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the brain ,parts and functions

a power point presentation of the brain its parts and functions.
and how it works.

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the brain ,parts and functions

  1. 1. Biology & Behavior The Brain, The Nervous System & the Glands
  2. 2. The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters Neurons the specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system and contain three major parts - a cell body, dendrites, and an axon
  3. 3. anatomy of a neuron cell body (soma) contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic, or life-sustaining, functions of a neuron. dendrites (comes from the Greek word for "tree") and are the primary receivers of signals from the neurons, they look life the leafless branches of a tree axon is the slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell body of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body
  4. 4. works of neurons afferent (sensory) neurons relay messages from the sense organs and receptors - eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin -- to the brain or spinal cord; efferent (motor) neurons convey signals from the central nervous to the glands and the muscles, enabling the body to move interneurons (thousand of times more numerous than motor or sensory neurons) carry information between neurons in the brain and between neurons in the spinal cord
  5. 5. Glial Cells are specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that hold the neurons together, remove waste products, such as dead neurons, from the brain by engulfing and digesting them, and they handle other manufacturing, nourishing and cleanup tasks smaller than neurons and make up more than one-half the volume of the human brain The Synapse is the junction where the axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft. The Myelin Sheath is a white, fatty coating, wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation
  6. 6. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of a sending neuron, crosses a synapse, and binds to appropriate receptors sites on the dendrites or cell body of a receiving neuron, influencing the cell either to fire or not to fire
  7. 7. why synaptic vesicles can continue to pour out the cell body of the neuron is always working to manufacture more of the neurotransmitters unused neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft may be broken down into components and reclaimed by the axon terminal to be recycled and used again the process of REUPTAKE - the neurotransmitter is taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon terminal, intact and ready for immediate use thus terminating the neurotransmitter's excitatory or inhibitory effect on the receiving neuron
  8. 8. the variety of neurotransmitters acetylcholine (Ach), a neurotransmitter that exerts excitatory effects on the skeletal muscle fibers, causing them to contract so that the body can move and has an inhibitory effect on the muscle fibers in the heart, which keeps the heart from beating too rapidly Dopamine (DA), one of four neurotransmitters called monoamines, produces both excitatory and inhibitor effects and is involved in several functions, including learning, attention, movement, and reinforcement Norepinephrine (NE) has an effect on eating habits (it stimulates the intake of carbohydrates) and plays a major role in alertness and wakefulness. Epinephrine complements norepinephrine by affecting the metabolism of glucose and causing the nutrient energy stored in muscles to be released during strenuous exercise
  9. 9. Serotonin plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain GABA (gamma- aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Endorphins provide relief from pain or the stress of vigorous exercise and produce feelings of pleasure and well-being
  10. 10. The Nervous System the Central Nervous System & the Peripheral Nervous System
  11. 11. 2 divisions of the human nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) - composed of brain and the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System - connects the central nervous system to all other parts of the body
  12. 12. why is an intact spinal cord important to normal functioning? the spinal cord is an extension of the brain that reaches from the base of the brain, through the neck, and down the hollow center of the spinal column; it transmits messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system
  13. 13. the brainstem brainstem is part of the hindbrain that begins at the site where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the skull, and it handles functions that are so critical to physical survival that damage to it is life-threatening medulla is the part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, coughing, and swallowing reticular formation (reticular activating system RAS), plays a crucial role in arousal and attention
  14. 14. the Cerebellum important to the body's ability to execute smooth, skilled movements regulates muscle tone and posture coordinates the series of movements necessary to perform many simple activities without conscious effort help to heighten ability to focus attention on incoming sensory stimuli and to shift attention may increase our efficiency in acquiring sensory information and discriminating between sensory stimuli
  15. 15. the Midbrain lies between the hindbrain & the forebrain act as relay stations through which the basic physiological functions of the hindbrain are linked to the cognitive functions of the forebrain substantia nigra is located in the midbrain and is comprised of darkly covered nuclei of nerve cells that control our unconscious motor actions.
  16. 16. the thalamus & hypothalamus thalamus has two egg- shaped parts, serves as relay station for virtually all the information that flows into and out of the forebrain, including sensory information from all the senses except smell hypothalamus regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors, and internal body temperature
  17. 17. the Limbic System group of structures in the brain, including the amygdala and the hippocampus, that are collectively involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation. amygdala plays an important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli hippocampus is located in the interior temporal lobes and plays a central role in the storing of new memories, the response to new and unexpected stimuli, and navigational ability plays a role in the brain's internal representation of space in the form of neural maps
  18. 18. the cerebrum most essential part of the brain is the cerebrum & its cortex cerebrum is the largest structure in human brain. it is composed of two cerebral hemisphere, the left & right which control movement & feeling on the opposing side of the body corpus callosum connects the two hemisphere and makes possible the transfer of information and the coordination of activity between them cerebral cortex is the thin gray outer covering about 1/8 inch thick. it is primarily responsible for the higher mental processes of language, memory & thinking
  19. 19. Cerebral cortex gray outer covering about 1/8 inch thick and is primarily responsible for the higher mental processes contain sensory input areas where vision, hearing, touchy pressure, and temperature register motor areas, which control voluntary movement association areas house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language
  20. 20. 4 lobes of the cerebral hemisphere motor cortex - a strip of tissue at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary body movement plasticity - the brain's capacity to adopt to changes such as brain damage - of the motor cortex is maintained throughout life broca's area - involved in directing the pattern of muscle movement required to produce speech sounds in the left hemisphere of the brain frontal association areas -involves thinking, motivation, planning for the future, impulse control, and emotional responses frontal lobes - begin at the front of the brain and extend to the top center of the skull. they contain the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association areas
  21. 21. the Parietal Lobes - lie directly behind the frontal lobes, in the top middle portion of the brain and are involved in the reception and processing of touch stimuli somatosensory cortex,, the site where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register in the cerebral cortex
  22. 22. the Occipital Lobes at the rear of the brain are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information at the very back of the occipital lobes is the primary visual cortex, the site where vision registers in the cortex
  23. 23. the Temporal Lobes, located slightly above ears, are involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory stimuli. the site in the cortex where the hearing registers is known as the primary auditory cortex wernicke's area - is located adjacent to the primary auditory cortex in the left temporal lobe. this is the language area involved in comprehending the spoken word and in formulating coherent written and spoken language
  24. 24. wernicke's asphasia is a type asphasia resulting from damage to wernicke's area wernicke's patient when asked how he was feeling, replied " i that there's an awful lot of mung, but i think i've a lot of net and tunged in a little wheat duhvayden" (Buckingham & Kertesz, 1974) auditory asphasia (word deafness) - the person may hear normally but may not be able to understand spoken language
  25. 25. the cerebral hemisphere Left hemisphere - handles most of the language functions, including speaking, writing, reading, speech comprehension, and comprehension of the written information Right Hemisphere - (controlling the left side of the body) more adept at visual spatial relations auditory cortex in the right hemisphere appears to be far better able to process music that the left augments left hemisphere's language-processing activities'/ (figures out what its meant and who says it) (e.g the balancing act)
  26. 26. the right hemisphere's role in emotion responds to the emotional message conveyed by another's tone of voice reading and interpreting nonverbal behavior involve in the expression of emotion through tone of voice and facial expression brain mechanisms responsible for negative emotions are located in the right hemisphere
  27. 27. the Peripheral Nervous System PNS is made up of all the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
  28. 28. 2 subdivisions of the PNS somatic nervous system - (1) compose of all the sensory nerves which transmits information from the sense receptors - the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin -- to the central nervous system, (2) all the motor nerves, which relay messages from the central nervous system make it possible for you to sense your environment and to move, and they are primarily under conscious control
  29. 29. autonomic nervous system - operates without any conscious control or awareness transmits messages between the CNS and the glands, the cardiac (heart) muscle, and the smooth muscles (such as those in the large arteries and the gastrointestinal system) ANS is further divided into 2 parts - the sympathetic & the parasympathetic nervous system
  30. 30. sympathetic nervous system automatically mobilizes the body's resources, preparing you for action parasympathetic nervous system brings these heightened bodily functions back to normal
  31. 31. the Endocrine System Endocrine system is a series of ductless glands located in various parts of the body, that manufactured and secrete the chemical substances known as hormones, and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cells in other parts of the body