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Project human resource management

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Project human resource management

  1. 1. What is Project Human Resource Management?The processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project.It includes all the project stakeholders-sponsors, customers, partners, individual contributors, performing organization, project and team members. 1
  2. 2. Project Human Resource Management Major Processes• Organizational Planning – Identify, document, and assign project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships• Staff Acquisition – Getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project• Team Development – developing individual and group competencies to enhance project performance 2
  3. 3. Organizational Planning Process• Usually done as part of the earliest project phases• Results should be reviewed throughout the project• Organizational planning is often tightly linked with communications planning• involves identifying, documenting and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships 3
  4. 4. Organizational Planning Process Inputs• Project Interfaces – Organizational interfaces - formal and informal reporting relationships – Technical interfaces - relationships among different technical disciplines – Interpersonal interfaces - relationships among individuals on the project• Staffing Requirements - kinds of competencies and individuals needed and in what time frame 4
  5. 5. Organizational Planning Process Inputs Cont.• Constraints - factors that limit a project team’s options such as: – Organizational structure – Collective bargaining agreements – Preferences of the project management team – Expected staff assignments 5
  6. 6. Organizational Planning Types of Organizations• Functional - stove pipe/ managers and territories and no crossovers (do have a clear chain of command)• Project Expeditor - functional organization with recognition of project activities, PM reports to functional management• Project coordinator - PM reports to higher management 6
  7. 7. Organizational Planning Types of Organizations Cont.• Weak Matrix - Functional managers and project managers in a matrix organization with all money done within the functions of the organizations• Strong Matrix - PMs have budget authority with firing/hiring/rewards decisions• Projectized - PM is a supervisor in control of all activities 7
  8. 8. Organizational Planning Process Tools and Techniques• Templates - Often prior projects role and responsibilitydefinitions or reporting relationships can help expedite the process•Human Resource Practices - Knowledge of HR policies,guidelines, and procedures can help with organizational planning•Organizational Theory - Understanding organizational theory willbetter enable the PM to respond to project requirements•Stakeholder Analysis - Identification and analysis of needs ofstakeholders will ensure that their needs will be met 8
  9. 9. Organizational Planning Outputs• Role and responsibility assignments – A responsibility Assignment Matrix is often used to closely link assignments to the project scope definition• Staffing management Plan – describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off of the project team 9
  10. 10. Organizational Planning Outputs Cont.• Organization chart – Any graphic display of project reporting relationships• Supporting detail - includes such detail as: – Organizational impact – Job descriptions – Training needs 10
  11. 11. Human Resource Management Roles and Responsibilities• Roles and responsibilities – PMI states that it is the project manager’s responsibility to plan, estimate, and schedule a project, interface management and integration of our project’s subsystems. – The team’s role is to help plan what needs to be done (WBS), the project flow (Network Diagram), as well as to estimate times for their tasks. – Senior management’s role is to approve the overall project plan, budget, and schedule and to approve any changes to these. 11
  12. 12. Human Resource Management Roles and Responsibilities Cont.• Roles of a PM - Integrator, communicator, team leader, decision maker, and climate creator• Qualifications - works well with others; experienced in particular areas of expertise (such as technical, contract negotiations, supervisory, etc.); level of education; previous project management experience• PM’s leadership skills - Directive, facilitating, coaching, supportive 12
  13. 13. Human Resource Management Responsibility Chart• Responsibility Assignment Matrix – A chart that cross references team members with the tasks they are to accomplish. – It may also cross reference team members and issues. – NOTE: The matrix does not show when people will do their jobs (time). 13
  14. 14. Human Resource Management Powers• Powers of the project manager – Formal (legitimate) - power based on your position – Reward - Giving rewards – Penalty (coercive) - being able to penalize team members – Expert - Being the technical or project management expert – Referent - Referring to the authority of someone in a higher position 14
  15. 15. Human Resource Management Powers• Powers of the project manager cont. – Purse string - whoever has the money has the power – Bureaucratic - Because you know the system and how to work it you have the power – Charismatic - your power derives from your charm• PMI says the best forms of power are EXPERT and REWARD. PENALTY is the worst. FORMAL, REWARD, and PENALTY are powers derived from the PM’s position in the company. EXPERT power is earned on your own 15
  16. 16. Staff Acquisition Process• Getting the needed human resources assigned to and working on the project• Ensure that the resources that are available will meet project requirments• Usually provided or supported heavily by the HR staff 16
  17. 17. Staff Acquisition Process Inputs• Staffing management plan• Staffing pool description - considering characteristics such as previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics, availability, competencies and proficiency• Recruitment practices 17
  18. 18. Staff Acquisition Process Tools and Techniques• Negotiations - with responsible functional managers, with other project management teams• Pre-assignment - usually in the case of a competitive proposal and staff was promised, or for an internal service project• Procurement 18
  19. 19. Staff Acquisition Process Outputs• Project staff assigned• Project team directory 19
  20. 20. Team Development ProcessTeam development includes both enhancing the ability of stakeholders to contribute as individuals as well as enhancing the ability of the team to function as a team.Team development on a project is often complicated when individual team members are accountable to both a functional manger and the project manager. 20
  21. 21. Team Development Process Inputs• Project staff• Project plan• Staffing management plan• performance reports - provide feedback to the project team about performance against the project plan.• external feedback - periodical measure against the expectations of those outside the project. 21
  22. 22. Team Development Process Tools and Techniques• Team-building activities• General management skills• reward and recognition systems• collocation• training 22
  23. 23. Team Development Process Outputs• Performance improvements - can come from many sources and affect many areas of project performance; for example: – Improvement in individual skills – Improvements in team behaviors – Improvements in either individual or team competencies• Input to performance appraisals 23
  24. 24. Team Development Team Building• Concerted team building at the start of a project• Look for opportunities to build the team throughout the project• Team members need to be aware of: – interdependent - work together – Consensus - together on project goals and objectives – committed - working together in a positive way – Accountable - to the organization and roles that each has – conflict/competition - acknowledge ahead of time that their will be conflict and competition 24
  25. 25. Team Development Symptoms of Poor Teamwork• Frustration• Unhealthy competition• Unproductive meetings• Lack of trust in the project manager 25
  26. 26. Team Development Team Building Rules• Start early in team building• Do it early and often• Recruit the best people• Everyone is ON THE TEAM (including part-timers, vendors etc.) and they recognize themselves as on the team• PM needs to behave as a role model• Trust and delegate (don’t try to force or manipulate)• Process: Plan ahead, negotiate for team members, organize the team and have a kickoff 26
  27. 27. Team Development Team Building Exercises• Needed to get team members motivated• Understanding various motivational theories• Know personnel issues 27
  28. 28. Team Development Motivation Theories• Maslow - Hierarchy of needs; people don’t work for security or money, they work to get a chance to contribute and to use their skills (highest level is self actualization)• McGregor - Theory of X / Y; all people are either X (people need to be watched every minute) or Y (people are willing to work without supervision and want to achieve); theory Z (put a firm environment around Y workers) 28
  29. 29. Team Development Motivation Theories• Herzberg - Hygiene factors and motivating agents – Hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction such as working conditions, salary, personal life, relationships at work, security, status – Motivators - relate to increased satisfaction such as responsibility, self- actualization, professional growth, recognition – To retain or maintain team members need to think of hygiene factors but to really jazz members need to consider motivations• Expectancy theory - Employees who believe that their efforts will lead to effective performance and who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishments stay productive as rewards meet their expectations 29
  30. 30. Team Development Personnel Issues• Arbitration• Perquisites (perks usually more individualized) - Parking spaces, corner offices, work from home, etc.• Fringe benefits - (generally everybody gets) Education, benefits, insurance, profit sharing• Halo effect - tendency to rate high or low all factors• War room - project team located in one room also called co- location 30
  31. 31. Human Resource Management Conflict• Conflict is unavoidable because of the – Nature of projects – Limited power of the project manager – Necessity for obtaining resources from the functional managers• Conflict can be avoided by: Informing the team, clearly assigned tasks, making work assignments interesting and challenging 31
  32. 32. Human Resource Management Sources of conflict in actual order of frequency• Schedules• Project priorities• Resources• Technical opinions• Administrative procedures• Cost• Personality 32
  33. 33. Human Resource Management Conflict management methods• Problem solving / confrontation (same thing); confrontation is usually the correct choice• Compromising - favorite mode for dealing with peers• Smoothing - de-emphasizing the opponents differences• Withdrawal - Retreat or postpone• Forcing - (worst method) JUST DO IT {usually results in a stalemate} 33
  34. 34. Questions? 34