Soil is dynamic natural body
composed of mineral matter and
organic matter and living forms
in which plant grows.
An undesirable change in the physical chemical or
biological characteristics of air, water or soil.
The contamination of
soil with solid waste,
acid rain excess of
andherbicides is called
soil pollution (or land
1) Agricultural pesticides
2) Disposal of solid wastes on land
3) Mining activities
5) Biological agents
6) Radioactive pollutants
7) Heavy metal pollutants
kind of soil pollutionkind of soil pollution
Acid Rain is caused by air
pollution. The acidic
water falls on the soil and
pollutes it by making the
Acid RainAcid Rain
Comes from homes, cattle sheds,
agricultural fields, industries and
many other places and get
accumulated in the form of heaps.
Solid waste include Cow dung;
Night soil (Human excreta), fruits
and vegetable peels ash ,waste
paper, metal objects etc.
Solid WastesSolid Wastes
The use of excess fertilisers to
increase the crop yields makes
the soil either acidic or alkaline
and pollutes it. For example,
excessive use of ammonium
sulphate fertilisers makes the soil
highly acidic whereas the
excessive use of sodium nitrate
fertilisers makes the soil highly
Insecticides and Herbicides are
poisonous chemicals which are
used to spray standing crops to
prevent them from harmful
insects and herbs . These
insecticides and herbicides mix
with the soil and pollute it.
Insecticides and HerbicidesInsecticides and Herbicides
The solid wastes like garbage
destroy the natural beauty and
become a breeding ground for
mosquitoes which spread
diseases like malaria and
Land Pollution caused by acid
rain reduce the fertility of soil
leading to reduction of crop
Causes of Soil Pollution
• High levels of radionuclides like nitrogen
and phosphorus can be found surrounding
farm centers containing high population
densities of livestock.
• Pesticides applied to plants can also seep
into the ground, leaving lasting effects.
• Heavy metals can arrive in the soil by
using polluted water to wet crops and by
using mineral fertilizers.
• Industry is to blame for some of the
biggest soil-pollution disasters.
• Reduced soil fertility
• Reduced nitrogen fixation
• Increased erodibility
• Larger loss of soil and nutrients
• Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs
• Reduced crop yield
• Imbalance in soil fauna and flora
Process in which certain non-biodegradable
substances go on accumulating in the food-chain.
Most common example is of methyl mercury in fish
and mercury in eagles.
Not only does bio magnification put the particular species
at risk, it puts all the species above and below it at risk,
and ultimately affects the food pyramid.
Health consequences from exposure to soil contamination vary
greatly depending on pollutant type, pathway of attack and
vulnerability of the exposed population.
Direct affect on human health.
Contamination of ground water aquifers.
Chronic exposure to chromium, lead and other metals, petroleum,
solvents, and many pesticide and herbicide can be carcinogenic,
can cause congenital disorders.
1. Adoption of sustainable agriculture having organic
farming and use of biofertilizers, biointegrated pest
management and proper water management,
2. Adoption of suitable and proper industrial and urban
3. Adequate controlled use of heavy metal and toxic
4. Non-biodegradable wastes can be
recycled and used again
3. Biomedical wastes should be carefully
disposed off so that it does not create
any health hazard.
Prevention of Soil Pollution
Biogas and Manure
Naturally, prevention is the best cure for soil
pollution. Consumers can also make a concerted
effort to buy organic foods to demand that
chemical pesticides aren't used on their foods.
Most of the solid
wastes in urban areas
are buried in low-lying
areas to level the
uneven ground. This is
It is the method of recovery and processing of
Biodegradable wastes or materials after they
have been used, which enables them to be
used. For example, solid wastes like paper,
plastics and metals, etc., are recycled.
Industrial wastes are treated in special plants
and valuable wastes are recycled.
In this method, the domestic waste like fruit and vegetable waste, left-over food, leaves of potted plants etc., can
be converted into compost and used as manure.
It means ‘reduction to ashes’. The burning of a
substance at high temperature to form ash is called
Incineration. It is used to destroy household waste,
chemical waste and biological waste. Incineration is
carried out in incinerator.
In this method Cow dung is fed into biogas plants
to produce biogas and obtain manure.
Production of Biogas & ManureProduction of Biogas & Manure
Plant across a hillside
(instead of up and
down),slows run off
Planting alternating crops in
strips across land
In combination with contour
planting, this slows erosion
Similar to strip farming
Land is shaped…level ridges of land are
created to hold water and soil in place
More expensive and time consuming but allows
cultivation on steep grades and increases
sustainability (this is how rice is grown in Asia)
• Perennial plant growing
Coffee and tea
Plants that grow during several seasons
Do not have to harvested yearly AND hold soil
Ground cover plants (alfalfa) hold and protect
soil from erosion if planted right after initial
"Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents,"Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents,
it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit theit was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the
Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children."Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children."
Ancient Native Indian ProverbAncient Native Indian Proverb