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Professional Institute of Science & Fashion
Technology (PISFT)
Assignment on:
Knit Machine Attachment & Engineering...
Page 2
What is Yarn?
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers suitable for use in the
production of textiles...
Page 3
ClassificationofFabric: Fabric can be classified as
 Knitted fabric.
 Woven fabric.
 Non-woven Fabric.
Woven fab...
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Features of Compound Structure:
 More than one series of ends and one series of picks are used in the woven
constr...
Page 5
Types ofKnittingStructure: The knitting structure can classified in two type-
a) Warp Knitting.
b) Weft Knitting.
W...
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Roll marking
Inspection
Numbering
Classification of Knitting:
Wales:The Wales is vertical columns of Loops in a Kni...
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Figure 1.2: Course
What is knitting Loop: A kink of yarn that is intermeshed at its base when
intermeshed two kink ...
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Tuck Loop: A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and
knitted loops. It is produced when ...
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Sinker Loop: The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred as sinker
loop. The Bottoms arcs are also c...
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Needle Gauge: The needle gauge of a knitting M/C is a measure expressing the
number of needle s per unit of needle...
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5. Crimp
6. Groove
7. Cheek
8. Hook
9. Hook width
10. Latch
11. Rivet.
Different Parts of Latch Needle has been sh...
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The Diagram of knitting action of the latch needle
Figure shows
the position of a
latch needle as it passes throug...
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5 Knocking-over and loop length formation. As the head of the needle descends
below the top of the trick, the old ...
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Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp
knitting machines:
I. The tubularpipe needle has its tongu...
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The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. Depending upon
the machine, the needles are...
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Knitting CAM:In weft knitting, we use knitting cam. The knitting cams
are classified 3 kinds.
i) Knit CAM.
ii) Mis...
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Yarn Fabric Path Diagram Flow Chart:
Creel
Feeder
Needles
Fabric Spreader
Fabric Withdraw Roller
Fabric Winding Ro...
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Yarn to Fabric Path diagram:
1 – Legs
2 – Cylinder
3 – Dial
4 – Needle
5 – Cam Parts
6 – Feeder guide
7 – Cam
8 – ...
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Weft single jersey (Technical face)
Rib (1X1)Structure:
Pique Poplin: It is six feed structure
with knit and float...
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Half Tricot Structure: (WarpKnitting)
Show the Needle &cam
arrangement.
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“A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying , mechanical movement,either hand or
power derived, to prima...
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ii. Double Jersey knitting machine.
C. According to the end product of the weft knitting machine
i. Fabric machine...
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b. Straight bar frame
One
needle bed and Two needle beds
Cotton’s Patent or Fully fashioned machine
Important Acce...
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Important Parts Name of Circular Knitting Machine:
MPF Magnet 90
Knot Catcher 90
Eye Pot 90
Hose Pipe 02
Needle Fa...
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Oil Pipe:Generallyina Knitting,oil ismastbe used.ThisisOilerpipe tooiledthe M/C
Cam Box:The CAMisprincipal element...
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CAM Arrangement:
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VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the
product. Altering the posit...
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Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in
the machine.
Photo:...
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Photo: Brush.
Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn.
Photo: Tension Disk.
Inlet and Outlet Sto...
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Photo: Yarn Guide.
MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel.
Photo: MPF ...
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Photo: Feeder Ring.
Disk Drum:Use in jacquard machine to produce various types of design.
Photo: Disk Drum.
Patter...
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Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine.
Photo: Feeder.
Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where al...
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Lycra Stop Motion: It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is
break.
Photo: Lycra Stop Mo...
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Uniwave Lubrication: The Uniwave lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles,
cam tracks, lifters and other...
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Photo: Expander.
Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose.
Auto Color Changing ...
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Yarn Wheel or Yarn resaves Wheel
Rubber Band (For use Auto Color Changing Feeder)
Top Feeding Wheel
For use Positi...
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Choice of Output Base
For use Auto Color Changing Feeder
Spandex Feeder (For Use Circular Knitting Machine)
Spande...
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Single Tape Tensional
For Use Quality Wheel & Spandex Wheel
Tape Cleaner (For Use Tape Clean)
Yarn Guide
For Use Y...
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Spanner of Variable Diameter for Quality Pulley
Brush for Use Flat & Circular Knitting
Roller Pad
For Use Inspecti...
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Inverter For use knitting Machine
Yarn Tension In Clam
Yarn Breaking System
Needle Detector
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Fabric Detector
Dust Cleaner
Cylinder & Dial
Spring
Spreader
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Ware Race Bearing
Weight Scale
GSM Cutter/ Simple Cutter
Swatch Cutter
Magnifier
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Tension Mete
Electric Yarn Length Meter
Light Box
Thickness Gauge
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Textile marker
Fabric checking Machine
Fabric Checking & Cutting Machine
Air Gun with Air
Hose Pipe
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Tube Cutter
Flat Belt
Tooth Belt/Timing Belt
Round Punched Belt
Micro Controller of Knitting Machine
Energy Saving...
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Defects in the Knitted Fabrics
A defect in the knitted fabric is an abnormality, which spoils the aesthetics i.e. ...
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5. Tuck or double stitches
6. Bunching up
7. Vertical stripes
8. Horizontal stripes
9. Soil stripes
10. Color fly
...
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Basic informartion of knitting

Here I write some important topics. It is very helpful to a Textile Student. I think If u Study it u will learn basic knowledge about knitting Technology.

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Basic informartion of knitting

  1. 1. Page 1 Professional Institute of Science & Fashion Technology (PISFT) Assignment on: Knit Machine Attachment & Engineering KNT- 485 Submitted to: Sayed Azaryl Haque. Lecturer of PISFT Submitted By: Ormee Kumar Dey. ID:12-02-19 Group: B- Semester:- 8th Batch: 1st Submission Date: 26.12.2015.
  2. 2. Page 2 What is Yarn? Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers suitable for use in the production of textiles sewing crocheting knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope making. What is Textile? A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibers of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. A textile is anything that is made up of fibers, yarns, or fabrics. Fabric: The Fabric is a structure of interlock / interloping or interlacement process of yarn, which have Length, width, thick or thin properties that is call fabric Manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, and/or yarns having (1) substantial surface (planar) area in relation to its thickness, and (2) adequate mechanical strength to give it a cohesive structure. Most fabrics are knitted or woven, but some are produced by non-woven processes such as braiding, felting, and twisting. Applied loosely, 'fabric' also includes laces, meshes, and nets. See also textile.
  3. 3. Page 3 ClassificationofFabric: Fabric can be classified as  Knitted fabric.  Woven fabric.  Non-woven Fabric. Woven fabric: Woven fabric is a textile formed by weaving. It is produced on a loom, and made of many threads woven on a warp and a weft. Two set threads are (warp & weft) required. Here needle isn’t use. Twill, poplin, silk, are example of w.f. Woven fabric Structure: Woven fabric Structure is the main considering point of woven fabric production. Before fabric production it need to determined the type of fabric Structure by which fabric will be produced. There are various type of woven Structure is available. Sometimes, buyer gives the specification of the fabric. They send fabric sample for produce buyer sample. After determining the Structure, it is essential to set up Loom parameters for bulk production. Woven Fabric: The woven fabric is determined by considering the following points. i) Woven Fabric is produced by interlacing two sets of yarns, the warp & weft, which are at the plane of the fabric. ii) The warp is oriented in the direction of the length of the fabric and the weft in that of its width. iii) Individual warp & weft yarns are called as Ends and Picks respectively. iv) Interlacing of the Ends and Picks with each other produced a coherent Structure. v) The repeating pattern of interlacing is called the Weave. ClassificationofWovenFabric on Woven Structure: he Woven Fabric are divided into two Principal categories based on woven Structure. They are as- 1) Simple Structure. 2) Compound Structure . Features of Simple Structure:  The ends and picks are interlaced with one another at right angle.  In this Fabric threads of each group are respectively parallel to each other.  Only one series of ends and one series of picks are used in the woven construction.  All the constituent threads are equally responsible for both aspect of unit or performance in a fabric and the aspects of aesthetic apparel.
  4. 4. Page 4 Features of Compound Structure:  More than one series of ends and one series of picks are used in the woven construction.  Some of the threads may be responsible for the body of the fabric . Such as ground yarns, whilst some may be employed entirely for ornamental purposes such as Figuring or Face yarn. Image of twill fabric Non-woven Fabric: Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally, or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. Image of non-woven fabric What is Knitting : The knitting is a process offabric manufacturing by converting a yarn into loop form and then these loops interlock together, which form a structure , is called knitting. Knitting is a method by whitch yarn is manipulated to creat a fabric. Knitting creats muliple loops of yarn , called stitch in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlooping loops.
  5. 5. Page 5 Types ofKnittingStructure: The knitting structure can classified in two type- a) Warp Knitting. b) Weft Knitting. Warp knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means is which the loop made from each warp thread is formed substantially along the length of the fabric. In a warp knitting structure each loop in horizontal direction is made from different thread. Weft knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means is which the loop made from each weft thread formed substantially along the length of the fabric. Characterized by the fact that each warp thread is feed more or less in the line with the direction in which the fabric is produced. ProcessFlowChartofWeftKnitting: Yarn in Package Form Place the yarn package in the Creel Feeding the Yarn Set the M/C as per Design and GSM Knitting Start Withdraw the Roll fabric & Weighting
  6. 6. Page 6 Roll marking Inspection Numbering Classification of Knitting: Wales:The Wales is vertical columns of Loops in a Knitted Fabric is called Wales. The Loops of Knitted fabric the total amount of verticals rows is known as Wales. Wales determine the length of fabric. Course: Course is horizontal row of loops across the width of fabric produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. Knitting Warp KnittingWeft Knitting Flat-ber Straight bar Circular TricotRaschel Unidirectional V-bed Single bed Flat bed Single needle Double needle Revolving cylinder Circular bearded single jersey
  7. 7. Page 7 Figure 1.2: Course What is knitting Loop: A kink of yarn that is intermeshed at its base when intermeshed two kink of yarn is called knitted loop. In loop knitting, long, dangling loops are introduced into the middle of a knitted fabric or along an edge (fringe border). Kink of yarn: A Length of yarn that has been bent into a shape appropriate for its transformation into a weft knitted loop. Type of knit Loops: The knit can be classified based on cam arrangement like as- 1) Knit Loop. 2) Miss Loop. 3) Tuck Loop. Knit Loops: The knit loop is created by knit Cam. The Miss or float Loop: A miss loop or float loop is composed of a held loop one or more float loop and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its old fails to receive the new yarn that passes as a float loop to the back of the needle and to reverse of the stitch. A single float has the appearance of “U” shape on the reverse of the Loop /stitch.
  8. 8. Page 8 Tuck Loop: A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop. The tuck loop assumes an inverted U-shaped configuration. Knitted stitch: The stitch is a kink of yarn that is intermeshing at its base and at its top. The knitted stitch is the basic Unit intermeshing and usually consists of three or more intermeshed loop the center loop having been drawn through the head of the lower loop which had in turn been intermeshed through its head by the loop which had apparels above it. Needle Loop: The upper part of the loop produced by the needle drawing the yarn is called as needle loop. It is a simple unit of knitted structure. It formed by head (top arc) and two legs of the weft knitted loop. So, Needle Loop = Top arc + Two legs.
  9. 9. Page 9 Sinker Loop: The lower part of the knitted loop is technically referred as sinker loop. The Bottoms arcs are also called Sinker Loop. So, One complete Loop = One needle Loop + two half of sinker loop Stitch Density: It is the number of stitches per unit area of a knitted fabric. It determines the area of the fabric. The Term stitch density is frequently used in knitting instead of a linear measurement of Courses or Wales it is the total number of needle loops in a square area measurement , such as square inch or square C.M. Stitch Density: Wales per inch (WPI) X Courses per inch (CPI). Loop Length: We know that the knitted fabric is assembling of loops. So we, have to measurement the loops length. Firstly we mark 08/10 course by gel-pen. Then the yarn is separated from the fabric. It is easy to measurement into C.M. Then we take constant figure of measurement unit of yarn. Now it is easily covert into Millimeter (M.M). Then divide it marked courses. GSM calculation: (CPI*SL*(39.37*39.37)*T)/ 1000*1000. Here, CPI = Courses per Inch. SL = Stitch / Loop Length. T = Tex. Formula for setting parameter of Weft Knitting:
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  11. 11. Page 11 Needle Gauge: The needle gauge of a knitting M/C is a measure expressing the number of needle s per unit of needle bed width. The gauge of needle refers to the total no needle into 1 unit inch. Gauge, N = How many needles are use in one inch N = No of Needle / One inch. Highest N.G is 60 needle & Lowest is 2 to2.5 needle. The Needle Pitch: The needle pitch is distance between two neighboring needles in the same needle bed, from the center of a needle to the center of the neighboring needles. Needle Pitch = 1 / Needle gauge. Needle Slot: Cylinder / Dial: The Cylinder is a steel Circular bed having grooves on its outer periphery where the needles are mounted. It is a Devise to decide the needle movement. Knitting Needle: The Needle is a metal tiny hock principal element used for loop formation. Needle used for knitting are three types. 1) Latch Needle. 2) Compound Needle. 3) Bearded needle Function: 1) To Feed the Yarn. 2) Loops Formation. 3) To hold the old Loops. Latch Needle: Matthew Townsend, a Leicester hosier, patented the latch needle in 1849. Townsend spent much of his time developing new knitted fabrics and he investigated a simpler way of knitting purl fabrics. Purl fabrics required two beds of bearded needles and pressers to alternate the face of loops between courses 1. Butt 2. Butt height 3. Back shank 4. Stem
  12. 12. Page 12 5. Crimp 6. Groove 7. Cheek 8. Hook 9. Hook width 10. Latch 11. Rivet. Different Parts of Latch Needle has been showedbelow: 1. The Hook: The hook which draws and returns the new loop. 2. The slot or Saw Cut: This slot receives the latch blade. 3. The Cheeks or Slot Walls: It is either punched or riveted to fulcrum the latch blade. 4. The Rivet: The rivet which may be plain or threaded. This has been dispensed with on most plated metal needles by pinching n the slot walls to retain the latch blades. 5. The latch blade: This latch blade locates the latch in the needle. 6. The latch spoon: The latch spoon is an extension of blade and bridges the gap between the hook and stem. 7. The stem: The stem of latch needle carries the loop in the clearing on rest position. 8. The Butt: Butt of latch needle enables the needle to be reciprocated. 9. The Tail: The tail is an extension below the butt giving additional support to the needle and keeping the needle in its trick. Latch Needle Characteristics: 1. Most widely used in weft knitting. 2. More expensive needle than the bearded needle. 3. Self acting or loop controlled. 4. Work at any angle. 5. Needle Depth determines the loop length. 6. Variation of the height of reciprocating produces knit, tuck or miss stitch. Uses of Latch Needle: Latch needle are widely used in – a) Double Cylinder Machine, b) Flat Bar Machine, 3. Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine, 4. Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine.
  13. 13. Page 13 The Diagram of knitting action of the latch needle Figure shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. 1 The rest position. The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook. It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. 2 Latch opening. As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. 3 Clearing height. When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook. 4 Yarn feeding and latch closing. The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook.
  14. 14. Page 14 5 Knocking-over and loop length formation. As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it. The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. Compound Knitting Needle: The compound needle consists of two parts, needle body and slider. These two parts are moved independently. Image of Compound Needle Knitting & Tucking action of Compound Needle:
  15. 15. Page 15 Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp knitting machines: I. The tubularpipe needle has its tongue sliding inside the tube of the open hook. II. The open stem “Pushertype” or slide needle has a closing wire or tongue that slides externally along a groove on the edge of the flat hook member. Bearded needle A fine steel needle for machine knitting that has a butt at one end and a long, flexible hook at the other that curves back to the shank of the needle. Also known as spring needle. Bearded needles were used on tricot machines A bearded needle shown with the beard in the open and closed positions. The needle consists of five main parts The main parts of the bearded needle 1) Stem: The stem of bearded needle around which the needle loop is formed. 2) The Head: In the head section of bearded needle, the stem is turned into a hook to draw the new loop through the old loop. 3) The Beard: The beard is the curved downwards continuation of the hook that s used to separate the trapped new loop inside from the old loop. 4) The Eye or Groove: The eye of groove cut in the stem to receive the pointed tip of the beard when it is pressed. 5) The shank: The shank of bearded needle may be bent for the individual location in the machine or cast with others in a metal lead. The knitting action of the bearded needle
  16. 16. Page 16 The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. Depending upon the machine, the needles are set vertically or horizontally. The needle has the disadvantage of requiring a pressing edge to close the bearded hook and enclose the new loop. The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves towards it. Figure of knitting action of the bearded needle CAM:The CAM is the second primary knitting element. It is mechanical devices which convert the rotary machine drive into suitable reciprocating action for the needle or other elements. Types of knitting CAM:In knitting technology, there are two type of CAM are used.  Engineering CAM.  Knitting CAM Engineering CAM:It is circular CAM. This circular engineering CAM indirectly control the motion of bars of elements which move masseas a single unitsin cottons patent to and warp knitting.Theyare attaching to a rotary drive shaft situated parallel to and below the needle bar. In warp knitting M/C, 4 types of cam drive have been worked: i) Single acting CAM ii) CAM & counterCAMS. iii) Box CAMS. iv) Contour CAMS.
  17. 17. Page 17 Knitting CAM:In weft knitting, we use knitting cam. The knitting cams are classified 3 kinds. i) Knit CAM. ii) Miss CAM. iii) TuckCAM. Sinker: The Sinker is the Primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angle from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. Various kinds Sinker image:
  18. 18. Page 18 Yarn Fabric Path Diagram Flow Chart: Creel Feeder Needles Fabric Spreader Fabric Withdraw Roller Fabric Winding Roller.
  19. 19. Page 19 Yarn to Fabric Path diagram: 1 – Legs 2 – Cylinder 3 – Dial 4 – Needle 5 – Cam Parts 6 – Feeder guide 7 – Cam 8 – Supply Package 9 – Creel 10 – Top Stop motion 11 – Anti Snarl Device 12 – Tensioner 13 – Positive feeder 14 – Knitted fabric 15 – Fabric spreader 16 – Fabric withdrawal roller 17 – Fabric winding roller Here some Knitting Structure
  20. 20. Page 20 Weft single jersey (Technical face) Rib (1X1)Structure: Pique Poplin: It is six feed structure with knit and float (Miss) stitch combination. At feeds 2, 3, 5 & 6, there is no knitting with cylinder needles
  21. 21. Page 21 Half Tricot Structure: (WarpKnitting) Show the Needle &cam arrangement.
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  27. 27. Page 27 “A knitting machine is thus an apparatus for applying , mechanical movement,either hand or power derived, to primary knitting elements, in order to convert yarn into kitted loop structures”. The main features of a knitting machine are listed below:  Frame: the frame, normally free standing and wither circular or rectilinear according to needle bed shape. Provides the support for the majority of the machines mechanisms.  Power supply: The machine control and drive system co-ordinates the power for the drive of the devices and mechanisms.  Yarn supply or feeding: The yarn supply consists of the yarn package or beam accommodation tensioning devices, yarn feed control and yarn feed carriers or guides.  Knitting action: The knitting system includes the knitting elements, their housing, drive and control as well as associated pattern selection and garment- length control devices (if equipped).  Fabric Take- away: The fabric take away mechanism includes fabric tensioning, wind up and accommodation devices.  Quality control: The quality control system includes stop motions, full detectors, automatic oilers and lint removal system. Machine Specification:  Air Source: 5kg/cm2 (minimum 3kg/cm2).  Needle Oil: 150 ~ 200 .  Gear Oil : 700 ~ 900 .  Temperature: 600 ~ 650 ( body temp. 60 to 62).  Voltage Load : over or less +- 20volt.  Running Sound : 85 ~ 95 decibels.  Lubricate System: 3 cc / minute (70 to 80 Drops) cc = comic centimeter Classification of weft knitting machines: Weft knitting machines are divided into the several ways as follows: A. According to the frame design and needle bed arrangement or construction i. Circular knitting machine ii. Flat knitting machine B. According to the number of needle bed or number of needle set used i. Single Jersey knitting machine
  28. 28. Page 28 ii. Double Jersey knitting machine. C. According to the end product of the weft knitting machine i. Fabric machine ii. Garment length machine D. According to the basic structure of the weft knitting i. Plain or Single jersey circular knitting machine ii. Rib Circular or Flat knitting machine iii. Interlock circular knitting machine iv. Links-links or Purl flat or circular knitting machine E. According to the types of needle used i. Knitting machine equipped with latch needle a. Circular knitting machine One needle bed Plain, Single-Jersey Jacquard, pile and Sliver knit machine Two needle beds (Dial-cylinder machine) Rib, Interlock, Double Jersey Jacquard machine Double cylinder Purl knitting machine B. Flat- bed knitting machine One needle bed Domestic type Two needle beds V-bed, Flat purl knitting machine ii. Knitting machine equipped with spring bearded needle a. Circular knitting machine One needle bed Sinker wheel, Loop wheel frame
  29. 29. Page 29 b. Straight bar frame One needle bed and Two needle beds Cotton’s Patent or Fully fashioned machine Important Accessories of Circular Knitting M/C: 1) Start Stop & inching Button. 2) Auto-stop Motion. 3) Sensors & Detector. 4) Auto Counter. 5) Fabric Take up Mechanism. 6) Safety Guard Hatch. 7) Auto Lubricate. 8) Auto Fly ( yarn) Removing System. 9) Air hose. 10) Nozzle. (Air & Oil) Auto Stop Motion List in Knitting M/C. In case of Gate Open. Yarn Breakage. Fabric Cut & fell down. Needle Breakage. Oil & Air Pressure Problem. Completion of Selection Target. Take up Problem. Important Parts per Machine: Name Of Parts Number Per M/C
  30. 30. Page 30 Important Parts Name of Circular Knitting Machine: MPF Magnet 90 Knot Catcher 90 Eye Pot 90 Hose Pipe 02 Needle Faults Detector 15 Oil Nozzle 21 Oil Pipe 21 Air Finishing Nozzle 30 Air Finishing Pipe 30 Fabric Detectors 02 Main Switch 01 Fabric Light 01 Take Down Light 02 Oil & Air Pressure 02
  31. 31. Page 31 Oil Pipe:Generallyina Knitting,oil ismastbe used.ThisisOilerpipe tooiledthe M/C Cam Box:The CAMisprincipal elementsof knittingM/C.Itis a CAMbox.
  32. 32. Page 32 CAM Arrangement:
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  37. 37. Page 37 VDQ Pulley: It is a very important part of the machine. It controls the quality of the product. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric
  38. 38. Page 38 Creel: Creel is a part of a knitting machine. Hear yarn package are store and ready to feed in the machine. Photo: Creel. Pulley Belt: It controls the rotation of the MPF wheel. Photo: Pulley Belt. Brush: Its clean the pulley belt.
  39. 39. Page 39 Photo: Brush. Tension Disk: It confronts the tension of the supply yarn. Photo: Tension Disk. Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion: It is an important part of the machine. It stops the machine instantly when a yarn is break. Photo: Inlet and Outlet Stop Motion. Yarn Guide: Its help the yarn to feed in the feeder.
  40. 40. Page 40 Photo: Yarn Guide. MPF Wheel: Its control the speed of the MPF. Pulley belt gives motion to the wheel. Photo: MPF Wheel. MPF: It is Mamenger positive feed. It is also an important part of the machine. It’s give positive feed to the machine. Photo: MPF. Feeder Ring: It is a ring. Where all feeders are pleased together.
  41. 41. Page 41 Photo: Feeder Ring. Disk Drum:Use in jacquard machine to produce various types of design. Photo: Disk Drum. Pattern Wheel: Pattern Wheel use in Pai Lung and Auto Stripe machine because of that that help to produce various types of design and stripe. Photo: Pattern Wheel.
  42. 42. Page 42 Feeder: Feeder is help yarn to feed in to the machine. Photo: Feeder. Sinker Ring: Sinker ring is a ring. Where all sinkers are pleased together. Photo: Sinker Ring. Lycra Attachment Device: Lycra is placed hear. And feeding to the machine. Photo: Lycra Attachment Device.
  43. 43. Page 43 Lycra Stop Motion: It is one kind of stop motion to stop the machine when the Lycra is break. Photo: Lycra Stop Motion. Cylinder: Needle track are situated hear. Photo: Cylinder. Cylinder Balancer: It helps the cylinder to set in a proper alignment. Photo: Cylinder Balancer.
  44. 44. Page 44 Uniwave Lubrication: The Uniwave lubricator provides uniform lubrication to needles, cam tracks, lifters and other knitting machine components. The patented nozzle construction separates the air-oil mixture into air and droplets of oil. Photo: Uniwave Lubrication System. Adjustable Fan: This part removes lint, hairy fiber from yarn and others. To clean the dust by air flow. Photo: Adjustable Fan. Expander: To control the width of the knitted fabric. No distortion of the knitting courses. Even take down tension in the knitting machine. As a result, an even fabric structure is achieved over the entire fabric width. The deformation of the knitted fabric goods can be reduced.
  45. 45. Page 45 Photo: Expander. Air Gun Nozzle: To feed the yarn; sometimes it is used for cleaning purpose. Auto Color Changing Feeder For Use Engineering Stripe Circular Knitting Machine Positive Feeder For Use Circular Knitting Machine (Single & Double Jersey)
  46. 46. Page 46 Yarn Wheel or Yarn resaves Wheel Rubber Band (For use Auto Color Changing Feeder) Top Feeding Wheel For use Positive Feeder Top Feeding Wheel For use Positive Feeder Round Punched Cough & Clutch Wheel
  47. 47. Page 47 Choice of Output Base For use Auto Color Changing Feeder Spandex Feeder (For Use Circular Knitting Machine) Spandex Feeder with PVC Transparent Dust Cover Double Tape Tensional For Use Quality Wheel
  48. 48. Page 48 Single Tape Tensional For Use Quality Wheel & Spandex Wheel Tape Cleaner (For Use Tape Clean) Yarn Guide For Use Yarn Guide Spandex Wheel For Use Spandex Guide Variable Diameter for Quality Pulley (For Use GSM Control)
  49. 49. Page 49 Spanner of Variable Diameter for Quality Pulley Brush for Use Flat & Circular Knitting Roller Pad For Use Inspection Machine Needle Hook For Use Needle Open & Close
  50. 50. Page 50 Inverter For use knitting Machine Yarn Tension In Clam Yarn Breaking System Needle Detector
  51. 51. Page 51 Fabric Detector Dust Cleaner Cylinder & Dial Spring Spreader
  52. 52. Page 52 Ware Race Bearing Weight Scale GSM Cutter/ Simple Cutter Swatch Cutter Magnifier
  53. 53. Page 53 Tension Mete Electric Yarn Length Meter Light Box Thickness Gauge
  54. 54. Page 54 Textile marker Fabric checking Machine Fabric Checking & Cutting Machine Air Gun with Air Hose Pipe
  55. 55. Page 55 Tube Cutter Flat Belt Tooth Belt/Timing Belt Round Punched Belt Micro Controller of Knitting Machine Energy Saving Bulb
  56. 56. Page 56 Defects in the Knitted Fabrics A defect in the knitted fabric is an abnormality, which spoils the aesthetics i.e. the clean & uniform appearance of the fabric & effects the performance parameters, like; dimensional stability etc. There are various types of defects, which occur in the knitted fabrics of all types, caused by a variety of reasons. The same type of defects may occur in the fabric, due to a variety of different causes e.g. Drop Stitches, Spatiality. Prime causes of the fabric defects are, as follows • Yarns • Knitting Elements • Knitting Machine Settings • Dyeing • Finishing As regard to greige knit fabric, the first three causes are the sources for defects to occur. Knitting Fabric Defect are those that can be created during the fabrication (fabric formation) and some of them are listed below. These defects are checked during the quality control process 1. Needle line: when the needle is broken, bent, and old or damaged on the knitting machine it creates the straight line mark on the length of the fabric. 2. Sinker line: When the sinker is broken, bent, and old or damaged on the knitting machine it will create strait line mark on the length wise direction of the fabric. 3. Stripe mark/Bar defect: this defect is created when thin and thick yarns are mixed, when the tension of one yarn is varied from the others, due to count variation, when the origins of the cotton fiber from which yarns are made are different. 4. Canal mark: is the straight line mark through the length of the fabric and can be easily visible on the fabric. Can be occurred due to the needle adjustment problem. 5. Different tears and holes on the fabric: this can be occurred due to the needle breaks, yarn breaks or other. 6. Grease and oil stain: this defect arises due to the improper fabric handling of the griege fabric or if the machine is not properly cleaned. It might or might not be removed after washing. 7. Nepe, thick, thin place on the fabric: this defect is due to the irregularity of yarn used for knitting. This irregularity of yarn will cause the dyeing problem usually dye absorption problem (dark and light shade) making the stripe on the fabric. Frequent faults in knitted fabrics, their definition, cause and elimination In the terminology normally used one differentiates between the following visible from of faults in the fabric: 1. Cracks or holes 2. Drop stitches 3. Cloth fall – out 4. Snagging
  57. 57. Page 57 5. Tuck or double stitches 6. Bunching up 7. Vertical stripes 8. Horizontal stripes 9. Soil stripes 10. Color fly 11. Distorted stitches This sequence of points is absolutely random; the incorporation of defect– table faults into These 11 groups permits an initial judgment. Besides general indications and comments it is always necessary to have at least one defective fabric sample for analysis and fault ascertainment. In most of the cases an experienced technician is needed to examine the conditions on the machine and recommend the proper measures to be adopted.

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