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Social inequalities in Active Ageing in the region of Biscay: Does education play a role?

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Presentation in the Second Seminar on the Active Ageing Index
Bilbao, 27-28 September 2018

Publicado en: Salud y medicina
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Social inequalities in Active Ageing in the region of Biscay: Does education play a role?

  1. 1. Social inequalities in Active Ageing in the region of Biscay: Does education play a role? Second Seminar on the Active Ageing Index Bilbao, 27-28 September 2018 Yolanda González-Rábago, Unai Martín, Amaia Bacigalupe, Sergio Murillo
  2. 2. 2 Background • The Provincial Council of Biscay’s proposal • As part of the activities of the Observatory for the Elderly of Biscay – a participatory organization bringing together social, economic and political agents related to the elderly in Biscay-. • Purpose: to raise awareness about the relevance of active ageing, support evidence-based policy making aimed at improving active ageing, and improve monitoring and accountability to citizens related to what the provincial government is doing in this area. • Collaboration with the Department of Sociology of the University of the Basque Country. • Measurement of the AAI in 2014, 2016 and 2018 AAI for Biscay What about social inequalities in AAI?
  3. 3. 3 Background • Conceptual definition of Active Ageing failed to consider inequalities: – Hardly analysed, only gender inequalities in AAI: clear gender gap (UNECE, 2016) • The capacity to contribute to the society in an active way is socially distributed: not the same opportunities to age actively. • Social position indicators: many different ways to measure – Educational level: • Strong determinant of social position determining opportunities for employment and income. • Stable along life • Determinant of attitudes towards life-style behaviours (Dahlgren and Whitehead, 1991) AAI for Biscay
  4. 4. 4 • Objectives: 1. To analyse educational level inequalities in the indicators of the AAI. 2. To calculate the impact of considering education in the final scores of the AAI for different groups in Biscay in the context of the EU28. Objectives AAI for Biscay
  5. 5. 5 • Calculation of the indicators of AAI 2016 for Biscay following the proposed methodology (UNECE, 2012), disaggregating by level of education: – Three categories: primary studies or less, secondary studies and tertiary studies – Primary and secondary data sources: • Ad hoc survey with population aged 55 and over in Biscay (n=1,014) gathering information for the majority of the AAI indicators. • Some indicators were collected from secondary data sources with the collaboration of Eustat- Basque Statistics Institute. – 14 indicators were measured by educational level: Methodology AAI for Biscay
  6. 6. 6 Methodology AAI for Biscay DOMAIN INDICATOR Employment 1.1 Employment rate for the age group 55-59 1.2 Employment rate for the age group 60-64 1.3 Employment rate for the age group 65-69 Participation in society 2.1. Percentage of older population aged 55+ providing unpaid voluntary work through the organisations 2.4. Percentage of older population aged 55+ taking part in the activities of meeting of a trade union, a political party or political action group. Independent and secure living 3.1 Percentage of people aged 55 years and older undertaking physical exercise or sport at least 5 times a week 3.2 Percentage of people aged 55 years and older who report no unmet need for medical and dental examination or treatment during the last 12 months 3.6. Percentage of people aged ≥ 65 who are not severely materially deprived 3.7. Percentage of people aged ≥ 55 who are not worried about becoming a victim of violent crime 3.8. Percentage of people aged 55 to 74 who stated that they received education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey Capacity for active ageing 4.1 Remaining life expectancy achievement of 50 years at age 55 4.2. Percentage of healthy life years in the remaining life expectancy at age 55 4.4. Percentage of people aged 55-74 using the Internet at least once a week 4.5. Percentage of people aged 55 or more that meet socially with friends, relatives or colleagues several times a week or every day
  7. 7. 7 • Calculation of the indicators of AAI 2016 for Biscay following the proposed methodology (UNECE, 2012), disaggregating by level of education: – Three categories: primary studies or less, secondary studies and tertiary studies – Primary and secondary data sources: • Ad hoc survey with population aged 55 and over in Biscay (n=1,014) gathering information for the majority of the AAI indicators. • Some indicators were collected from secondary data sources with the collaboration of Eustat- Basque Statistical Office. – 14 indicators were measured by educational level: • When the score was not available or its use was not appropriate to use it: general score of the whole Biscay • Calculation of the overall AAI 2016 for Biscay by level of education • Comparison of results by level of education with overall AAI of EU28 countries and EU28 average Methodology AAI for Biscay
  8. 8. 8 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Employment Figure 1. Employment rate at different age groups by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • Social gradient in all age groups: as level of education increases, so does the employment rate. • 60-64 year old group: lower differences between educational levels, only between lower educated and secondary studies or higher. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 55-59 60-64 65-69 Primary Secondary Tertiary Source: Own elaboration based on Eustat- Basque Statistical Office
  9. 9. 9 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Figure 2. Percentage of population aged 55+ providing unpaid voluntary work and taking part in political activities by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • Unpaid voluntary work: much higher among tertiary educational level population. 11.4 percentage points of difference. • Political participation: clearer social gradient. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Voluntary work Political participation Primary Secondary Tertiary Participation in Society Source: Own elaboration based on Active Ageing Survey in Biscay 2016
  10. 10. 10 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Figure 3. Percentage of population aged 55+ undertaking regular physical exercise, without unmet health needs, and involved in lifelong learning by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • Physical exercise: social gradient, from 9% among the lower educated to 21.2% among the higher educated. • No unmet health needs: no relevant differences, due to a public and universal coverage health system • Lifelong learning: social pattern, from 9.7% to 21.3% 0 5 10 15 20 25 Physicalexercise Without unmet health needs Lifelong learning Primary Secondary Tertiary Source: Own elaboration based on Active Ageing Survey in Biscay 2016 Independent and secure living
  11. 11. 11 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Figure 4. Percentage of population aged 55+ with no severe material deprivation and feeling physical safety by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • No severe material deprivation: gap between less educated population and the rest (secondary or tertiary) • Physical safety: inequalities as those most educated feel safer (97.5%) than those with secondary studies (93.9%) or those less educated (88.7%) Source: Own elaboration based on Active Ageing Survey in Biscay 2016 Independent and secure living 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 No severe material deprivation Physicalsafety Primary Secondary Tertiary
  12. 12. 12 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Figure 5. Remaining life expectancy achievement of 50 years at age 55 and percentage of healthy life years in the remaining life expectancy at age 55 by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • A slightly higher life expectancy as the level of education increases, but most remarkable inequalities in healthy life expectancy. • Most educated population expected to live 3 years more in good health than those with a secondary level, and 5 more than the less educated. Source: Own elaboration based on Eustat- Basque Statistical Office and Health Survey of the Basque Country Capacity for an active ageing 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Life expectancy Healthy life expectancy Primary Secondary Tertiary
  13. 13. 13 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Figure 6. Percentage of population aged 55-74+ using regularly the Internet and percentage of population aged 55+ with regular social connectedness by educational level. Biscay, 2016 • Use of ICT: clearly lower when descending in educational level. • No relevant differences in social networks. Capacity for an active ageing 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Use of Internet Socialconnectedness Primary Secondary Tertiary Source: Own elaboration based on Active Ageing Survey in Biscay 2016
  14. 14. 14 Results on inequalities AAI for Biscay Comparison with European countries Figure 7. AAI results for the European countries, the EU28 average and Biscay by educational level. 2016 • Very different position of the population from Biscay depending on the educational level: from the second lowest score to the ninth highest, at the same level as of Belgium, Germany, Ireland and France. 27.5 33.3 34.8 35.2 37.5 47.0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 Greece Biscayprimary Hungary Croatia Poland Romania Slovakia Bulgaria Slovenia Lithuania Portugal Spain Italy Biscaysecondary Latvia Cyprus Malta EU28 CzechRepublic Austria Biscay Estonia Luxembourg Belgium Biscaytertiary Germany Ireland France UnitedKingdom Finland Denmark Netherlands Sweden Source: Own elaboration based on UNECE, Eustat- Basque Statistical Office, and Active Ageing Survey in Biscay 2016.
  15. 15. 15 1. Not able to analyse the 22 indicators: a. Unavailability of data separated by educational level b. Small sample sizes when segregating into three categories of educational level 2. Calculation of overall score for the three educational levels: use of the score for the whole Biscay when no data separated available: a. Underestimation of distance in the overall AAI between social groups Limitations AAI for Biscay
  16. 16. 16 1. Almost all AAI indicators are socially patterned  Better results among those with a higher educational level 2. Very different position of Biscay in the ranking depending on social position of population:  Great educational inequalities in AAI in Biscay 3. What is happening in the rest of Europe? a. Are those countries with a better position in AAI aware of the diversity of ageing situations of different social groups? b. How are social inequalities influencing the active ageing of people? c. Should we think about different ways of promoting active ageing? 4. Which are the best public policies for an equal active ageing? Conclusions AAI for Biscay Main conclusions and moving forward…
  17. 17. 17 4. Which are the best public policies for an equal active ageing? a. Same initiatives for different people? b. Relevance of life-course approach Conclusions AAI for Biscay Main conclusions and moving forward… Source: Adaptation from Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services (2006) Equity in Active Ageing Effective public policies
  18. 18. Thank you! yolanda.gonzalezr@ehu.eus opik@ehu.eus @Opik_ikerketa

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