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Landscape Design Elements - Line

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Landscape Design Elements - Line

Design Elements create moods or feeling of the Observer. The Landscape Element uses complementary streetscape design features to provide an attractive and inviting route for a variety of users. The landscape design recognizes these variations in the visual and land use character.

Design Elements create moods or feeling of the Observer. The Landscape Element uses complementary streetscape design features to provide an attractive and inviting route for a variety of users. The landscape design recognizes these variations in the visual and land use character.

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Landscape Design Elements - Line

  1. 1. 2 REPORT ON: INTRODUCTION LANDSCAPING DESIGN ELEMENT Design Elements create moods or feeling of the Observer. The Landscape Element uses complementary streetscape design features to provide an attractive and inviting route for a variety of users. The landscape design recognizes these variations in the visual and land use character. INTRODUCTION Design Element - LINE Lines are a powerful design element that define rooms and connect people to the landscape. Line is one of the more structural principles of landscape design and it is one of the easiest to work with. Line is generally related to the way your eye moves and flows around the landscape such as how garden beds, walkways, and entryways move and flow with one another. It's often reflected in the way paths and beds are arranged and fit together, but a more subtle line can also LANDSCAPING DESIGN ELEMENT - LINE
  2. 2. 3 be created by changes in plant heights or the shapes and directions of their branches. Line in the landscape is created by the edge between two materials, the outline or silhouette of a form, or a long linear feature. Lines are a powerful tool for the designer because they can be used to create an infinite variety of shapes . Landscape designers use lines to create patterns, develop spaces, create forms, control movement, establish dominance, and create a cohesive theme in a landscape. Notice the strong use of "line" here in the Japanese Garden at Butchart Gardens, Victoria BC. The path (primary line) invites you into the garden. Secondary lines form the beds In this private garden, the "line" formed by the edge of the pond creates an amazing space as the plants reflect in the water. The line defines the space and pulls you into the landscape.
  3. 3. 4 Properties of Lines The properties of lines determine how people respond to the landscape, both emotionally and physically. Straight Lines Straight lines are structural and forceful; they create a formal character, are usually associated with a symmetrical design, and lead the eye directly to a focal point. Diagonal lines are straight lines with an intentional direction. They direct the eye right to the next focus. They say plainly what you want, like the straight line of a stairway, it tells you, "Go this way." Straight lines are most often found in hardscape edges and material. Wavy Lines Curved lines create an informal, natural, relaxed character that is associated more with nature and asymmetrical balance. Curved lines move the eye at a slower pace and add mystery to the space by creating hidden views.
  4. 4. 5 Wavy or curved lines have a more natural, gentle, flowing effect. A curved line tends to be more smooth and free flowing and create a more relaxed, natural movement for a more relaxed landscape effect. It tends to "invite" you through the garden instead of "directing" you. Vertical Lines Vertical lines move the eye up, making a space feel larger. An upward line can emphasize a feature and has a feeling of activity or movement. Vertical lines in the landscape include tall, narrow plant material, such as trees, or tall structures, such as an arbor or a bird house on a pole. Horizontal Lines Horizontal lines move the eye along the ground plane and can make a space feel larger. Low lines are more subdued and create a feeling of rest or repose. Horizontal lines can spatially divide a space or tie a space together. Low lines are created by low garden walls, walkways, and short hedges. Lines are used to draw forms on a plan. In plan view, they define plant beds and hardscape areas. Lines are also created by the vertical forms of built features and plant material.
  5. 5. 6 There are three primary line types that create form in the landscape: bedlines, hardscape lines, and plant lines. Bedlines are created where the edge of the plant bed meets another surface material, such as turf, groundcover, gravel, or patio pavers. Bedlines connect plant material to the house and hardscape because the eye follows the line, moving the gaze through the landscape. Hardscape lines are created by the edge of the hardscape, which delineates the built structure. Line can also be created by long and narrow materials, such as a fence or wall. Fig. Shows common landscape lines, including bedlines, hardscape lines, path lines, sod lines, and fence lines
  6. 6. 7 How Line Forms DictateSpace and Style Design principles are the fundamental guidelines every landscape designer should use as a basis for creating their plans. These principles include scale, line value contrast, lettering and line forms. There are five basic line forms:  Rectilinear  Arc and tangent  Arc and radii  Arc and arc  Curvilinear Line Forms and Styles: Rectilinear Line Form Rectilinear:
  7. 7. 8 Grid: the pattern created by lines running side by side (parallel) and intersecting with lines running at right angles (perpendicular) to the parallel lines. Form  No arching or curved lines;  Line segments may be of any length or various lengths;  All lines are straight;  All lines are either parallel or perpendicular to one another;  Lines intersect at 90-degree angles;  Promotes a regular grid pattern style Style  The intersections of this grid pattern dictate gathering spaces;  Rigid style;  Very formal style;  Typically symmetrical;  May create the feeling of cold and unwelcoming if underdeveloped. Figure 1: Example of a grid pattern in a rectilinear line form.
  8. 8. 9 Figure 2: Example of rectilinear form in a landscape design plan view. Arc and Tangent Line Form Form
  9. 9. 10  A series of arcs connected by straight-line tangents;  Only two types of line segments: straight tangents and arcs;  Arcs may be either circular or elliptical;  Lines that do not meet are either straight or intersect at 90º angles;  Lines can be either parallel or perpendicular;  Lines extending beyond an arc will form a grid;  Tangents cannot intersect directly;  Circular arcs will have a constant radius, but circles may differ within the design;  Elliptical arcs have a slope that is ever increasing / decreasing. Style  Less formal;  May be symmetrical;  Patterns. Of straight-line tangents express rectilinear form;  Straight-line tangents promote movement;  Arc segments dominate the design;  Curves increase the overall flow within the design;  Arc areas promote pause and gathering areas. Figure 3: Example of arc and tangent form
  10. 10. 11 Figure 4: Arc and tangent form used for concept lines in a landscape design. Arc and Radii Line Form Form
  11. 11. 12  Two major line segments, straight lines and arcs which are a portion of circles and ellipses;  Straight-line segments must radiate from the center point of a circle or ellipse;  The straight-line segments constitute the radius and must be complemented by the presence of at least some portion of the circle or ellipse;  Straight-line segments must intersect circle or ellipse at an angle perpendicular to the tangent of that arc;  All radii must intersect at right angles, or run parallel or perpendicular to each other;  Radii can be of varying lengths;  Arcs can be of any length and size;  Straight-line segments will form a grid pattern similar to the rectilinear form. Style  Formal style due to the grid pattern that develops;  Arcs tend to promote gathering spaces;  Radii dissecting arcs tend to extend space within the arc beyond it;  Straight-line segments connecting two or more arcs will often promote movement between spaces. Figure 5: The form of arc and radii
  12. 12. 13 Arc and Arc Line Form Form  Utilizes only one type of line segment;  Line segments are always portions of arcs, either circles or ellipses;  Circular arcs will have consistent radii;  Elliptical arcs will connect all major axis with the end of minor axis;  Circles and ellipses may be of varying lengths within the design;  Arcs may intersect in a variety of configurations as long as the relationship of the intersections remains consistent within the design plan; Style
  13. 13. 14  Informal overall design concept;  Configuration of overlapping circles and ellipses which open into one another and promotes sharing of space;  Although informal, the style of this type of line form is not necessarily natural of flowing;  Greater space within an arc promotes its use as a gathering space;  Smaller arcs and the space within an arc promote movement. Figure 6: Example of arc and arc line form.
  14. 14. 15 Figure 7: Arc and Arc line form as a concept line in a plan view. Curvilinear/ Bio-morphic / Organic Line Form Form  Line segments consist of only one type of spatial edge;  All spatial lines are curving;  All arcs have consistently changing radii;  Arcing lines may increase / decrease along the direction of movement through the plan;  Arcing lines may change orientation and direction so as to never re-curve or close upon itself;  Line segments can be of any length. Style
  15. 15. 16  Very informal;  Natural, flowing lines;  Reflects forms found in nature;  Movement of free-form lines in the landscape offers more possibility for exploration and discovery;  Tends to blend manicured landscapes into more natural environments; Figure 8: Example of curvilinear / organic line form.
  16. 16. 17 Figure 9: Curvilinear line form in a landscape design plan view. Soften lines in landscape design, what does it mean?
  17. 17. 18 In the landscape design world, horizontal lines or vertical lines and corners of some structures, like a house, walkway, or patio, create a harsh appearance. Landscape design is introduced to reduce the visual impact of sharp lines and subsequently create a more pleasing view. Well-placed flowers, shrubs or small trees conceal sharp lines, like where the ground meets the vertical foundation of the house. Covering or hiding all or part of sharp lines with plants is referred to as softening the line or edge. To appreciate the value of softening lines in the landscape, Adding foundation plants helps blend structures into nature. imagine a house with no flowers, shrubs or trees (above). Examples Japanese Gardens
  18. 18. 19 The line between garden and its surrounding landscapeis not distinct. Curvilinear/ Bio-morphic / Organic Line Form to developthe informal character and Asymmetry. Plan showing Organic Curvilinear Water Bodies, Pathways, Dry Garden of Japanese Gardens. These hide views like nature. BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 Basic Principles of Landscape Design Line http://www.weekendgardener.net/gardeningdesign/basic-landscape-design6-110911.htm
  19. 19. 20 SULIS - Sustainable Urban Landscape Information Series U of MN. http://www.sustland.umn.edu/design/energysaving.html The Elements of Good Garden Design http://www.bhg.com/gardening/design/styles/line-garden-design/ Views from the Garden Soften lines in landscape design, what does it mean http://www.viewsfromthegarden.com/2011/09/soften-lines-in-landscape-design-what.html Principles of Landscape Design http://www.cmg.colostate.edu/gardennotes/413.html CIR536-MG086 Basic Principles of Landscape Design http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg086 Japanese Gardens by Gunter Nitschke

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