to become institutionalized?
• Institutional environment for and against
• IODL (cross-cutting board but isolated in practice)
• Willingness to engage but issues relating to DE model
• Business model?
• OER/IPR Policy, HR Policy, QA, ICT Policy
• Changing demand (competition, ICT, cost)
• Move to resource-based learning: CAMS/Enaz?
• Strategic leadership?
• Strategic plan 2017+
• National voice in policy and regulation
• Resource- and activity-based learning with
varying levels of additional support (and cost)
• Business model (market analysis, needs
analysis, differentiated programmes and
budgets, development/implementation and
review/teach-out, data analytics)
• Focus on quality rather than breadth
OER for Africa… and the world
OER show-cases African intellectual capital
– allowing us our rightful participation as
contributors to the global knowledge
“Education is a human right
with immense power to
transform. On its foundation
rest the cornerstones of
freedom, democracy and
Nobel Laureate, 2001
Mays, T.J. 2017. Utilising Open Educational Resources in
support of curriculum transformation at Africa Nazarene University: a participatory action
research approach, Open Education Global Conference 2017, CTICC.
Johannesburg: Saide/OER Africa/UP
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