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Roman Hispania

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Roman Hispania

  2. 2. AREAS OF INFLUENCE OF CARTHAGE AND ROME BEFORE THE PUNIC WARS The interests of Romans and the Cartaghinians crashed in the Western Mediterranean. The Roman Republic had gained control of the Italian Peninsula and Carthage controlled several islands in the Western Mediterranean and the South of the Iberian Peninsula. The confrontment between these two peoples was the cause of the three Punic Wars: -1st Punic War (264 BC- 241 BC) -2nd Punic War (218 BC-201 BC) -3rd Punic War (149 BC -146 BC)
  3. 3. As a consequence of their defeat in the 1st Punic War, the Carthaginians tried to expand their control over the Iberian Peninsula. -238 BC: Hamilcar Barca disembarked in Gades and started occupying the territory more effectively and exploiting its resources. -227 BC: general Hasdrubal founded Qart Hadasht (Cartago Nova) -226 BC: signature of the Ebro Treaty: Hasdrubal and the Roman Republic agreed on limiting the Carthaginian expansion to the South of River Ebro. This way, the Romans answered to the demands of their allies in the Peninsula (Arse and Emporion) -219 BC: Hannibal, Hasdrubal’s son, sieged Arse (Saguntum), where there was an important mint, in order to get resources to declare war on Rome. Hamilcar Barca Hasdrubal the Fair Hannibal
  4. 4. BEGINNING OF THE 2nd PUNIC WAR The people of Saguntum asked the Romans for help, but the Romans took a long time to send troops and Saguntum had to surrender after 8 months of siege. When Hannibal occupied the city, most of its population had died of hunger and illnesses. Saguntum people didn’t throw themselves into a bonfire, as the legend says, but this has been repeated many times since then. After Saguntum surrender, the Romans sent two armies to the Peninsula and this meant the beginning of the 2nd Punic War. The Final Day of Saguntum, painted by Francisco Domingo Marqués, 1869
  5. 5. ROMAN CONQUEST OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA 1st STAGE (218 BC-197 BC): War against the Carthaginians 2nd STAGE (154 BC-133 BC): Wars against the Celtiberians and Lusitanians 3rd STAGE (29 BC-19 BC): Wars against the Astures, Cantabri and Gallaeci
  6. 6. 1st STAGE: WAR AGAINST THE CARTHAGINIANS (218-197 BC) Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus arrived in the Peninsula in 210 BC Two Roman armies commanded by the brothers Gneus Cornelius Scipio Calvus and Publius Cornelius Scipio disembarked in Emporion in 218 BC. They died fighting against Hasdrubal and the Roman Senate sent Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus in 210 BC and this changed the course of the war: -209 BC: the Romans took Cartago Nova -208 BC: the Romans defeated the Carthaginians in the Battle of Baecula -206 BC: Carthaginian defeat in the Battle of Ilipa. The city of Italica was founded for war veterans and wounded. When Hannibal was defeated by the Romans in Zama (201 BC), the Carthaginians were expelled from the Peninsula
  7. 7. In 197 BC the Roman Senate appointed two praetors, who were sent to the Peninsula to rule the Hispaniae. The Peninsula was divided into two provinces: -HISPANIA CITERIOR: the closest province to Rome, from the Pyrenees to Cartago Nova. -HISPANIA ULTERIOR: the farthest province from Rome, including the lands of the Southern Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean Hispania became part of the Roman Republic and its integration into the Roman world started.
  8. 8. 2nd STAGE: WARS AGAINST THE CELTIBERIANS AND LUSITANIANS (154-133 BC) The main resistance during the 2nd century BC came from the Celtiberians and the Lusitanians: -the LUSITANIANS revolted against the high taxes imposed by the Romans, led by Viriatus, who obtained some victories against the Romans between 147 and 139 BC. Finally, the Romans accepted to sign peace. Statue of Viriatus in Zamora Death of Viriatus, painting by José de Madrazo (1807) Quintus Servilius Caepio bribed Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, Lusitanian ambassadors sent by Viriatus to negotiate peace. They killed Viriatus when he was sleeping. When the traitors asked the Romans for the payment, Q.S. Caepio told them: “Rome doesn’t pay traitors who kill their chief”. The Lusitanians continued to fight, but the Romans controlled most of their territory and the Lusitanians gradually assimilated Roman culture and language.
  9. 9. Siege of Numantia - WAR AGAINST THE CELTIBERIANS (154- 133 BC): It was a total war (“war of fire”). Numantia became the main center of resistance. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, Carthage’s destroyer, arrived in 134 BC and decided to finish with Numantia’s resistance. He sieged the city surrounding it with a nine km fence ad cut all its supplies. After 13 months of siege, the Numantians surrendered. The few survivors were sold as slaves. The legend about the burning of the city and the suicide of its inhabitants is not true, but was exploited by the Romans first , to glorify Scipio Aemilianus, and in different periods of Spanish history to extol the sacrifice of the individuals in defense of the homeland. Numantia’s Last Day, by Alejo Vera, 1880
  10. 10. After the Lusitanian and Celtiberian wars, the Romans controlled almost all the Peninsula. Only part of the West and the North escaped the Roman control. But the rest became more and more integrated in the Roman world and Hispania became an important theater of the 1st century civil wars: -Sertorian War (80-72 BC) -War between Pompey and Julius Caesar (49-45 BC)
  11. 11. Quintus Sertorius Sertorian War (80-72 BC) SERTORIAN WAR (80-72 BC) Sertorius fought on Marius side against Sulla. In the Iberian Peninsula he formed a coalition with the indigenous peoples and occupied almost all the Iberian Peninsula. Rome sent Pompey and Metellius against Sertorius and the war finished when he was killed by Perperna, one of his men, in 72 BC. Quintus Sertorius and the Horse Tail, Gerard van Kuijl, 1635
  12. 12. Pompey and Julius Caesar Caesar crossing the Rubicon CIVIL WAR BETWEEN CAESAR AND POMPEY (49-45 BC) Julius Caesar had been quaestor and praetor in Hispania and Pompey had been in charge of Hispania between 55 and 50 BC and got the support of the indigenous peoples. In 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon River and declared war on Pompey, who fled to Greece. Caesar arrived in Hispania to end with Pompey’s supporters and defeated them at Ilerda (49 BC) and Munda (45 BC). After this, Caesar was appointed perpetual dictator in Rome, but was killed by a senator’s conspiracy in 44 BC. Julius Caesar’s campaigns
  13. 13. 3rd STAGE: WARS AGAINST THE ASTURES, CANTABRI AND GALLAECI (29-19 BC) Emperor Octavian Augustus arrived in the Peninsula to complete the conquest of Hispania and take control of its rich mineral resources. He deployed 8 legions and several auxiliary troops (50,000 soldiers), opened a 400 km front, from the Pyrenees to Portugal and defeated the Cantabri, Astures and Gallaeci. Augustus created Emerita Augusta, for the war veterans (emeriti), and gave them land there. Back in Rome, Augustus ordered the construction of the Ara Pacis, an altar to commemorate the victory in these wars. This marked the beginning of the PAX ROMANA and the definitive inclusion of all the territory of Hispania in the Roman world. Decimus Junius 26 BC Brutus, 137 BC Augustus 25 BC Julius Caesar campaigns Octavian Augustus, first Roman Emperor Ara Pacis Augustae, altar built to commemorate Augustus victory in the Cantabrian wars CANTABRIAN WARS
  15. 15. ROMANIZATION The Romans extended their language, religion, economic system, political organization, model of urban society and culture to all the territories they conquered. Romanization is the process of assimilation of the Roman feautures, usually started by the local elites and later extended to the rest of the population. The origins of the Roman emperors are an evidence of the success of romanization. Many of them came from different parts of the Empire. For example, emperors Trajan and Hadrian came from Hispania. Origin of the Roman emperors Hispania became quickly integrated in the Roman world: the reduction of the troops (only one legion, the Legio VII Gemina, remained stationed on the ground) and the little information about Hispania in the Roman sources after the wars of conquest show that the Peninsula soon became integrated in the Roman Empire.
  16. 16. HOW DID ROMANIZATION SPREAD OUT? - Many veterans of the civil wars stayed in the Peninsula and founded colonies, like Italica and Legio VII Gemina - Colonists, merchants and civil servants from Italy also settled down in Hispania - The indigenous elites soon adopted the Roman customs as a way of keeping their status. Their example was followed by the rest of the population. - The intensity of the acculturation process was different depending on the regions: faster and more intense in the Mediterranean region, the Ebro and Guadalquivir Valley and later and more superficial in the North and mountainous areas.
  17. 17. MAIN EVIDENCES OF ROMANIZATION -Political organization -Urban society -Citizenship -Social groups -Economic system -Religion -Material evidence
  18. 18. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION - Provincial division of Hispania o 197 BC: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior o 27 BC: Augustus divided it into Tarraconensis (under the emperor’s control), Baetica and Lusitania o 298: Diocletian divided it into 5 provinces: Tarraconensis, Baetica, Lusitania, Cargthaginensis and Gallaecia. Together with Maurtania Tingitania (North of Africa), they formed the Diocesis Hispaniarum . o 4th century: creation of Balearica. Provinces were divided into conventus (regions) - Cities (urbes) were the base of Roman culture and the main center of transmission of Roman culture.
  19. 19. URBAN SOCIETY There were around 400 cities in Hispania. Some of them existed before the Roman conquest and remained, like Clunia (Burgos) or Segóbriga (Cuenca). Others were built new, like Emerita Augusta (Mérida) or Legio Septima Gemina (León), following the orthogonal plan Roman roads communicated the different parts of the Empire and were basic for trade. The main ones in Hispania were: -Silver Way, which communicated Emerita Augusta with Asturica Augusta -Via Augusta, which linked the Mediterranean cities and communicated them with Rome through the Pyrenees
  20. 20. Roman cities followed the model of a Roman military camp, with two main streets (cardus and decumanus) and the rest organized on a grid. The forum (main square) was the center and the main buildings (curia, basilica, main temple) were located there. RECONSTRUCTION OF ROMAN TARRACO Roman cities had all kind of services: -fresh water, brought with aqueducts and available in fountains and the houses of the rich people (domus) -sewage system, sidewalks -Curia (building fo the municipal government) -temples -marketplaces -leisure buildings: circuses, amphitheatres, theatres, thermal baths, public libraries
  22. 22. Caldes de Montbuí thermal baths Nymphaeus, Valeria (Cuenca) Roman circus, Mérida Calagurris sewage system Emerita Augusta theater Segovia’ s aqueduct
  23. 23. CITIZENSHIP In year 74 Emperor Vespasian gave the Latin citizenship to all the citizens in Hispania. This meant that the citizens got some rights, like owning land, getting married to other residents in Latin cities and living in any Latin city. This was an intermediate stage to get Roman citizenship. Vespasian gave Latin citizenship to Hispania to get their support after a period of conflicts in Rome. In 212 Emperor Caracalla gave Roman citizenship to all the free inhabitants of Hispania. The reason was increasing the number of citizens in order to collect more taxes to defend the Empire. VESPASIAN CARACALLA
  24. 24. SOCIAL GROUPS Same social groups as in Rome, depending on their wealth and status FREE PEOPLE - Senatorial order: magistrates and big landowners - Equestrian orders: merchants and business owners. In charge of the army, public administration and religious posts - Decurional order: in charge of the government of the provinces - Plebeians: citizens obliged to work to survive. - FREEDPEOPLE: former slaves freed by their owners - SLAVES: war prisoners sold to work. NON FREE PEOPLE
  25. 25. ECONOMY - Continuation of the exploitation of the resources of the Peninsula - Establishment of Rome’s economic structures: - exploitation of latifundia (big plots of land) - private property - slavery - cities as centres of production and distribution - use of money - Hispania started importing products, but soon became an exporting region. Lots of Hispanic goods were distributed across the Empire Roman villa, center of exploitation in the countryside Oil production
  26. 26. AGRICULTURE - New agricultural techniques were introduced: Roman plough, fallow, animal drawn, irrigation - Main crops: wheat, olive trees, vines, fruit trees and vegetables. - Sheep herds raised in the Central Plateau to produce wool.
  27. 27. Garum production Baelo Claudia (Bolonia) garum factory in Cádiz MAIN EXPORT PRODUCTS -Oil -Wine -Salted fish -Garum (sauce made with the useless parts of fish) -Honey -linen cloth -purple -esparto grass -ceramics (Terra Sigillata pottery) Terra Sigillata pottery Oil amphora
  28. 28. MINING Mines were massively exploited by the Romans. They belonged to the State, but were exploited by private contractors (negotiatores) -silver and lead from Sª Morena (Mons Marianus) and Guadalquivir Valley -copper from Riotinto -lapis specularis or selenite from Segóbriga -gold from the North, especially in Las Médulas, León, where they used the ruina montium technique -cinnabar and minium from Sisapo Cinnabar Lapis specularis
  29. 29. RELIGION - The Romans allowed the cult of the gods of the indigenous peoples if they didn’ threaten Roman order - The Emperor was also considered to be divine a and had to be worshipped. The Christians rejected worshipping the Emperor and they started being persecuted, until their legalization (Milan Edict, 313) - First Christian communities in Hispania date to the 1st century, but they were limited to the elite. Christianity started spreading in the 3rd century. The legends about the presence of Saint James and Saint Paul in Hispania are not true. - In 380 Christianity became the only religion allowed in the Empire and the Church organized in the same way as in Rome: archbishops in provinces, bishops in conventus and Hispania was divided into dioceses and parishes. Expansion of Christianiity in Hispania - In the 4th century there was a heressy originated in Hispania: Priscillian heresy, condemned by the 1st council of Toledo Priscillian
  30. 30. 3rd CENTURY CRISIS - Conquests stopped, there were fewer and more expensive slaves, so the production mode based on slavery became less profitable. Slaves had to be replaced by colonists (impoverished peasants who looked for the protection of the big landowners and offered their small plots of land and work in exchange): acceleration of land concentration and beginning of serfdom. -Incomes decreased and prices and taxes increased - As a consequence of several devaluations, currency lost most of its value and hyperinflation made life more expensive - Craftsmanship and trade decreased, cities started declining and ruralization began: producers tried to be self-sufficient, barter spread and monetary economy disappeared. Reduction of the amount of silver in the Roman denarius
  31. 31. In addition: -the Barbarians started putting pressure on the borders of the Empire (Limes). - Emperors used authoritarianism to impose their power and conspiracies to overthrow them became frequent. Political instability spread. - In the provinces praetors assumed power and ruled more and more independently from Rome. Number of emperors during the 3rd century crisis
  32. 32. Hispania went through a complicated period from the last third of the 3rd century: invasions of the Franks and Alamanni, peasants’ revolts…The construction of Luculus Augustus (Lugo) wall was a consequence of this insecurity climate. At the beginning of the 5th century three Germanic peoples, the Sueves, the Vandals and the Alans, invaded the Peninsula.
  33. 33. The Sueves came from the Baltic Sea and settled down in the North West (Gallaecia). The Vandals Asdingi (from Hungary and Romania) settled down in Gallaecia and were defeated by the Sueves. The Vandals Silingi (from Oder and Vistula Rivers) settled down in the South (Baetica). The Alans, from present Iran, settled down in Lusitania and Carthaginensis. Emperor Honorius signed a treaty (foedus) with the Visigoths, another Germanic people, in order to get their help to expel the Sueves, Vandals and Alans. As a reward for their help, the Visigoths could settle down in the South of Gaul (Aquitaine). The Visigoths arrived in the Peninsula in 416, defeated the Vandals Silingi and the Alans, expelled the Vandals Silingi to the North of Africa, confined the Sueves in Gallaecia and established their capital city in Toulouse. With the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, the Visigothic kingdom reached independence.
  34. 34. MAIN ROMAN REMAINS IN CASTILLA LA MANCHA Sisapo, Almodóvar del Campo Segóbriga, Saelices (Cuenca) Carranque (Toledo) Valeria (Cuenca)