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Professional Institute of Science & Fashion
Knit Machine Attachment & Engineering
Sayed Azaryl Haque.
Lecturer of PISFT
Ormee Kumar Dey.
Submission Date: 26.12.2015.
What is Yarn?
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers suitable for use in the
production of textiles sewing crocheting knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope
What is Textile?
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or
artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw
fibers of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. A textile is
anything that is made up of fibers, yarns, or fabrics.
The Fabric is a structure of interlock / interloping or interlacement process of yarn,
which have Length, width, thick or thin properties that is call fabric
Manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, and/or yarns having (1) substantial
surface (planar) area in relation to its thickness, and (2) adequate mechanical strength to give
it a cohesive structure. Most fabrics are knitted or woven, but some are produced by
non-woven processes such as braiding, felting, and twisting. Applied loosely, 'fabric'
also includes laces, meshes, and nets. See also textile.
ClassificationofFabric: Fabric can be classified as
Woven fabric: Woven fabric is a textile formed by weaving. It is produced on a
loom, and made of many threads woven on a warp and a weft. Two set threads are
(warp & weft) required. Here needle isn’t use. Twill, poplin, silk, are example of w.f.
Woven fabric Structure: Woven fabric Structure is the main considering
point of woven fabric production. Before fabric production it need to determined the
type of fabric Structure by which fabric will be produced. There are various type of
woven Structure is available. Sometimes, buyer gives the specification of the fabric.
They send fabric sample for produce buyer sample. After determining the Structure, it
is essential to set up Loom parameters for bulk production.
Woven Fabric: The woven fabric is determined by considering the following points.
i) Woven Fabric is produced by interlacing two sets of yarns, the warp & weft,
which are at the plane of the fabric.
ii) The warp is oriented in the direction of the length of the fabric and the weft
in that of its width.
iii) Individual warp & weft yarns are called as Ends and Picks respectively.
iv) Interlacing of the Ends and Picks with each other produced a coherent
v) The repeating pattern of interlacing is called the Weave.
ClassificationofWovenFabric on Woven Structure: he Woven Fabric are
divided into two Principal categories based on woven Structure. They are as-
1) Simple Structure.
2) Compound Structure .
Features of Simple Structure:
The ends and picks are interlaced with one another at right angle.
In this Fabric threads of each group are respectively parallel to each other.
Only one series of ends and one series of picks are used in the woven
All the constituent threads are equally responsible for both aspect of unit or
performance in a fabric and the aspects of aesthetic apparel.
Features of Compound Structure:
More than one series of ends and one series of picks are used in the woven
Some of the threads may be responsible for the body of the fabric . Such as
ground yarns, whilst some may be employed entirely for ornamental purposes
such as Figuring or Face yarn.
Image of twill fabric
Non-woven Fabric: Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures
bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically,
thermally, or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate
fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film.
Image of non-woven fabric
What is Knitting : The knitting is a process offabric manufacturing by converting a yarn into
loop form and then these loops interlock together, which form a structure , is called knitting.
Knitting is a method by whitch yarn is manipulated to creat a fabric. Knitting creats muliple
loops of yarn , called stitch in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the
needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlooping
Types ofKnittingStructure: The knitting structure can classified in two type-
a) Warp Knitting.
b) Weft Knitting.
Warp knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means is which the loop made
from each warp thread is formed substantially along the length of the fabric. In a warp
knitting structure each loop in horizontal direction is made from different thread.
Weft knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means is which
the loop made from each weft thread formed substantially along the length of the
fabric. Characterized by the fact that each warp thread is feed more or less in the line
with the direction in which the fabric is produced.
Yarn in Package Form
Place the yarn package in the Creel
Feeding the Yarn
Set the M/C as per Design and GSM
Withdraw the Roll fabric & Weighting
Classification of Knitting:
Wales:The Wales is vertical columns of Loops in a Knitted Fabric is called Wales. The Loops
of Knitted fabric the total amount of verticals rows is known as Wales. Wales determine the
length of fabric.
Course: Course is horizontal row of loops across the width of fabric produced by adjacent
needles during the same knitting cycle.
Warp KnittingWeft Knitting
Flat-ber Straight bar Circular TricotRaschel
Flat bed Single needle
Circular bearded single
Figure 1.2: Course
What is knitting Loop: A kink of yarn that is intermeshed at its base when
intermeshed two kink of yarn is called knitted loop. In loop knitting, long, dangling
loops are introduced into the middle of a knitted fabric or along an edge (fringe
Kink of yarn: A Length of yarn that has been bent into a shape appropriate for its
transformation into a weft knitted loop.
Type of knit Loops: The knit can be classified based on cam arrangement like as-
1) Knit Loop.
2) Miss Loop.
3) Tuck Loop.
Knit Loops: The knit loop is created by knit Cam.
The Miss or float Loop:
A miss loop or float loop is composed of a held loop one or
more float loop and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its old fails to
receive the new yarn that passes as a float loop to the back of the needle and to reverse
of the stitch.
A single float has the appearance of
“U” shape on the reverse of the
Tuck Loop: A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and
knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new
The tuck loop assumes an inverted U-shaped configuration.
Knitted stitch: The stitch is a kink of yarn that is intermeshing at its base and at its
top. The knitted stitch is the basic Unit intermeshing and usually consists of three or
more intermeshed loop the center loop having been drawn through the head of the
lower loop which had in turn been intermeshed through its head by the loop which
had apparels above it.
Needle Loop: The upper part of the loop produced by the needle drawing the yarn
is called as needle loop. It is a simple unit of knitted structure. It formed by head (top
arc) and two legs of the weft knitted loop.
So, Needle Loop = Top arc + Two legs.
Sinker Loop: The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred as sinker
loop. The Bottoms arcs are also called Sinker Loop.
So, One complete Loop = One needle Loop + two half of sinker loop
Stitch Density: It is the number of stitches per unit
area of a knitted fabric. It determines the area of the
fabric. The Term stitch density is frequently used in knitting instead of a linear
measurement of Courses or Wales it is the total number of needle loops in a square
area measurement , such as square inch or square C.M.
Stitch Density: Wales per inch (WPI) X Courses per inch (CPI).
Loop Length: We know that the knitted fabric is assembling of loops. So we, have
to measurement the loops length. Firstly we mark 08/10 course by gel-pen. Then the
yarn is separated from the fabric. It is easy to measurement into C.M.
Then we take constant figure of measurement unit of yarn. Now it is easily covert into
Millimeter (M.M). Then divide it marked courses.
GSM calculation: (CPI*SL*(39.37*39.37)*T)/ 1000*1000.
Here, CPI = Courses per Inch.
SL = Stitch / Loop Length.
T = Tex.
Formula for setting parameter of Weft Knitting:
Needle Gauge: The needle gauge of a knitting M/C is a measure expressing the
number of needle s per unit of needle bed width. The gauge of needle refers to the
total no needle into 1 unit inch.
Gauge, N = How many needles are use in one inch
N = No of Needle / One inch.
Highest N.G is 60 needle & Lowest is 2 to2.5 needle.
The Needle Pitch: The needle pitch is distance between two neighboring
needles in the same needle bed, from the center of a needle to the center of the
Needle Pitch = 1 / Needle gauge.
Cylinder / Dial: The Cylinder is a steel Circular bed having grooves on its outer
periphery where the needles are mounted. It is a Devise to decide the needle
Knitting Needle: The Needle is a metal tiny hock principal element
used for loop formation. Needle used for knitting are three types.
1) Latch Needle.
2) Compound Needle.
3) Bearded needle
1) To Feed the Yarn.
2) Loops Formation.
3) To hold the old Loops.
Latch Needle: Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier,
patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his
time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a
simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two
beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of
loops between courses
2. Butt height
3. Back shank
9. Hook width
Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showedbelow:
1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop.
2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade.
3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch
4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed
with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch
5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle.
6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap
between the hook and stem.
7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest
8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated.
9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional support to
the needle and keeping the needle in its trick.
Latch Needle Characteristics:
1. Most widely used in weft knitting.
2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle.
3. Self acting or loop controlled.
4. Work at any angle.
5. Needle Depth determines the loop length.
6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch.
Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in –
a) Double Cylinder Machine,
b) Flat Bar Machine,
3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine,
4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine.
The Diagram of knitting action of the latch needle
the position of a
latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or
course as it moves up and in its trick or slot.
1 The rest position. The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the
trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from
rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward
between the needles to hold down the sinker loops.
2 Latch opening. As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old
loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch,
turning and opening it.
3 Clearing height. When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared
from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as
a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook.
4 Yarn feeding and latch closing. The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that
its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn
is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no
danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the
latch, causing it to close on to the hook.
5 Knocking-over and loop length formation. As the head of the needle descends
below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn
through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is
approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of
the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop.
Compound Knitting Needle: The compound needle consists of two
parts, needle body and slider. These two parts are moved independently.
Image of Compound Needle
Knitting & Tucking action of Compound Needle:
Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp
I. The tubularpipe needle has its tongue sliding inside the tube of
the open hook.
II. The open stem “Pushertype” or slide needle has a closing wire or
tongue that slides externally along a groove on the edge of the flat
A fine steel needle for machine knitting that has a butt at one end and a
long, flexible hook at the other that curves back to the shank of the
needle. Also known as spring needle. Bearded needles were used on tricot
A bearded needle shown with the beard in the open and closed positions.
The needle consists of five main parts
The main parts of the bearded needle
1) Stem: The stem of bearded needle around which
the needle loop is formed.
2) The Head: In the head section of bearded needle,
the stem is turned into a hook to draw the new
loop through the old loop.
3) The Beard: The beard is the curved downwards
continuation of the hook that s used to separate
the trapped new loop inside from the old loop.
4) The Eye or Groove: The eye of groove cut in the
stem to receive the pointed tip of the beard when
it is pressed.
5) The shank: The shank of bearded needle may be
bent for the individual location in the machine or
cast with others in a metal lead.
The knitting action of the bearded needle
The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. Depending upon
the machine, the needles are set vertically or horizontally. The needle has the
disadvantage of requiring a pressing edge to close the bearded hook and enclose the
new loop. The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either
the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves
Figure of knitting action of the bearded needle
CAM:The CAM is the second primary knitting element. It is mechanical
devices which convert the rotary machine drive into suitable reciprocating
action for the needle or other elements.
Types of knitting CAM:In knitting technology, there are two type of
CAM are used.
Engineering CAM:It is circular CAM. This circular engineering CAM indirectly
control the motion of bars of elements which move masseas a single unitsin cottons
patent to and warp knitting.Theyare attaching to a rotary drive shaft situated
parallel to and below the needle bar.
In warp knitting M/C, 4 types of cam drive have been worked:
i) Single acting CAM
ii) CAM & counterCAMS.
iii) Box CAMS.
iv) Contour CAMS.
Knitting CAM:In weft knitting, we use knitting cam. The knitting cams
are classified 3 kinds.
i) Knit CAM.
ii) Miss CAM.
Sinker: The Sinker is the Primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate
with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right
angle from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles.
Various kinds Sinker image:
Weft single jersey (Technical face)
Pique Poplin: It is six feed structure
with knit and float (Miss) stitch
combination. At feeds 2, 3, 5
& 6, there is no knitting with cylinder needles
Half Tricot Structure: (WarpKnitting)
Show the Needle &cam
“A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying , mechanical movement,either hand or
power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into kitted loop
The main features of a knitting machine are listed below:
Frame: the frame, normally free standing and wither circular or rectilinear according
to needle bed shape. Provides the support for the majority of the machines
Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the
drive of the devices and mechanisms.
Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam
accommodation tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides.
Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing,
drive and control as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control
devices (if equipped).
Fabric Take- away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning,
wind up and accommodation devices.
Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, full detectors,
automatic oilers and lint removal system.
Air Source: 5kg/cm2 (minimum 3kg/cm2).
Needle Oil: 150 ~ 200 .
Gear Oil : 700 ~ 900 .
Temperature: 600 ~ 650 ( body temp. 60 to 62).
Voltage Load : over or less +- 20volt.
Running Sound : 85 ~ 95 decibels.
Lubricate System: 3 cc / minute (70 to 80 Drops) cc = comic centimeter
Classification of weft knitting machines:
Weft knitting machines are divided into the several ways as follows:
A. According to the frame design and needle bed arrangement or construction
i. Circular knitting machine
ii. Flat knitting machine
B. According to the number of needle bed or number of needle set used
i. Single Jersey knitting machine
ii. Double Jersey knitting machine.
C. According to the end product of the weft knitting machine
i. Fabric machine
ii. Garment length machine
D. According to the basic structure of the weft knitting
i. Plain or Single jersey circular knitting machine
ii. Rib Circular or Flat knitting machine
iii. Interlock circular knitting machine
iv. Links-links or Purl flat or circular knitting machine
E. According to the types of needle used
i. Knitting machine equipped with latch needle
a. Circular knitting machine
One needle bed
Plain, Single-Jersey Jacquard, pile and Sliver knit machine
Two needle beds (Dial-cylinder machine)
Rib, Interlock, Double Jersey Jacquard machine
Purl knitting machine
B. Flat- bed knitting machine
One needle bed
Two needle beds
V-bed, Flat purl knitting machine
ii. Knitting machine equipped with spring bearded needle
a. Circular knitting machine
One needle bed
Sinker wheel, Loop wheel frame
b. Straight bar frame
needle bed and Two needle beds
Cotton’s Patent or Fully fashioned machine
Important Accessories of Circular Knitting M/C:
1) Start Stop & inching Button.
2) Auto-stop Motion.
3) Sensors & Detector.
4) Auto Counter.
5) Fabric Take up Mechanism.
6) Safety Guard Hatch.
7) Auto Lubricate.
8) Auto Fly ( yarn) Removing System.
9) Air hose.
10) Nozzle. (Air & Oil)
Auto Stop Motion List in Knitting M/C.
In case of Gate Open.
Fabric Cut & fell down.
Oil & Air Pressure Problem.
Completion of Selection Target.
Take up Problem.
Important Parts per Machine:
Name Of Parts Number Per M/C
Important Parts Name of Circular Knitting Machine:
MPF Magnet 90
Knot Catcher 90
Eye Pot 90
Hose Pipe 02
Needle Faults Detector 15
Oil Nozzle 21
Oil Pipe 21
Air Finishing Nozzle 30
Air Finishing Pipe 30
Fabric Detectors 02
Main Switch 01
Fabric Light 01
Take Down Light 02
Oil & Air Pressure 02
VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the
product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric
Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in
Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel.
Photo: Pulley Belt.
Brush: Its clean the pulley belt.
Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn.
Photo: Tension Disk.
Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion: It is an important part of the machine. It stops the
machine instantly when a yarn is break.
Photo: Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion.
Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder.
Photo: Yarn Guide.
MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel.
Photo: MPF Wheel.
MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give
positive feed to the machine.
Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together.
Photo: Feeder Ring.
Disk Drum:Use in jacquard machine to produce various types of design.
Photo: Disk Drum.
Pattern Wheel: Pattern Wheel use in Pai Lung and Auto Stripe machine because of that
that help to produce various types of design and stripe.
Photo: Pattern Wheel.
Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine.
Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together.
Photo: Sinker Ring.
Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine.
Photo: Lycra Attachment Device.
Lycra Stop Motion: It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is
Photo: Lycra Stop Motion.
Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear.
Cylinder Balancer: It helps the cylinder to set in a proper alignment.
Photo: Cylinder Balancer.
Uniwave Lubrication: The Uniwave lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles,
cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction
separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil.
Photo: Uniwave Lubrication System.
Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fiber from yarn and others. To clean the
dust by air flow.
Photo: Adjustable Fan.
Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses.
Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is
achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be
Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose.
Auto Color Changing Feeder
For Use Engineering Stripe Circular Knitting Machine
For Use Circular Knitting Machine (Single & Double Jersey)
Yarn Wheel or Yarn resaves Wheel
Rubber Band (For use Auto Color Changing Feeder)
Top Feeding Wheel
For use Positive Feeder
Top Feeding Wheel
For use Positive Feeder
Round Punched Cough & Clutch Wheel
Choice of Output Base
For use Auto Color Changing Feeder
Spandex Feeder (For Use Circular Knitting Machine)
Spandex Feeder with PVC Transparent Dust Cover
Double Tape Tensional
For Use Quality Wheel
Single Tape Tensional
For Use Quality Wheel & Spandex Wheel
Tape Cleaner (For Use Tape Clean)
For Use Yarn Guide
For Use Spandex Guide
Variable Diameter for Quality Pulley (For Use GSM Control)
Spanner of Variable Diameter for Quality Pulley
Brush for Use Flat & Circular Knitting
For Use Inspection Machine
For Use Needle Open & Close
Inverter For use knitting Machine
Yarn Tension In Clam
Yarn Breaking System
Electric Yarn Length Meter
Fabric checking Machine
Fabric Checking & Cutting Machine
Air Gun with Air
Tooth Belt/Timing Belt
Round Punched Belt
Micro Controller of Knitting Machine
Energy Saving Bulb
Defects in the Knitted Fabrics
A defect in the knitted fabric is an abnormality, which spoils the aesthetics i.e. the clean &
uniform appearance of the fabric & effects the performance parameters, like; dimensional
There are various types of defects, which occur in the knitted fabrics of all types, caused by a
variety of reasons. The same type of defects may occur in the fabric, due to a variety of
different causes e.g. Drop Stitches, Spatiality. Prime causes of the fabric defects are, as
• Knitting Elements
• Knitting Machine Settings
As regard to greige knit fabric, the first three causes are the sources for defects to occur.
Knitting Fabric Defect are those that can be created during the fabrication (fabric formation)
and some of them are listed below. These defects are checked during the quality control
1. Needle line: when the needle is broken, bent, and old or damaged on the knitting machine
it creates the straight line mark on the length of the fabric.
2. Sinker line: When the sinker is broken, bent, and old or damaged on the knitting machine
it will create strait line mark on the length wise direction of the fabric.
3. Stripe mark/Bar defect: this defect is created when thin and thick yarns are mixed, when
the tension of one yarn is varied from the others, due to count variation, when the origins of
the cotton fiber from which yarns are made are different.
4. Canal mark: is the straight line mark through the length of the fabric and can be easily
visible on the fabric. Can be occurred due to the needle adjustment problem.
5. Different tears and holes on the fabric: this can be occurred due to the needle breaks,
yarn breaks or other.
6. Grease and oil stain: this defect arises due to the improper fabric handling of the griege
fabric or if the machine is not properly cleaned. It might or might not be removed after
7. Nepe, thick, thin place on the fabric: this defect is due to the irregularity of yarn used for
knitting. This irregularity of yarn will cause the dyeing problem usually dye absorption
problem (dark and light shade) making the stripe on the fabric.
Frequent faults in knitted fabrics, their definition, cause and elimination
In the terminology normally used one differentiates between the following visible from of
faults in the fabric:
1. Cracks or holes
2. Drop stitches
3. Cloth fall – out
5. Tuck or double stitches
6. Bunching up
7. Vertical stripes
8. Horizontal stripes
9. Soil stripes
10. Color fly
11. Distorted stitches
This sequence of points is absolutely random; the incorporation of defect– table faults into
These 11 groups permits an initial judgment. Besides general indications and comments it is
always necessary to have at least one defective fabric sample for analysis and fault
ascertainment. In most of the cases an experienced technician is needed to examine the
conditions on the machine and recommend the proper measures to be adopted.