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Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO

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How can we use open source tools to understand complex site graphs?

Web crawlers needs websites well connected. Large ecommerce/news websites and feed readers are graphs with hundreds of thousands of vertices (web pages) and edges (links between them). Understanding these graphs has a direct effect in usability and SEO.

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Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO

  1. 1. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Rubén Martínez – Junio 2015 – Open Analytics Madrid
  2. 2. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Items  (books,  music,  etc)  used  to  be  arranged  in  5ght  silos  by  categories  
  3. 3. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO There is more to websites than meets the eye Has  a  website  ever  been  this  boring?   We  tend  to  think  of  websites  as  a  homepage  on  the  top  followed  by  a  second  layer  of  children  webpages  (categories),     a  third  level  below  (sub-­‐categories)  and  pages  of  items  (products,  ar5cles,  etc)  at  the  bo@om.   Happily,  reality  is  not  so  simple!  
  4. 4. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO First-ever website - 1990 Source:  Tim  Berners-­‐Lee's  web  catalog  at  CERN.   A  copy  is  available  at  h@p://www.w3.org/History/19921103-­‐hypertext/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html   Not  even  the  1st  ever  website  was  a  simple  hierarchical  tree  of  categories  and  sub-­‐categories  
  5. 5. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Websites are graphs Graph  theory     A  graph  is  an  ordered  pair  G  =  (V,  E)  comprising   a  set  V  of  ver5ces  or  nodes  together  with  a  set   E  of  edges  or  links.     Websites     Websites  are  graphs  whose  webpages  are   nodes  and  links,  directed  edges.   Actual  websites  are  a  more  organic,  messy  business   Visualiza5on  of  a  300-­‐pages  ecommerce  website  
  6. 6. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Link analysis in graph theory PageRank  is  a  link  analysis  algorithm.  It  outputs  a  probability  distribu;on  that  represents  the  likelihood  that  a   person  clicking  on  links  will  arrive  at  any  par;cular  page.   Google’s  reasonable  surfer  model  of  weigh5ng  of  hyperlinks  by  their  posi5on  on  the  page   It  assigns  a  numerical  weigh5ng  to  each  element  of  a  hyperlinked  set  of  documents,  such  as  the  World  Wide  Web,   with  the  purpose  of  "measuring"  its  rela5ve  importance  within  the  set.    
  7. 7. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Optimization of PageRank in websites The  PageRank  is  diluted  with  every  level  down  the  structure  of  categories  and  sub-­‐categories.     This is a waste of expensive PageRank Same information on a leaner, more efficient web architecture PageRank  is  not  as  important  in  SEO  as  it  used  to  be.  It  is  s5ll  useful  to  op5mise  web  architectures   On-­‐page  SEO  is  mostly  about  analysing  graphs,  measuring  them  and  op5mising  them  empirically  and  itera5vely  
  8. 8. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Steps of the analysis of websites Crawling   a  website   Cleaning   the  output   of  inlinks   csv  file     Source,Des5na5on   Visualizing   the  graph   Analysing  the   rela5ons  of   specific  nodes   Parameterizing   the  whole  graph   SEO  experts  are  usually  presented  with  inefficient  websites  that  require  ra5onaliza5on  and  more  o_en  than  not,   extensive  re-­‐indexa5on  on  Google.     Understanding  and  parameterizing  the  graph  of  a  website  before  and  a_er  radical  changes  of  its  structure  is  key.   We  build  a  comma  separated  value  file  with  pairs  of  URLs  linking  to  other  URLs.     The  csv  file  contains  the  data  of  the  connected  graph  that  can  be  visualized,  parameterized  and  analysed.  
  9. 9. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Crawling and exporting a csv file of inlinks 1st    step  –  Crawl  a  significant  sample  of  the  webpages  of  a  website   Desktop  applica5ons   •  Screaming  Frog  (fee  per  licence,  all  OS)   •  Xenu  Link  Sleuth  (free,  Windows)     Bash  scripts  using  command  tools    -­‐  Beware  –  poorly  wri@en  scripts  might  not  be  polite.   •  CURL   •  Wget       (2nd  step  -­‐  Scrape  if  you  have  to  get  specific  snippets  of  text  from  the  crawled  pages)   Scrapy  in  Python   $  pip  install  scrapy       (3rd  step  Extract  data  if  you  have  to  get  specific  URLs  linked  from  the  scraped  text)   Beau5ful  Soup   A  Python  library  for  pulling  data  out  of  HTML  and  XML  files.    
  10. 10. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Cleansing & grooming of the output .csv file Output:  csv  files  with  the  crawled  inlinks     Origin,  Des5na5on   URL  1,  URL  2   URL  2,  URL  3   URL  1,  URL  3   …   URL  n,  URL  m     Clean  and  filter:  best  with  bash  one-­‐liners     #!/bin/bash     FILE=   DOMAIN=     cut  -­‐f2,3  $FILE  |   sed  -­‐e  "s/http://$DOMAIN//g"  -­‐e    "s/http://www."$DOMAIN"//g"  -­‐e  's/t/,/g'  |   grep  –vi  ".jpg|http:|.css|.js|.gif|.png|@|mailto|xml|http|?|=“   >  filtered.csv  
  11. 11. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Visualization of a website or part of it Gephi  is  an  interac5ve  visualiza5on  and  explora5on  plahorm  for  all  kinds  of  networks  and  complex  systems,   dynamic  and  hierarchical  graphs.       It  performs  poorly  with  large  graphs  (tens  of  thousands  of  nodes  and  hundreds  of  thousands  of  inlinks).       Other  tools?  –  promising     Key  Lines  h@p://keylines.com/neo4j     Tulip  h@p://tulip.labri.fr/TulipDrupal/  
  12. 12. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Example 1 - Graph of the website of an annual conference The  home  (dark  green  node  in  the  center)  links  down  to  categories  (light  green  or  light  orange)  like  the  page  of   program  which  in  its  turn  links  down  to  item  pages  (dark  orange)  with  descrip5on  of  each  talk  with  bio  of  the   speaker,  etc.   This  web  architecture  seems  efficient  but  item  pages  might  be  be@er  connected  to  the  whole  graph   The  cluster  on   the  right  is  the   1st  edi5on  of   the  event  (few   talks).   The  cluster  on   the  le_  is  the   2nd  edi5on  of   the  event   (more  talks).  
  13. 13. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Example 2 - Graph of the website of a shopping website The  orange  dots  are  products  and  green  balls  categories.  Why  do  they  ALL  connect  to  each  other?  Aren’t  there   products  more  relevant  to  users  and  to  the  business  than  others?   Some  products  get  more   traffic  but  yield  less  margin.     The  op5mal  web   architecture  overweighs  the   internal  linking  to  the  most   popular  products  with  the   highest  revenue  or  margin.   This  looks  like  a   programma5c  linking   scheme.     Ecommerce  is  usually  more   complex  than  it  is   represented  here.      
  14. 14. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Example 3 - Graphs of 2 directly competing websites This  looks  like  an  organic  network  of  clusters  connec5ng   other  clusters  and  distant  nodes  with  thin  links.     This  is  a  dense  pack  of  many  webpages  connec5ng  to  many   other  webpages  without  discernible  pa@erns  or  clusters.   These  graphs  are  small  samples  of  2  large  websites  compe5ng  for  the  same  keywords  on  Google   Both  websites  are  successful  SEO  proposi5ons  with  radically  different  approaches.  Why?  
  15. 15. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Thin  connec5ons  tend  to  link  the  clusters,  allowing  informa5on  to  move  between  them.     Source: Giles, Jim. Making the links. Nature - Aug 23rd 2012     The power of weak links These  networks  are  usually  efficient  enough  in  terms  of  SEO.  
  16. 16. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of the whole graph igraph  is  a  collec5on  of  network  analysis  tools     It  is  available  in  R       library(igraph)   dat=read.csv(file.choose(),header=TRUE)  #  choose  an  edgelist  in  .csv  file   format   summary(dat)   g=graph.data.frame(dat,directed=TRUE)   vcount(g)  200637   ecount(g)  4174400     centralization.degree(g)  0.4998589  
  17. 17. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of the whole graph - parameters transitivity(g)  0.001666909   graph.density(g)  0.0001036989   igraph  calculates  metrics  of  whole  graphs  with  built-­‐in  func5ons.     Transi5vity  or  clustering  coefficient  measures  the  probability  that  the  adjacent  ver;ces  of  the  ver;ces  or  a  graph   are  connected.  This  metric  along  the  graph  density  are  useful  references  to  compare  websites  between  them  or   one  website  before  and  a_er  changes  in  its  web  architecture.     website5  has  the  lowest  values  of  transi5vity  and  density:  increasing  them  would  result  in  an  improved  SEO     Sheet1 graph vertices edges diameter transitivity website1 8305 34185 30 0.007959 0.000499 website2 10852 88732 16 0.004671 0.000721 website3 11272 71035 20 0.004017 0.000639 website4 11593 47380 32 0.003730 0.001088 website5 200637 4174400 n/a 0.001667 0.000104 graph density
  18. 18. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of specific nodes   h@p://console.neo4j.org/     MATCH  (n:Crew)-­‐[r:LOVES*]-­‐(m)   WHERE  n.name='Neo'   RETURN  n,m                   n   m   (0:Crew  {name:"Neo"})   (2:Crew  {name:"Trinity"})  
  19. 19. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of specific nodes   Count  the  number  of  nodes  connected  to  one  node     MATCH  (n  {  name:  'Neo'  })-­‐-­‐>(x)   RETURN  n,  count(*)               MATCH  (n  {  name:  'Neo'  })-­‐-­‐>(x)   RETURN  x     (2:Crew  {name:"Trinity"})   (1:Crew  {name:"Morpheus"})   n   count(*)     (0:Crew  {name:"Neo"})   2
  20. 20. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO Analysis of specific nodes MATCH  (n:Crew)-­‐[r:KNOWS*]-­‐(m:Matrix)  WHERE  n.name='Neo'  RETURN  m     (3:Crew:Matrix  {name:"Cypher"})   (4:Matrix  {name:"Agent  Smith"})       Find  the  shortest  path  between  n  and  m  of  type  :LOVES     MATCH  p  =  shortestPath((n:Crew)-­‐[:LOVES]-­‐>(m:Matrix))   WHERE  n.name='Neo’   RETURN  p  AS  Neo,m  
  21. 21. Analysis of Websites as Graphs for SEO That’s all Folks! Thank you. Rubén  Marqnez   @ruben_at_it   rmar5nez@paradigmatecnologico.com  

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