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Management Plan for the
Knuckles Conservation area
2010-2014
Project : Management Plan For The Knuckles
Conservation Area
Time Period : 2010 – 2014
Prepared By : Forest Department, Sr...
Contents
 Background and conceptual framework
 Biological Diversity
 Regulation of Eco system services
 Socio economic...
Background &
Conceptual Framework
A detailed management plan for the
Knuckles forest was first formulated in
1994.
Most of the activities recommended in t...
Knuckles Forest Region
 Covers 210km2
 Located in Kandy and Matale districts of the central
province Sri Lanka
General L...
Rainfall
 Highland areas of the forest range is extremely wet with an
average rainfall of 5000mm.
 Lower eastern slopes ...
Watersheds
 Represents most important and critical watersheds of Sri
Lanka.
 Contributes to nearly 8% of the watersheds ...
 Area above 1500m was declared as a climatic reserve in 1873
 In April 2000, it was declared as the country’s first ever...
International and National Significance of KFA
 Knuckles Conservation Forest will principally be managed
to achieve the f...
Goal, Purpose &
Objectives of the plan
Goal
To conserve Knuckles forest for posterity, with regard
to biodiversity, soil, water. Historical, cultural,
religious,...
Purpose
Biodiversity, soil, water and other ecosystem services are
conserved and the social welfare of peripheral
communit...
Objectives
 The composition, structure, functions and evolutionary
potential of biodiversity conserved.
 Regulatory ecos...
Application of the Plan
Structure
 Actions proposed in the plan are set out under the
Seven criteria for Sustainability D...
Biological Diversity
Biodiversity
“Biodiversity refers to the variability among living
organisms and the ecosystem of which they are a part”
Me...
Wide range of topographic and climate
variation in the knuckles range.
MANY NATURAL
VEGETATION
TYPESMontane forests
Sub m...
 Faunal diversity
Family Genus Species Endemic Endemic
to
Knuckle
s
National
ly
Threate
ned
Birds 26 42 128 17 - 20
Amphi...
Flowering plants diversity
Families Genera Species Rare Endemic Nationally
Threatened
141 595 1033 12 160 11
Number of threats affecting on the biological
diversity of the knuckles conservation area
Cultivation of cardamom inside ...
OBJECTIVE: The composition, structure,
functions and evolutionary potential of
biodiversity conserved
1) Existing Forest A...
1) Maintenance Of Forest Area
Proposed Activities
 Change the conservation area boundary
 Survey and demarcate the new b...
2) Arresting Degradation Of Biodiversity Quality
Proposed Activities
 Restore degraded forest patches
 Control forest fi...
3) Biodiversity Monitoring
Proposed Activities
 Train Forest Department staff on biodiversity monitoring.
They can be ent...
Regulatory Ecosystem
Services
 Knuckles is an important watershed in Mahaweli
drainage system
 Human practices causing land degradation & soil
erosion...
OBJECTIVE: Regulatory ecosystem services
of the KCA maintained
1)Human induced soil erosion
controlled
2) water outflow mo...
 Proposed activities
1. Stop cardamom cultivation
2. Complete land acquisition & prevent any destructive practices in pvt...
Assess & monitor water outflow
 Proposed activities
1. Monitor water outflow at strategic locations .
Could be done in co...
Arrest water pollution
 Proposed activities
1. Conduct training programs for BZC to avoid
excessive use of agrochemicals
...
Assess C sequestration capacity
Proposed activities
1. Assess the C sequestrations capacity of
KCA
2. Publish the results ...
Socio-economic development
OBJECTIVE: Livelihood of KBZ
communities improved
 KBZ identified & mapped
 Income generation activities of BZ communiti...
Identification of KBZ
 A key is proposed to determine the outer boundary of the
buffer zone
Proposed activities
1. Ident...
Improvement of income generation activities
 Proposed activities
1. Develop & improve micro enterprises
1. Conduct PRA ex...
Improvement of microfinance services
 Proposed actions
1. Train forest officers on mechanisms of micro
financing services...
Infrastructure & basic service development
 Proposed actions
1. Identify & prioritize necessary infrastructure
developmen...
Protection of traditional wilderness-based
customs
 Proposed actions
1. Study & document traditional wilderness based
cus...
Organizational strengthened
 Proposed activities
1. Evaluate the organizational capacities of
Dumbara Surakinno or any ot...
Aesthetic value
Constraints
 There is no documented inventory of the scenic areas
of Knuckles region due to difficult accesses to most of...
Proposed Activities
 Prepare an inventory of the areas of scenic
importance
 Develop a guideline to protect scenic areas...
Recreation
Recreation
 Knuckles area is rich in many scenic,
environmental, sociological and cultural resources
.
 Attract many loc...
Year Deanstone Illukkumbura
Local Foreign Local Foreign
2005 2018 64 1992 08
2006 1925 42 2110 01
2007 2131 67 2418 47
200...
OBJECTIVE: Recreational capacity of Knuckles
conservation forest is maintained and enhanced
 Accommodation facilities imp...
Proposed activities
1. Improvement of Accommodation facilities
 Develop and improve eco lodges
 Develop and improve camp...
2. Development of nature trails, access roads and access points
 Improve and nature trails
 Improve the access roads for...
3. Development of linkages with other stakeholders of tourism
 Strengthen the link with Sri Lanka Tourist Board
 Include...
4. Interpretation services
 Develop and improve information centers
 Develop and maintain a web site or incorporate web
...
5. Involvement of buffer zone communities in eco tourism
 Hand over the management responsibility of selected
eco lodges ...
6. Mitigation of negative impacts on natural and socio-cultural
environment
 Determine the carrying capacity of different...
Research and Education
Identified issues related to implementation
and coordination of research activities
1. Inadequacy of facilities for resear...
Identified issues related to environmental education
 Environmental education refers to organized effort to teach about h...
OBJECTIVE: Research and education
opportunities of the KCA enhanced.
Proposed Activities
• Identify priority research are...
 Encourage collaborative research among various research
institutions as well as eminent individuals
 Develop and enviro...
Institutional and Legal
framework
Objective :- Establishing the institutional structure
and legal framework for management of the
Knuckles Conservation Are...
Proposed Activities
 Establish new forest ranges in Kandy and Matale divisions each
(Deanstone,Illukkumbura)
 Identify f...
Infrastructure development
 Development of infrastructure facilities for the forest officers
engaged in the conservation ...
Human resource development
 Following training needs have been identified
 Biodiversity monitoring
 Hydrological data c...
Proposed to name as Mixed cultural and National word heritage under National heritage
and wilderness area act 1988
Accordi...
Proposed activities
 Amend the National heritage and wilderness act taking into
account the National forest policy object...
Monitoring , Evaluation and Adaptive management
Proposed activities
 Survey and document the baseline condition against w...
Operational Plan
Budget
Thank you
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Management Plan on Knuckles Conservation Area Sri Lanka

A summary on the Management Plan on Knuckles Conservation Area prepared by the forest department Sri Lanka in 2009
#Bhagya Karunatilake
#Tharani Dilshara
# Dinusha Prasadi

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Management Plan on Knuckles Conservation Area Sri Lanka

  1. 1. Management Plan for the Knuckles Conservation area 2010-2014
  2. 2. Project : Management Plan For The Knuckles Conservation Area Time Period : 2010 – 2014 Prepared By : Forest Department, Sri Lanka
  3. 3. Contents  Background and conceptual framework  Biological Diversity  Regulation of Eco system services  Socio economic Development  Aesthetic Value  Recreation  Research and Education  Institutional and legal Framework  Operational Plan and Budget
  4. 4. Background & Conceptual Framework
  5. 5. A detailed management plan for the Knuckles forest was first formulated in 1994. Most of the activities recommended in the plan are still being implemented.
  6. 6. Knuckles Forest Region  Covers 210km2  Located in Kandy and Matale districts of the central province Sri Lanka General Landscape  Area is extremely rugged, with several peaks rising above 1500m.  Gombaniya is the highest peak with a height of 1906m.  Locally called this region as ‘Dumbara Kanduwetiya’
  7. 7. Rainfall  Highland areas of the forest range is extremely wet with an average rainfall of 5000mm.  Lower eastern slopes are much drier with less than 2500mm. Vegetation types  Wide range of climatic and landscape features resulted lowland semi-evergreen forests to montane forests.
  8. 8. Watersheds  Represents most important and critical watersheds of Sri Lanka.  Contributes to nearly 8% of the watersheds of Victoria & Randenigala reservoirs.  Represents 80% of upper watersheds of the proposed Moragahakanda & Kalu ganga reservoirs
  9. 9.  Area above 1500m was declared as a climatic reserve in 1873  In April 2000, it was declared as the country’s first ever conservation forest  Proposed as a Mixed Cultural & Natural World Heritage Site
  10. 10. International and National Significance of KFA  Knuckles Conservation Forest will principally be managed to achieve the first policy objective in Forest Policy of Sri Lanka, 1995.  In addition, it will have to be managed to achieve second & third policy objectives to a limited extent.  Knuckles Conservation Forest has been proposed to be inscribed as a Mixed Cultural & Natural World Heritage Site under the World Heritage Convention.
  11. 11. Goal, Purpose & Objectives of the plan
  12. 12. Goal To conserve Knuckles forest for posterity, with regard to biodiversity, soil, water. Historical, cultural, religious, scientific and aesthetic values and to enhance contribution of forestry to the national economy as well as to the welfare of nearby communities.
  13. 13. Purpose Biodiversity, soil, water and other ecosystem services are conserved and the social welfare of peripheral communities is enhanced through ecosystem approach.
  14. 14. Objectives  The composition, structure, functions and evolutionary potential of biodiversity conserved.  Regulatory ecosystem services of the KCA sustained.  Livelihoods of Knuckles Buffer Zone communities improved.  Aesthetic value of the KCA conserved.  Recreational capacity of the KCA enhanced  Educational and Research opportunities provided.  Institutional and legal framework established
  15. 15. Application of the Plan Structure  Actions proposed in the plan are set out under the Seven criteria for Sustainability Developed in the Montreal Process. Scope  The plan applies within the geographic area of the Knuckles Conservation Area and its Buffer Zone. Operation of the Plan  Plan comes to operation on 1st January 2010 and continues to operate until 31st December 2014.
  16. 16. Biological Diversity
  17. 17. Biodiversity “Biodiversity refers to the variability among living organisms and the ecosystem of which they are a part” Measured or observed in 3 different levels GenesEcosystems Species
  18. 18. Wide range of topographic and climate variation in the knuckles range. MANY NATURAL VEGETATION TYPESMontane forests Sub montane forests Semi -evergreen forests •Man made semi natural vegetation types •Man influenced secondary vegetation types •Patches of plantation forest
  19. 19.  Faunal diversity Family Genus Species Endemic Endemic to Knuckle s National ly Threate ned Birds 26 42 128 17 - 20 Amphibi ans 3 4 20 12 1 12 Butterfli es 4 11 60 5 - 8 Mollusks 6 10 17 12 - 0 Mammal s 12 17 31 4 - 9 Reptiles 4 10 53 23 1 24 Fish 4 9 15 8 3 7
  20. 20. Flowering plants diversity Families Genera Species Rare Endemic Nationally Threatened 141 595 1033 12 160 11
  21. 21. Number of threats affecting on the biological diversity of the knuckles conservation area Cultivation of cardamom inside the high elevation natural forest areas Forest and grassland fires Unauthorized development activities carried out in private lands Abiotic and biotic factors
  22. 22. OBJECTIVE: The composition, structure, functions and evolutionary potential of biodiversity conserved 1) Existing Forest Area Maintained 2) Declining Quality Of Biodiversity Arrested 3) Mechanism To Monitor Biodiversity Established
  23. 23. 1) Maintenance Of Forest Area Proposed Activities  Change the conservation area boundary  Survey and demarcate the new boundary  Maintain and monitor the new boundary  Complete land acquisition  Re-declare Knuckles conservation area  Enforce forest low to control encroachments and any other kind of unauthorized alteration of boundary posts
  24. 24. 2) Arresting Degradation Of Biodiversity Quality Proposed Activities  Restore degraded forest patches  Control forest fires  Control spreading of invasive species  Manage habitats for mammals  Control and regulate collection of forest products from forest  Promote production and efficiency use of forest products  Regulate tapping of water from upper streams with involvement CBOs  Conduct awareness programs on forest conservation  Enforce forest law
  25. 25. 3) Biodiversity Monitoring Proposed Activities  Train Forest Department staff on biodiversity monitoring. They can be entrusted with this task under the initial guidance from biodiversity surveying experts.  Monitor biodiversity using permanent sample plots  Analyse monitoring data to understand the positive and negative developments taking place with regard to biodiversity.  Take remedial measures to mitigate negative impacts
  26. 26. Regulatory Ecosystem Services
  27. 27.  Knuckles is an important watershed in Mahaweli drainage system  Human practices causing land degradation & soil erosion in KCA  Cardamom cultivation  Unsuitable Land use practices: Shifting cultivation, Forest & grassland fires
  28. 28. OBJECTIVE: Regulatory ecosystem services of the KCA maintained 1)Human induced soil erosion controlled 2) water outflow monitored & assessed 3) Water pollution arrested 4)C sink capacity assessed & monitored
  29. 29.  Proposed activities 1. Stop cardamom cultivation 2. Complete land acquisition & prevent any destructive practices in pvt. Lands 3. Control forest fires 4. Encourage soil conservation measures in home garden in the BZ villages 5. Convert selected pine plantations into broad leaved spp. by way of under planting with some useful species 6. Apply appropriate soil conservation measures for the existing road network within the conservation area 7. Apply soil conservation measures in developing & maintaining nature trails 8. Control over use of nature trails by providing alternative trails 9. Apply soil conservation measures in constructing buildings Control human induced soil erosion
  30. 30. Assess & monitor water outflow  Proposed activities 1. Monitor water outflow at strategic locations . Could be done in collaboration with the Mahaweli Authority of SL or Irrigation Dpt. 2. Make data available for the policy makers, politicians & to the general public
  31. 31. Arrest water pollution  Proposed activities 1. Conduct training programs for BZC to avoid excessive use of agrochemicals 2. Promote organic farming in BZ 3. Conduct awareness campaigns among & tourists to reduce water pollution 4. Enforce environmental low on water pollution 5. Discourage wastage of water among the village communities through the mechanisms proposed in chapter 2
  32. 32. Assess C sequestration capacity Proposed activities 1. Assess the C sequestrations capacity of KCA 2. Publish the results & use the data to highlight the importance of the conservation value of knuckles ecosystem
  33. 33. Socio-economic development
  34. 34. OBJECTIVE: Livelihood of KBZ communities improved  KBZ identified & mapped  Income generation activities of BZ communities improved  Microfinance services in the BZ villages improved  Infrastructure & basic services developed & improved  Traditional rights to maintain customary & spiritual wilderness-based lifestyles protected  CBO strengthened Outputs
  35. 35. Identification of KBZ  A key is proposed to determine the outer boundary of the buffer zone Proposed activities 1. Identify the KBZ using the criteria proposed 2. Map the boundary of the BZ
  36. 36. Improvement of income generation activities  Proposed activities 1. Develop & improve micro enterprises 1. Conduct PRA exercises 2. Identify & shortlist environmentally nondestructive potential activities 3. Perform market assessment & SWOT analysis 4. Facilitate to build the links with service provides 2. Provide vocational training 1. Conduct PRA exercises 2. Identify & shortlist potential vocational training requirements 3. Facilitate to build the links with service providers
  37. 37. Improvement of microfinance services  Proposed actions 1. Train forest officers on mechanisms of micro financing services 2. Introduce microfinance service providers operating in the nearby areas 3. Facilitate the selection of microfinance institutions to work with communities 4. Assist communities to develop linkage with the selected microfinance institutions
  38. 38. Infrastructure & basic service development  Proposed actions 1. Identify & prioritize necessary infrastructure development needs 2. Study feasibility of identified development 3. Develop linkages between line agencies & beneficiary organizations 4. Facilitate funding 5. Implement development activities 6. Conduct monitoring
  39. 39. Protection of traditional wilderness-based customs  Proposed actions 1. Study & document traditional wilderness based customs of adjoining communities 2. Develop a mechanism to ensure local communities to perform their traditional customs
  40. 40. Organizational strengthened  Proposed activities 1. Evaluate the organizational capacities of Dumbara Surakinno or any other existing CBO 2. Identify the vulnerable areas which need to be strengthened 3. Conduct capacity building programs to address the identified issues of organizational strengthening
  41. 41. Aesthetic value
  42. 42. Constraints  There is no documented inventory of the scenic areas of Knuckles region due to difficult accesses to most of the inner parts of KCA  Absence of comprehensive guidelines covering all forms of developments within the conservation area  Occurrence of forest and grassland fires and the disposal of garbage by the tourists  Some biotic factors such as forest die-back and spread of invasive plants
  43. 43. Proposed Activities  Prepare an inventory of the areas of scenic importance  Develop a guideline to protect scenic areas  Stop all development activities which affect scenic beauty OBJECTIVE: Aesthetic value of the Knuckles forest is conserved
  44. 44. Recreation
  45. 45. Recreation  Knuckles area is rich in many scenic, environmental, sociological and cultural resources .  Attract many local and foreign tourists.
  46. 46. Year Deanstone Illukkumbura Local Foreign Local Foreign 2005 2018 64 1992 08 2006 1925 42 2110 01 2007 2131 67 2418 47 2008 1316 66 12875 48 Recorded number of visitors to KCA (2005-2008)
  47. 47. OBJECTIVE: Recreational capacity of Knuckles conservation forest is maintained and enhanced  Accommodation facilities improved  Nature trails, access roads and access points improved  Linkages with stakeholders of tourism sector developed  Interpretation services provided to the visitors improved  Involvement of buffer zone communities in ecotourism facilitated  Negative impacts of tourism on natural and socio- cultural environment mitigated Outputs
  48. 48. Proposed activities 1. Improvement of Accommodation facilities  Develop and improve eco lodges  Develop and improve camping sites  Hand over the management of selected eco lodges and camping sites to Dumbara Surakinno or other suitable CBOs  Encourage and train villagers to provide home- stay facilities to small groups  Construct and improve dormitories
  49. 49. 2. Development of nature trails, access roads and access points  Improve and nature trails  Improve the access roads for the benefit of eco-tourism activities  Improve the facilities of the access points for the benefit of tourists
  50. 50. 3. Development of linkages with other stakeholders of tourism  Strengthen the link with Sri Lanka Tourist Board  Include information on Knuckles in the tourism promotion activities carried out by the SLTB  Conduct awareness programs for local travel agencies tour operators and major hoteliers  Disseminate information in the form of leaflets, brochures, documentary films etc. both in country and abroad  Include Knuckles as a tourist destination in tour packages of major tour operators  Use mass and electronic media including internet for propaganda campaigns
  51. 51. 4. Interpretation services  Develop and improve information centers  Develop and maintain a web site or incorporate web pages to the proposed FD web site  Develop brochures and leaflets for the benefit of tourists  Employ guides
  52. 52. 5. Involvement of buffer zone communities in eco tourism  Hand over the management responsibility of selected eco lodges to CBOs under a suitable agreement with the FD  Hand over the management of selected nature trails for CBOs  Hand over the management of selected camping sites for CBOs  Employ guides to accompany visitors inside the forest  Encourage community members to establish and manage sale centers, souvenir shops and food courts for the benefit of tourists
  53. 53. 6. Mitigation of negative impacts on natural and socio-cultural environment  Determine the carrying capacity of different ecotourism attractions  Temporarily close down nature trails  Create awareness among tourists on water and noise pollution  Develop a mechanism to get rid of litter efficiently from conservation area  Minimize unauthorized collection of souvenirs from the forest
  54. 54. Research and Education
  55. 55. Identified issues related to implementation and coordination of research activities 1. Inadequacy of facilities for researchers 2. Absence of prioritized research plan 3. Absence of effective coordination 4. Insufficient expertise 5. Lack of dissemination and Utilization 6. Absence of mechanism to get field level officers involved for research
  56. 56. Identified issues related to environmental education  Environmental education refers to organized effort to teach about how natural environments function and in particularly , how human beings can manage their behavior and ecosystem in order to live sustainably 1. Absence of an environmental educational plan 2. No curricula for educational programme 3. Absence of dedicated web site for knuckle forest 4. Inadequate infrastructure 5. Lack of trained human resources to implement quality educational programme.
  57. 57. OBJECTIVE: Research and education opportunities of the KCA enhanced. Proposed Activities • Identify priority research areas for KCA and develop a research plan in consultation with all relevant stakeholders • Strength the existing coordination mechanism of research • Develop and improve research and education centers • Conduct training programs to upgrade the capacity of forest officers to carry out research on their own and participate effectively in the research work carried out by the outsiders. • Provide funds for important action researches.
  58. 58.  Encourage collaborative research among various research institutions as well as eminent individuals  Develop and environment education plan for Knuckles taking in to account the interests of different target groups  Develop a curriculum for environmental education programs of Knuckles  Improve infrastructure facilities to cater the needs of environmental education  Reprint some important documents related to Knuckles “ Knuckles Massif – a portfolio” by Prof.P.G.Cooray
  59. 59. Institutional and Legal framework
  60. 60. Objective :- Establishing the institutional structure and legal framework for management of the Knuckles Conservation Area Outputs Appropriate institutional structure for management established Necessary infrastructure facilities developed Human resource development programs in placed Legislative framework for management established Management plan monitored, evaluated and improved
  61. 61. Proposed Activities  Establish new forest ranges in Kandy and Matale divisions each (Deanstone,Illukkumbura)  Identify field assistant units according to the criteria  Provide facilities for new ranges to function full scale.( Providing skillful RFO, BFOs, territorial officers)  Establish 6 beat forest offices (3 for each )  Conduct a detailed stakeholder analysis  To identify the stakeholders who involved the management plan  Analysis is carried by an awareness programme for them  Set up 2 steering committees
  62. 62. Infrastructure development  Development of infrastructure facilities for the forest officers engaged in the conservation of Knuckles forest is a key to obtain their maximum output. Proposed activities  Construct buildings with necessary facilities for forest department  Construct range forest office buildings with adequate facilities  Construct 3 new officer quarters for Deanstone range in Kandy division  Provide transport facilities
  63. 63. Human resource development  Following training needs have been identified  Biodiversity monitoring  Hydrological data collection  Use of PRA techniques  Development of resource management plan at village level  Guiding Proposed activities  Conduct a assessment of training needs  Identify stakeholder for trainings  Prioritize the training activity
  64. 64. Proposed to name as Mixed cultural and National word heritage under National heritage and wilderness area act 1988 According to that no human activities are allowed except research education and recreation purposes But there were conflicts among different sections therefore within the management plan it recommended some activities 2007 declare knuckles as a Environmental protected area-environmental act No 47 1980 By considering private states and sate lands falling KCA To control the unauthorized activities in the area Forest Ordinance by forest (amendment) act No 23 1995 Didn’t indicate the provision for making regulations with regard to the activities which are permitted No regulations for conservation forests have been formulated, cause for most of illegal activities
  65. 65. Proposed activities  Amend the National heritage and wilderness act taking into account the National forest policy objectives  Prepare regulations to incorporate certain provisions to carryout customary and traditional practices of rural communities  Declare KCA as a National heritage wilderness area, under the amended National Heritage Wilderness area act
  66. 66. Monitoring , Evaluation and Adaptive management Proposed activities  Survey and document the baseline condition against which future changes will be monitored  Prepare a monitoring plan consisting of the persons responsible for monitoring target dates for achievement of the results, monitoring intervals and the budgets  Conduct a interim evaluation after 3 years of implementation the plan  Change management strategies based on the research findings, feedback of monitoring data and ongoing evaluation
  67. 67. Operational Plan Budget
  68. 68. Thank you

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