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Continuous modeling - automating model building on high-performance e-Infrastructures

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Presentation at International Conference on Pharmaceutical Bioinformatics 2016

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Continuous modeling - automating model building on high-performance e-Infrastructures

  1. 1. Continuous modeling - automating model building on high-performance e-Infrastructures Ola Spjuth Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden
  2. 2. Today: We have access to high-throughput technologies to study biological phenomena
  3. 3. New challenges: Data management and analysis • Storage • Analysis methods, pipelines • Scaling • Automation • Data integration, security • Predictions • …
  4. 4. My research focus • Enabling high-throughput biology, from e- infrastructures and up – Massively parallel sequencing, metabolomics – Predictive modeling in toxicology and pharmacology • Particular focus in large-scale predictive modeling – Tackle large problems – Evaluate predictive performance – Easy and secure sharing/consumption of models – Automate re-building of models
  5. 5. Observations • Predictive toxicology and pharmacology are becoming data- intensive – High throughput technologies • Drug/chemical screening • Molecular biology (omics) – More and bigger publicly available data sources • Data is continuously updated
  6. 6. QSAR modeling • Signatures1 descriptor in CDK2 – Canonical representation of atom environments • Support Vector Machine (SVM) – Robust modeling 1. Faulon, J.-L.; Visco, D. P.; Pophale, R. S. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 2003, 43, 707-720 2. Steinbeck, C.; Han, Y.; Kuhn, S.; Horlacher, O.; Luttmann, E.; Willighagen, E. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 2003,43, 493-500. Lars Carlsson, AstraZeneca R&D
  7. 7. Interpretation of nonlinear QSAR models • Method – Compute gradient of decision function for prediction – Extract descriptor(s) with largest component in the gradient • Demonstrated on RF, SVM, and PLS Carlsson, L., Helgee, E. A., and Boyer, S. Interpretation of nonlinear qsar models applied to ames mutagenicity data. J Chem Inf Model 49, 11 (Nov 2009), 2551–2558. E. Ahlberg, O. Spjuth, C. Hasselgren, and L. Carlsson. Interpretation of Conformal Prediction Classification Models. In Statistical Learning and Data Sciences, vol. 9047 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 323–334. Lars Carlsson, AstraZeneca R&D
  8. 8. Bioclipse Decision Support
  9. 9. Modeling large number of observations on HPC Aim: Measure predictive performance when QSAR datasets get larger Research questions: • When do we need HPC? • How can we work efficiently with HPC in modeling? • Are nonlinear methods required?
  10. 10. High-Performance Computing • Computationally expensive problems call for high- performance e-Infrastructures • High-Performance Computing (HPC) – Fast interconnect between compute nodes • High-Throughput Computing (HTC) – Fast interconnect not needed • Cloud Computing (CC) – Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  11. 11. UPPMAX high-performance computing center (Uppsala, Sweden) • Get access to multiple nodes – 16 compute cores per node • Get access to large memory machines – we have nodes with 128, 256, 512, or 2000 GB RAM • OpenStack private cloud • However on HPC: – Only terminal usage, no web server allowed (scripting in bash, perl and python common) – Queuing system (e.g. SLURM, SGE) – Limited job length (e.g. 10 days)
  12. 12. Project growth 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 100 200 300 400 Active Projects Numberofactiveprojects ● ● UPPMAX UPPNEX
  13. 13. Bioinformatics has inefficient HPC usage
  14. 14. Levels of automation in sequence analysis • Production: Can be fully automated • Secondary analysis: Partly automated • Researchers: Basic science not really useful to automate, flexibility
  15. 15. Training large number of datasets on HPC Aim: Build models for hundreds or thousands of targets – Challenge to automate data assembly/integration – Challenge to automate model building Hypothesis: Workflow systems can enable agile large-scale predictive modeling Data sources Samuel Lampa
  16. 16. What is a workflow system
  17. 17. The workflow landscape
  18. 18. Automating analysis on clusters • Workflow systems can aid development and deployment • We extended Luigi system into SciLuigi ( • Integrate with batch queuing system on HPC Train and assess model Samuel Lampa
  19. 19. Modeling large datasets on HPC Jonathan Alvarsson
  20. 20. Modeling large datasets on HPC Jonathan Alvarsson
  21. 21. Publishing models • Publish models for easy access and consumption • We use P2 (OSGi) provisioning system v. 1.3 v. 1.2 v. 1.1 Use models
  22. 22. Bioclipse and OpenTox E. Willighagen N. Jeliazkova, B. Hardy, R. Grafström, and O. Spjuth Computational toxicology using the OpenTox application programming interface and Bioclipse. BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:487
  23. 23. Reactive/continuous modeling Data sources Coordinate Integrate Version Monitor Publish models Archive models User Bioclipse Train and assess model
  24. 24. Could cloud computing improve/simplify modeling?
  25. 25. Modeling on Amazon Elastic Cloud Number of cores Time(hours) 1 2 4 8 16 5 50 100 150 200 220 20k 75k 150k 300k B. T. Moghadam, J. Alvarsson, M. Holm, M. Eklund, L. Carlsson, and O. Spjuth Scaling predictive modeling in drug development with cloud computing. J. Chem. Inf. Model., 2015, 55 (1), pp 19-25
  26. 26. • H2020 infrastructure project (2015-2018) • Platform for metabolomics data analysis – study metabolites in primarily clinical studies • Integrating data and tools • Data management, privacy • Cloud/Microservices architecture • Predictions
  27. 27. Could Big Data frameworks improve/simplify modeling? • Map/Reduce, Hadoop, Spark, HDFS/distributed file systems and others… • Recently received a lot of attention • Allow for massively parallel analysis • How useful are they in pharmaceutical bioinformatics?
  28. 28. Hadoop (MapReduce) for massively parallel analysis
  29. 29. Evaluating Hadoop for sequence analysis • Compare Hadoop and HPC – Create as identical pipelines as possible – Investigate scaling and performance – Shows the bottlenecks with current HPC Alexey Siretskiy, former Postdoc A. Siretskiy, L. Pireddu, T. Sundqvist, and O. Spjuth. A quantitative assessment of the Hadoop framework for analyzing massively parallel DNA sequencing data. Gigascience. 2015; 4:26.
  30. 30. Distributed modeling with Spark • Appealing programming methodology • Built-in data locality and in-memory computing – RDD (Resilient Distributed Dataset): distributed large-scale dataset abstraction – MLlib: Spark-based distributed implementation of many ML algorithms. Logistic regression in Hadoop and Spark
  31. 31. Parallel Virtual Screening with Spark Hypothesis: The Spark framework can be used for trivially parallelizable problems in pharm. Bioinformatics • Demonstrate on Virtual Screening • Used OpenEye suite Prel. results: • Spark API allows for simple programmatic parallelization • Good scalability in terms of speedup • Lack of documentation L. Ahmed, A. Edlund, E. Laure, O. Spjuth. Using Iterative MapReduce for Parallel Virtual Screening. Cloud Computing Technology and Science (Cloud- Com), 2013 IEEE 5th International Conference on , vol.2, no., pp.27,32, 2-5, 2013 Laeeq Ahmed, PhD Student Valentin Georgiev, Researcher
  32. 32. Conformal Prediction in Spark • Evaluate confidence in predictions • We implemented Inductive Conformal Prediction (ICP) in Spark, extending MLlib • Tested on 2 large data sets – HIGGS: 11M examples. Task: distinguish between Higgs boson signal process and background process – SUSY: 5M examples. Task: distinguish between supersymmetric particle signal process and background process POSTER P-33 Marco Capuccini PhD Student
  33. 33. Results: • Valid predictions • Good scalability Conformal Prediction in Spark M. Capuccini, L. Carlsson, U. Norinder and O. Spjuth. Conformal Prediction in Spark: Large-Scale Machine Learning with Confidence. Accepted in IEEE Transaction on Cloud Computing, 2015. POSTER P-33 Marco Capuccini PhD Student
  34. 34. Some conclusions • Automation/continuous modeling is not trivial – Data management, modeling, model management/governance • Conformal prediction – Predictions with confidence • Large-scale problems requires computational power – Cloud computing vs High-Performance Computing • Workflows and Big Data frameworks – Immature technologies, not well documented – can be useful for large-scale analysis in pharmaceutical bioinformatics, especially for automation
  35. 35. Some ongoing projects • Augment Parallel virtual screening with Machine Learning • Further develop conformal predictions in distributed settings • Large-scale target predictions • Continue evaluate Spark vs Workflows, Cloud vs HPC – Still not reached a good agile system but we are getting closer • The group is open for collaborations.
  36. 36. Thank you Ola Spjuth