• Milk is defined as the whole, fresh, clean,
lacteal secretion obtained by the complete
milking of one or more milch animals.
• In India, the term ‘milk’ refers to cow or buffalo
milk, or a combination of the two.
• India is the largest producer of milk and as per
National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)’s
estimation, the country produced 102 million
MT of milk in 2007-08 with annual worth of
Rs. 1,232 billions.
3. SPECIAL TYPES OF MILK
• Under the category of special milk are included those
processed milk products which physically resemble
and behave like liquid milk.
• These processed milk products are:-
Toned milk &
Double toned milk.
4. STANDARADIZED MILK
• Standardized Milk is milk in which the original fat and
also the ratio of fat to the milk solids content has been
changed either by:-
1. the removal of milk fat, or
2. the addition of skim milk, or
3. the addition of cream.
• According to PFA rules (1976), standardized milk
1. Minimum fat %- 4.5%
2. Minimum SNF %- 8.5%
5. CALCULATION REGARDING
STANDARDIZATION OF MILK
• The Pearson’s square is used to calculate the relative
quantities of materials required for standardization.
• The Pearson’s square method can be understood by
Given that the fat percentage of cream is 28% and milk
is 3%. How many kg of cream and milk will be
required to make 500 kg of milk testing 4% fat?
sol. 28.0 1.0
6. =>1.0:25.0 = C:500,
where C is cream required in kgs
or 1/25 = C/500
or C= 500/25
⇒ C= 20 kgs
⇒ milk required= 500-20
= 480 kgs
8. HOMOGENIZED MILK
• Homogenized Milk is milk which has been treated in
such a manner as to insure breakup of the fat globules
to such an extent that after 48 hours quiescent storage
no visible cream separation occurs on the milk.
• Homogenization refers to the process of forcing the
milk through a homogenizer with the object of sub-
dividing the fat globules.
• In efficiently homogenized milk, the fat globules are
subdivided to 2 microns or less in diameter.
11. FLOWSHEET FOR HOMOGENIZED MILK
Cooling to 5°C and bulk storage
Cooling to 5°C
Standardizing and storage(5°C)
Single stage homogenization Two stage homogenization
(2500psi at 60°C for milk with fat (2000 psi at first stage & 500psi at
upto 6%) the second stage for milk with more
than 6% fat)
Pasteurization(holder or HTST)
13. STERILIZED MILK
• Sterilized Milk may be defined as milk which
has been heated to a temperature of 100°C or
above for such lengths of time that it remains
fit for the human consumption.
• The above definition does not always mean
that treated milk must be completely free of
14. FLOW SHEET FOR STERILIZED MILK MANUFACTURING
A. IN-BOTTLE STERILIZATION:-
Cooling to 5°C & bulk storage
Cooling to 5°C
Standardizing & Storage(5°C)
18. TYPES OF STERILIZERS
A. For in-bottle sterilization:-
The sterilizers used for in-bottle
19. B. For UHT sterilization:-
Two types of sterilizes are used for ultra high
temperature sterilization of milk. These are:-
Sterilizers operating with direct steam heating.
Sterilizers operating with indirect steam
22. FLAVOURED MILK
• Flavoured Milk is a milk to which some flavours
have been added.
• When the term ‘milk’ is used, the product should
contain a milk fat %age at least equal to the
minimum legal requirements for market milk.
• When the fat %age is lower i.e. 1-2%, the term
‘drink’ is used
23. TYPES OF FLAVOURED MILK
• Chocolate milks/drinks:- The ingredients used
for chocolate milk/drink are:
Cocoa powder- 1.0-1.5%
Sugar- 5.0-7.0 %
Sodium alginate(stabilizer)- 0.2%
24. • Fruit flavoured milks/drinks:-
Permitted fruit flavours/essences, together
with permitted matching colours and sugars
The common flavours used are strawberry,
mango, vanilla, banana etc.
26. TONED MILK
• Toned Milk refers to milk obtained by the addition of
water and skim milk powder to whole milk.
• In practice, whole buffalo milk is admixed with
reconstituted spray dried skim milk powder for the
production of toned milk.
• Under PFA rules(1976), toned milk should contain a
3.0% fat &
8.5% solids-not-fat throughout India
27. FLOWSHEET FOR TONED MILK MANUFACTURING
Receiving of water in pasteurizing vat
Addition of skim milk powder
Addition of whole buffalo milk
Packaging & Storage(5°C)
28. DOUBLE TONED MILK
• Double Toned Milk is milk which is also
obtained by the addition of water and skim
milk powder to whole milk.
• Under the PFA rules(1976), Double Toned
Milk should contain a minimum of
9.0% solid-not-fat throughout India.
29. De, S.: Outlines Of Dairy Technology, Oxford University
Press, 13th edition, pp- 90-116.
Eckles, C.H., Combs, W.B., & Macy, H.: Milk And Milk
Products, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd,
4th edition, pp-196-199.
Johnson, W. & ,Fundamentals Of Dairy Chemistry, CBS
Publishers, 2nd edition, pp- 224-228.