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Conflict between
   Christians and
  Pagans revisited:
     the modern
   construction of
   Christian Latin
      literat...
When we evoke the past

• Benedetto Croce said that all History is
  contemporary
• We evoke the past thanks to
  Historio...
Historiography of
    literature
• Modern construction of
  concepts:

“Geschichte der
  Römischen Litteratur”

(History o...
“Roman literature” (RL) is an
        abstract concept

• “Roman authors” (as the result of adding
  several authors: auth...
RL is not a “natural concept”
• “Green tree”, for instance, is not equivalent
  to RL:

• “Roman literature” (language = n...
Moderns languages 1
Modern languages (specially German)
  assume the role of giving new names to
  the different disciplin...
Modern languages 2
• First in German, then in French:

-”Geschichte der Römische Litteratur”

-”Histoire de la littérature...
The contents of Roman Literature


• What must we do with:

  a) Christian authors?
  b) Mediaeval authors?
  c) Renaissan...
Christian Roman Literature (CRL)
or Christian Latin Literature (CLL)?
• CRL would not be possible without two previous
  c...
Between Pagans and Christians

• What kind of relationship can be established
  between (Pagan) Roman Literature (RL)
  an...
Ideology and
aesthetics about
     CRL
• Ideology: Christianism
  vs. Paganism in 19th
  Century. Chateaubiand or
  Gaume ...
Decadence of
Latin language

Decadence of Latin
Language is related to
the idea of Decadence
of the Roman Empire
(Gibbon, ...
HISTORIOGRAPHIC MYTHS
• Why do we say
  “Decadence”?
• Decadence or
  “Evolution”?
• Is Decadence bad?
• Can “Decadence” b...
The complex construction of
“Christian Latin Literature” (CLL) as
             a concept
•   Christian Roman Authors in RL...
Christian Roman Authors in RL
           (Wolf, Harles, Schöll)
• In the first History of
  Roman Literature (Wolf’s
  Ges...
Christian Roman Authors in RL
        (Wolf, Harles, Schöll)
• Harles does not write about CRL in his
  Brevior notitia Li...
Christian Roman Authors in RL
       (Wolf, Harles, Schöll)
• Frédéric Schöll writes
  about “Ecrivains
  ecclésiastiques”...
Chateaubriand and the
     Christians
  “(…) through the fathers of the Church and
  the ecclesiastical writers, Tertullia...
Politics and History
• European Restoration vs. Liberalism
  since 1815
• Christianity and Middle Age are seen by
  Conser...
Desiré Nisard and Décadence
• Golden century of RL
  against Decadence
• “Decadent poets”,
  since Lucanus to
  Baudelaire...
“Christian Roman
     Literature” (CRL)
    as an appendix of
    RL (Bähr, Teuffel).


• Relationships
  between RL and C...
Benhardy (1930)
• “Lateinischen Kirchenväter” (Latini
  Patres Ecclesiae)

• Christian Latin authors (“Lateinischen
  Kirc...
Bähr (1836)
A new name implies new
  ideas:

“Die christlich-
  römische Literatur”

• Christian + RL
• CRL as appendix of...
Teuffel: Christians as a part of RL

• Christian Roman
  Literature (CRL)
  cannot be excluded of
  RL.

• CRL is a branch...
“Christian Latin Literature” as the
   beginning of Mediaeval Literature
                (Ebert)
• A New name:“Christlich ...
From Roman Literature to
              Weltliteratur
•   Roman Literature – Christian Roman Literature
    CRL as a Nation...
Pagans
 against
Christians



  Classical literature vs. Christian literature
  Renaissance literature vs. Mediaeval liter...
Christian Literature
                                  and Modern
                                   Decadents


Le latin ...
“Early Christian Latin Literature” as
       an new field of study: from
      Decadence to Late Antiquity
   Alfred Gudem...
A new
Century:
  new
problems



• Gudeman died in the Theresienstadt concentration
  camp. Some of his last manuscripts w...
Conclusions
• The construction of “Christian Latin
  Literature”:

•   Without specific name (1787)
•   Christian Roman Li...
Conclusions 2
• CLL goes

-From Theology to Philology
-From Roman Literature to Mediaeval
  Literature
-From Decadence to ...
Credits
• Prof. Dr. Francisco García Jurado
• Dpto. Filología Latina
• Facultad de Filología
• Universidad Complutense
• C...
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Conflict Revisited Power 27 Th July

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Conflict Revisited Power 27 Th July

  1. 1. Conflict between Christians and Pagans revisited: the modern construction of Christian Latin literature Dr. Francisco García-Jurado Real Colegio Complutense Harvard
  2. 2. When we evoke the past • Benedetto Croce said that all History is contemporary • We evoke the past thanks to Historiography • We don’t realize we are building new concepts to explain the past.
  3. 3. Historiography of literature • Modern construction of concepts: “Geschichte der Römischen Litteratur” (History of Roman Literature) HISTORY + ROMAN + LITERATURE (F.A. Wolf 1787)
  4. 4. “Roman literature” (RL) is an abstract concept • “Roman authors” (as the result of adding several authors: author + author + …) • “Roman literature” (as a whole: It is possible to establish the concept a priori)
  5. 5. RL is not a “natural concept” • “Green tree”, for instance, is not equivalent to RL: • “Roman literature” (language = nation) or • “History of Roman literature” (this complex concept implies History as a method and the concept of Nation)
  6. 6. Moderns languages 1 Modern languages (specially German) assume the role of giving new names to the different disciplines: “History of Roman Literature” (since 1787) “Renaissance” (ca. 1850) New meanings of “Classical” (/ “Romantic”): “Classical philology” (/ “Modern philology”) “Classical tradition” (since 1872)
  7. 7. Modern languages 2 • First in German, then in French: -”Geschichte der Römische Litteratur” -”Histoire de la littérature romaine”
  8. 8. The contents of Roman Literature • What must we do with: a) Christian authors? b) Mediaeval authors? c) Renaissance authors? – Politics and literature
  9. 9. Christian Roman Literature (CRL) or Christian Latin Literature (CLL)? • CRL would not be possible without two previous concepts: “Roman Literature” and “Decadence”. • New problems: -What is the relationship between CRL and “Patrology” (since this last exists since the 17th Century)? -What kind of abstraction is implied when we say that a Literature is “Christian”? A national literature?
  10. 10. Between Pagans and Christians • What kind of relationship can be established between (Pagan) Roman Literature (RL) and Christian Roman Literature (CRL)?: -Is CRL part of RL? Is it a different concept? -Are Christians and Roman Decadence related?
  11. 11. Ideology and aesthetics about CRL • Ideology: Christianism vs. Paganism in 19th Century. Chateaubiand or Gaume vs. Michelet or Burckhardt. Middle Ages vs. Renaissance • Aesthetics: Mediaeval Art vs. Classical Art (Ruskin vs. Pater). “Decadence” and modern literature: Baudelaire, Gourmont, Huysmams
  12. 12. Decadence of Latin language Decadence of Latin Language is related to the idea of Decadence of the Roman Empire (Gibbon, Montesquieu). Funccius (1736), today unknown, is the KEY to understand this facts:
  13. 13. HISTORIOGRAPHIC MYTHS • Why do we say “Decadence”? • Decadence or “Evolution”? • Is Decadence bad? • Can “Decadence” be a synonym of “freedom”? • “Decadence” or “Late Antiquity”?
  14. 14. The complex construction of “Christian Latin Literature” (CLL) as a concept • Christian Roman Authors in RL (Wolf, Harles, Schöll) (1787-1815) • “Christian Roman Literature” (CRL) as an appendix of RL (Bähr, Teuffel). More about Decadence (Nisard) (1834-1868) • “Christian Latin Literature” (CLL) as the origin of Mediaeval Literature (Ebert) (1874-1883) • Christian Literature and Modern Decadents: “Latin mystique” (1884-1892) • “Early Christian Latin Literature” (ECLL) as an independent field of study (Gudeman) (1897-1925)
  15. 15. Christian Roman Authors in RL (Wolf, Harles, Schöll) • In the first History of Roman Literature (Wolf’s Geschichte) there is no reference to CRL as a matter of study. • It is possible to find Christian authors among pagans. • Wolf wanted to be “Philologiae studiosus” and not “Theologiae”
  16. 16. Christian Roman Authors in RL (Wolf, Harles, Schöll) • Harles does not write about CRL in his Brevior notitia Litteraturae Romanae (1789), but Christians appear as one of the reasons for the Decadence of RL: Litterae praecipites ruunt, potissimum ob intestina bella, praemiorum raritatem, superstitionem etiam doctorum christianorum, barbarorum irruptionem et comfluxum peregrinorum (p. 197)
  17. 17. Christian Roman Authors in RL (Wolf, Harles, Schöll) • Frédéric Schöll writes about “Ecrivains ecclésiastiques” in his Histoire abrégé de la litterature romaine (1815), just at the end, when Latin language declines. • Influences of Funccius are evident.
  18. 18. Chateaubriand and the Christians “(…) through the fathers of the Church and the ecclesiastical writers, Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrosius, Hilary of Poitiers, Paulinus, Augustin, Jerome, Salvienus; through the apologists, Lactantius, Arnobius, Minutius Felix; through the panegyrists, Eumenes, Mamertinus, Nazairius; through the historians of the decline, Ammianus Marcellinus and the biographers of the august history; through the poets of the decline and fall, Ausonius, Claudian, Rutilius, Sidonius Apollinaris, Prudentius, Fortunatus; (…)” Influences of Funccius as well
  19. 19. Politics and History • European Restoration vs. Liberalism since 1815 • Christianity and Middle Age are seen by Conservatives as a paradigm (Chateaubriand or Gaume) • Renaissance and Illustration is the paradigm for liberals (Jules Michelet)
  20. 20. Desiré Nisard and Décadence • Golden century of RL against Decadence • “Decadent poets”, since Lucanus to Baudelaire • “Decadence” as an unexpected form of Modernity
  21. 21. “Christian Roman Literature” (CRL) as an appendix of RL (Bähr, Teuffel). • Relationships between RL and CRL
  22. 22. Benhardy (1930) • “Lateinischen Kirchenväter” (Latini Patres Ecclesiae) • Christian Latin authors (“Lateinischen Kirchenväter”) do not belong to Roman national literature (!!)
  23. 23. Bähr (1836) A new name implies new ideas: “Die christlich- römische Literatur” • Christian + RL • CRL as appendix of RL
  24. 24. Teuffel: Christians as a part of RL • Christian Roman Literature (CRL) cannot be excluded of RL. • CRL is a branch of RL since the 2nd Century.
  25. 25. “Christian Latin Literature” as the beginning of Mediaeval Literature (Ebert) • A New name:“Christlich Lateinische Literatur” (CLL) • “La littérature chrétienne latine est donc envisagée ici en tant qu’elle nous fait comprendre la littérature du moyen âge, et comme une partie de cette littérature” (Préface p. III)
  26. 26. From Roman Literature to Weltliteratur • Roman Literature – Christian Roman Literature CRL as a National literature Christian Latin Literature – Middle Age CLL as European literature It reminds of Curtius´ Europaische Literature und Lateinisches Mittelalter The role of Christianity in European Culture
  27. 27. Pagans against Christians Classical literature vs. Christian literature Renaissance literature vs. Mediaeval literature A CONCEPTUAL BATTLE
  28. 28. Christian Literature and Modern Decadents Le latin mystique (1892) by Rémy de Gourmont and À rebours (1884) by Joris Karl Huysmans: • A new approach to Christian language and literature The new aesthetics of the “Christian and Church Latin”: “Decadence” is positive, not academic
  29. 29. “Early Christian Latin Literature” as an new field of study: from Decadence to Late Antiquity Alfred Gudeman, Geschichte der altchristlichen lateinischen literatur vom 2-6 jahrhundert, Berlin und Leipzig, 1925 It was translated into Spanish by Pascual Galindo Romeo in 1928
  30. 30. A new Century: new problems • Gudeman died in the Theresienstadt concentration camp. Some of his last manuscripts were acquired by Columbia University and they remain still unpublished .
  31. 31. Conclusions • The construction of “Christian Latin Literature”: • Without specific name (1787) • Christian Roman Literature CRL (1836) • Christian Latin Literature CLL (1874) • Early Christian Latin Literature ECLL (1925)
  32. 32. Conclusions 2 • CLL goes -From Theology to Philology -From Roman Literature to Mediaeval Literature -From Decadence to Late Antiquity
  33. 33. Credits • Prof. Dr. Francisco García Jurado • Dpto. Filología Latina • Facultad de Filología • Universidad Complutense • CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA E-28049 Madrid • http://www.ucm.es/info/hlge/indexeng.php

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