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Fisheries management pre

  1. 1. Department of Environmental Sciences Group Members: OwaisKhan, M.Bilal, Khalil Ullah, Adnan khan
  2. 2.  The science of producing fish and other aquatic resources for the purpose of providing human food, although other aims are possible (such as sport or recreational fishing), or obtaining ornamental fish or fish products such as fish oil.  The activity of catching fish and other living organisms from the wild aiming to be consumed as seafood.
  3. 3.  Fish and fisheries are an integral part of most societies and make important contributions to economic and social health and well-being in many countries and areas.  It has been estimated that approximately 12.5 million people are employed in fishery-related activities.  In recent years global production from capture fisheries has tended to vary between approximately 85 and 90 million tonnes.
  4. 4.  Fisheries are harvested for their value either commercial, recreational, or self-consumption  The world’s fish resources are suffering the combined effects of heavy exploitation and in some cases environmental degradation.  The primary reasons all come down to a failure in fisheries governance in most countries.
  5. 5. 1. Marine fishing  Fish catch from sea is known is marine fishing. 2. Inland fishing  Fish caught from rivers, lakes streams, ponds, dams etc is called inland fishing
  6. 6.  Karachi  Gawadar  Pasni  Jalwani
  7. 7.  The range of marine fishing is consist of mainly two categories 1. Sindh coastal areas:  That is about 30% of the total coastal area of Pakistan. 2. Makran coastal areas:  That is about 70% of the total coastal area of Pakistan.
  8. 8. The main fishing centers are:  Reservoirs of Mangla and Tarbela dam  River Indus at sukkur, kotri and Thatta  Haleji lake west of Thatta  Manchar lake in Dadu district
  9. 9.  Water pollution  Over fishing  Thread to Mangroves  Weak infrastructures  Lack of knowledge  Traditional method
  10. 10.  The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation of fisheries resources.  To ensure the continued productivity of the resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.
  11. 11.  Fisheries management involves a complex and wide-ranging set of tasks.  Collectively have the achievement of sustained optimal benefits from the resources as the underlying goal.
  12. 12.  Pakistan has substantial areas of inland waters as a result of its location as the drainage basin for the Himalayas.  The region between 33 o N and 20 o N consists of a network of rivers, canals, reservoirs, lakes, waterlogged areas and village ponds, etc.
  13. 13.  Cold-water are utilize for trout production and other commercially important sport fishes such as mahseer (Tor tor ) and snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii ).  The provinces with the greatest potential for development are Punjab, Sindh and to a lesser extent NWFP.  In Sindh Province, the majority of the farms are located in Thatta, Badin and Dadu, the three districts through which the River Indus passes.
  14. 14.  In Punjab Province Sheikhpura, Gujranwala, and Attock districts have larger number of farms.  The NWFP has comparatively fewer farms, because of the cold climate in the mountainous areas.  Trout farms are located in Chitral, Swat, Dir, Malakand, Mansehra, Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) and other parts of NA.
  15. 15.  The total number of farms in all provinces being approximately 13 000.  The fish farming through culture in ponds and other natural water bodies has been practiced for several decades.
  16. 16.  Inland fish farming is under the control of the provincial governments.  Supply seed, operate hatcheries, provide extension services, collect primary data and promote fisheries through extension manuals, brochures and by arranging seminars, etc.
  17. 17.  In the past, most fish farmers stocked their ponds only with indigenous species such as catla (Catla catla ), rohu (Labeo rohita ), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala ) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio ).  Recently, two fast growing species, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) have been introduced for culture to increase the fish yield per unit area.
  18. 18.  These two species have good economic values.  Two species of trout namely brown trout (Salmo trutta ) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) are cultured in NWFP, AJK and NA.
  19. 19.  In 1980s all aquaculture in Pakistan consists of pond culture of various carp species.  The quality of carp pond design and construction is highly variable.  Some commercial farms are well built and managed.
  20. 20.  Many more are in need of technical and management assistance.  Cold water aquaculture provides a unique opportunity in the mountainous areas of NWFP, Balochistan, AJK and NA.  Presently two species, brown trout and rainbow trout, are being produced and cultured successfully for use in sport fishing activities.
  21. 21.  The intensive rearing of trout is practiced in commercial raceways in Swat, Dir, Chitral and Hazara in NWFP and in AJK and NA.  Carp are cultured in earthen ponds utilising extensive polyculture farming systems with very little inputs.  Combination of 5 or 6 of the three indigenous species of major Indian carps and 3 exotic species of Chinese carps are cultivated in the ponds.
  22. 22.  On a typical farm in Pakistan, the ratio of the warm water species stocked on the farm is as follows:  Catla (10-20 percent)  Rahu (30-35 percent)  Mrigal (15-20 percent),  Grass carp (15-20 percent)  Silver carp (15-20 percent).
  23. 23.  Fisheries in global prospect ( Diet, Employment, Economic)  World fish production: 130 M. Ton (37 M. Ton Aquaculture, 92 M. Ton captured) 2001  China is leading: ( 42 M. Ton Total production, 33% of world), (16 M. Ton Aquaculture, 26 M. Ton captured), ( 69 % aquaculture of world)
  24. 24.  38% world fishes traded  74 % diet use, 26% non diet use  200 M employment  950 M people’s primary diet
  25. 25.  In Pakistan fisheries are very rich in resources but Fisheries department is neglected.  0.8 % GDP  70% of caught fish is exported (1.6 kg /person/year fish demand as compared to world 16 kg/person/year)  1 M people involved
  26. 26.  Fishery plays an important role in the national economy.  It provides employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly.  In addition, another 400,000 people are employed in ancillary industries.  It is also a major source of export earning.  In July-May 2002-03 fish and fishery products valued at US $ 117 million were exported from Pakistan.
  27. 27.  Fish and fishery products are processed and exported to over 50 countries.  About 30 – 35% of the fish and fishery products are exported to European Union countries.  Japan, U. S. A. China, Saudi Arabia, U. A. E. Malaysia, S. Korea, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka and Singapore are other major importing countries.
  28. 28.  Fish export has showed an increasing trend in the past many years.  Substantial decrease has occurred during 1998-99 which is attributed mainly due to glut in the international market and because of financial crises in the Southeast Asian countries.
  29. 29.  The Government of Pakistan is taking various measures to increase the export of seafood over US$ 500 million within next two years. The measures are:  Up-gradation of fishing vessels to control post harvest losses  Provision of modern peeling sheds for providing raw material to fish processing industry.  Flake ice plants on harbours
  30. 30.  Intensive marketing efforts at international level.  Promotion of marine aquaculture.  Human resource development through training.  Regular monitoring of resources through stock assessment surveys and exploratory fishing.  Procurement of handling and cleaning equipments for fish harbours.  Construction of coastal highway
  31. 31. The major fish harbours of Pakistan are  Karachi Fisheries Harbour is being operated by Provincial Government of Sindh.  Karachi Fish Harbour handles about 90% of fish and seafood catch in Pakistan and 95% of fish and seafood exports from Pakistan.
  32. 32.  Korangi Fish Harbour is being managed by Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock.  Pasni Fish Harbour being operated by Provincial Government of Balochistan.  Gwadar Fish Harbour being operated by Federal Ministry of Communication.
  33. 33.  There are 29 fish processing units in Pakistan with storage capacity of 10,000 tons.  Out of these 25 units are locate in Karachi of Federal Government.  Provided intelligentsia and technical assistance to seafood establishments for improving their processing conditions in line with various EU / international standards.
  34. 34. Organization of Fisheries Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Fisheries development Commissioner Plans and Policies Marine Fisheries Department Pakistan Agriculture Research Council Deals with research in Fisheries
  35. 35.  Current legislative framework dealing with fisheries in the country is the Exclusive Fishing Zone act.  1975 as amended in 1993.  It regulates the management of fishing in exclusive economic zone of the country.  The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea gives coastal States the authority to manage fisheries within their jurisdiction.
  36. 36.  The EU Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products has been developed by the EU Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products.  Gives general advice on the production, storage and handling of fishery products on board fishing vessels and on shore.  Deals with the distribution and retail display of fish and fishery products.
  37. 37.  The provisions of the law cover:  Licensing and management of fishing operation  Fishing craft subject to navigational regulation  Prohibiting illegal, dynamite and poisoning fishing  Closed season and prohibited area  Penalties in contravention of any provisions such as seizure and disposal of fishing craft, fishing gear and fish catch.
  38. 38. Grass Carp  Size: 90 to 110 cm  Typical Location: In weedy and slow flowing or standing waters of lakes, ponds, pools and rivers. Mahseer  Other Names: Tor putitora  Typical Location: Fast flowing mountain rivers, pools and lakes
  39. 39. Catfish  Size: 12 cm  Typical Location: Fresh water lakes  Other Names: Siluriformes, Ray- finned fish Mrigal Carp  Other Names: Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Pla,Mrigal and Morakhi  Size: 60cm Typical Location: Rivers, lakes mostly deeper water bodie
  40. 40. Trout  Other Names: Salmo Trutta  Size: 20 to 30 in (51 to 76 cm)  Typical Location: Streams, Lakes, Rivers Common Carp  Other Names: Carp, Karpe, Gulfam, Cyprinus carpio carpio  Size: 5 feet (1.5 m)  Typical Location: Slow flowing or standing waters with soft bottom, Brackish Lakes, Rivers, Ponds
  41. 41.  To maintain the target species at or above the levels necessary to ensure their continued productivity (biological).  To minimize the impacts of fishing on the physical environment and on non-target (bycatch), associated and dependent species (ecological).  To maximize the net incomes of the participating fishers (economic).
  42. 42.  To maximize employment opportunities for those dependent on the fishery for their livelihoods (social).  The over-riding goal of fisheries management is the long-term sustainable use of the fisheries resources.
  43. 43.  National Aquaculture Sector Overview Pakistan  A brief on fisheries of Pakistan  Introduction to fisheries and aquaculture FISH-401  Wikipedia  Regulatory Framework in Pakistan for Fisheries Posted on February 11, 2009 by pklawyers  List of Freshwater Fishes for Pakistan