S O L A R P V S Y S T E M
USER MANUAL - GUIDELINES
•Prof. Dr. P. SUDHIR KUMAR
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P – 530003
STUDENTS OF 5th YEAR
DEPT. OF ARCHITECTURE
BATCH NO : 2013-2018
WHAT IS SOLAR PV SYSTEM ?
• In a solar PV System the photovoltaic (PV) cells capture the sun’s energy that convert sunlight into electricity
using semi conducting materials.
• Can be used to run household appliances and lighting.
• PV installations may be ground-mounted, rooftop mounted or wall mounted. The mount may be fixed, or use
a solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky.
• Generally, Solar PV system works more efficiently from 9am to 4 pm (in presence of sun’s energy).
Solar Panel is a main component of this system that is responsible to collect solar radiations and transform it into
electrical energy (DC – Direct Current).
Solar Panel is an array of several solar cells (Photovoltaic cells) formed by connecting them in parallel or
series connection depending upon the energy required.
TYPES OF SOLAR PV PANELS
` Monocrystalline Silicon
Thin Film Panels
Module efficiency 15 % - 18% 14% - 16% max. 12%.
Manufactured by from single Si crystal. fusing different crystals of
depositing 1 or more layers
of PV material on
Performance best at standard temperature. moderately high temp. high temperatures.
At high temperatures Efficiency is reduced Efficiency is not reduced good
Surface area required for
7-9 msq. (least area) 8 – 9 msq. (less area) 9 – 11 msq. (large area)
Price per kWp (Watt peak) Rs 75,000 – 1,00,000 Rs 50,000 – 75,000 Rs 40,000 – 55,000
Best suitable for Limited space (peak
efficiency can be
Most cases (fast return of
TYPES OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM
There are three main types of solar PV and storage systems:
• Grid tied
Off grid system:
• installed on a Stand alone basis with out any support from the grid power.
• mostly used in remote areas with an advantage of storing energy battery or could work directly using the solar
energy available in the day times.
• This PV system includes batteries, which are an
expensive part of the system and these would
need replacement every few years (4-7 years).
Indicates - Not used in this system
• Typically for this system, 1kW capacity
generates 4-5 units per day which is apprx.
costs Rs 92,000.
Note : units produced per day is the energy generated in
sun shine hours ie., 9am – 4pm (7 hours)
• Wiring system
Stores solar electricity for
Converts DC electricity to
AC electricity same
quality as the utility
electricity and regulates
AC charge to the
batteries from the utility
or the generator source.
To the Household
Regulates the charge of
solar electricity to
energy into DC
In the presence of solar
energy, the electricity
produced by it is used &
in its absence, then the
electricity stored in
batteries is used.
IN CASE WHEN SOLAR FAILS
IN CASE OF SOLAR ENERGY
Grid tied :
• basically solar installation that uses a standard grid-tied inverter
• perfect for customers who are already on the grid and want to add solar to their house.
• Connection to the local electricity network allows selling to the local distributor of electric energy any excess of
electricity generated and not used in the household consumption.
• To sell the surplus electricity, the state should have ‘Net metering policy’.
• Typically for this system, 1kW capacity generates 4-5 units per day which is apprx. costs Rs 75,000 – Rs
Indicates - Not used in this system
Note : units produced per day is the energy generated
in sun shine hours ie., 9am – 4pm (7 hours)
• system can be combined with other energy sources, such as biomass generator, wind turbines, diesel generator
• to ensure a constant and sufficient supply of electricity, since all renewable energy sources, including photovoltaic
systems, are not constant in energy production.
• The hybrid system can be connected to a network
• Use batteries to store energy for later use.
• Hybrid inverters : This system also allows choosing whether electricity from photovoltaic panels should be stored
or consumed through an internal intelligent apparatus control unit. This is possible through a technique that
adds different energy sources (phase coupling: on-grid or grid-tie techniques) and the management of stored
electricity in the battery (off grid technology).
Hybrid inverters therefore operate on grid (grid-tie) as well as off-grid, hybrid (both on-grid and off-grid
grid at the same time) and Backup (in case of a black out).
COST - 24,000 – 28,000 Rs
Charge controller -
Regulates the charge of
solar electricity to
Batteries - Stores solar electricity for future use.
Inverter - Converts DC electricity to
AC electricity same quality as the
utility electricity and regulates AC
charge to the batteries from the
utility or the generator source.
To the Household
it is used & in
is used. In
in batteries is
• Wiring system Bi- directional meter – it reads the
readings of both energy consumed
from the utility and units sold back to
grid ie., net metering.
Supplies energy in DC
SOME APPLAINCES AND THEIR CONSUMPRION IN WATTS
S.NO APPLIANCE MINIMUM MAXIMUM
1 100W light bulb (Incandescent) 100W 100W
2 25" colour TV 150W 150W
3 3" belt sander 1000W 1000W
4 60W light bulb (Incandescent) 60W 60W
5 9" disc sander 1200W 1200W
6 Ceiling Fan 25W 75W
7 Clock radio 1W 2W
8 Clothes Dryer 1000W 4000W
9 Coffee Maker 800W 1400W
10 Cordless Drill Charger 70W 150W
11 Desktop Computer 100W 450W
12 Dishwasher 1200W 1500W
13 Electric Blanket 200W 200W
14 Electric Heater Fan 2000W 3000W
15 Electric Kettle 1200W 3000W
16 Electric Mower 1500W 1500W
17 Electric Shaver 15W 20W
18 Food Blender 300W 400W
19 Fridge / Freezer 150W 400W
20 Game Console 120W 200W
21 Hair Blow dryer 1800W 2500W
22 Home Air Conditioner 1000W 4000W
23 Home Internet Router 5W 15W
ENERGY CONSUNPTION BY A TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD
APPLAINCE WATTS NO.S HOURS WATTS X HOURS /1000 UNITS/DAY
1. CFL Bulb 15 5 4 300 3000/1000 0.3
2. Ceiling fan 100 4 8 3200 32000/1000 3.2
3. Bulb 60 2 3 360 360/1000 0.36
4. Fridge 250L 4* 24 1.37
5. TV 32 inch LED 40 1 4 160 160/1000 0.16
6. Micro wave 700 1 0.5 350 350/1000 0.35
7. Split A.C 1.5 ton 1 1 1.17
8. Computer + Monitor 120+15
1 3 810 810/1000 0.81
9. Washing machine 512 1 0.5 256 256/1000 0.256
7.97 Units is power consumption for a single day. To Calculate
monthly consumption = 7.97 X 30 = 239 units
Wattage X Hours used per day / 1000 = Daily Kilowatt Hour
1kWh = 1Unit ( 1kiloWatt = 1000Watts)
• To collect maximum sunlight the ideal orientation of a Solar Panel is towards south.
• 45-degree east or west of south can also work.
• Tilt at which the solar panel is installed is also an important consideration. It is important that the tilt of the solar
panel is the same as the latitude of your location.
Eg. Visakhapatnam lies in latitude of 17.6868° N so hence panels are angled at 17 ° to the ground so that it is
perpendicularly incident to the sun’s rays.
• It is recommended to change the angle of panel minimum twice a year with respect to the
chance of climate for better efficiency.
• The mount may be fixed, or use a
solar tracker to follow the sun across the sky.
• If purchased under NSM a Solar PV module comes with a warranty of 25 years from the date of supply.
• A solar home lighting system (with inverter) comes with a warranty of 5 years and
• the batteries if sealed maintenance free come with 2 years warranty and
• lead acid flooded type battery comes with 5 year warranty.
• A solar PV system does not
require a lot of maintenance
but it is good to clean the
system of dust and bird
droppings regularly to maintain
• If it is a maintenance free
battery then need not be worry
about the battery, else the
battery will need regular
TYPES OF METERING POLICY
Gross metering :
• entire energy generated by the solar PV system is fed back directly into the utility grid.
• the owner gets incentives based on feed-in tariffs proportional to the energy fed back to the grid.
Net metering :
• an agreement that allows the solar PV system
owner to sell excess solar energy to the utility
company using a meter to track this energy
• Produce more today, use that tomorrow
Eg. If in summer, solar power generates 100 units and
load requirement is 80 units, then 20 units can be fed
back to the grid. In winter, solar power generates only
60 units and load requirement is 80 units, then 20 units
taken from the grid.
Thus, overall excess generation from solar power
system is taken care of and net units consumed from
the grid becomes zero.
Bi – Directional Meter
Eg. During peak sunshine hours (afternoon)
Power generated is
less than the load
Energy is taken from
the main grid
The owner is charged
for the units consumed
from the main grid
The meter runs
forward as usual
Eg. During early morning or during late evening/night.
Power generated is
more than the load
Energy is fed back to
the main grid
The system owner gets
The meter runs
In case of 2 - the owner is either paid back or the
surplus units are added for the next use.
For more details, kindly refer your state policy/utility company policy for more information about
visit : https://www.bijlibachao.com/using-renewables/net-metering-policy-for-roof-top-pvs-in-
The term bi-directional metering refers to the fact that the meter can measure the flow of electricity in
two directions that is energy from the solar and energy used from the utility power.
A charge controller or battery charger, is only necessary in systems with battery back-up.
The primary function of a charge controller is to prevent overcharging of the batteries.
Mostly also include a low- voltage disconnect that prevents over-discharging batteries. The Disconnect may also
have integrated circuit breakers or fuses to protect against power surges.
In addition, charge controllers prevent charge from draining back to solar modules at night.
Lead-Acid Batteries – Lead-acid batteries are most common in PV systems in general
Sealed lead acid batteries are most commonly used in grid-connected system. Sealed batteries are spill-proof
and do not require periodic maintenance.
Flooded lead- acid batteries are usually the least expensive but require adding distilled water at least monthly to
replenish water lost during the normal charging process.
Gel-cell batteries, designed for freeze-resistance, are generally a poor choice because any overcharging will
permanently damage the battery.
Alkaline Batteries –
Because of their relatively high cost, alkaline batteries
are only recommended where extremely cold
temperatures (-50oF or less) are anticipated or for certain
commercial or industrial applications
These advantages include tolerance of freezing or high
temperatures, low maintenance requirements, and the
ability to be fully discharged or over-charged without harm.
SIZING A SOLAR PV SYSTEM
• Before buying a system, it is very important to size your solar system properly.
• Sizing will depend on the load requirements in your setup.
• It is important to note that a Solar system is good for operating low wattage appliances like lights, fans, TV,
• High wattage appliances like Air Conditioners and Water Heaters cannot be operated using solar PV system
(in fact solar water heaters and solar air conditioners are available separately).
• assess the amount of sunlight available
at the location where a solar PV system
is being installed.
• system should be placed so that there is
no obstruction of trees or adjoining
• load carrying capacity of the roof
where the solar panels are to be installed
should also be done
• Solar Panel structure typically weight
15kg per sq meter.
METHODS OF GROUND MOUNTING SOLAR PV SYSTEMS
Ground mounted PV systems are usually large ,utility-scale photovoltaic power stations.
There are two basic types.
STANDARD GROUND MOUNTS : In this the metal frames are driven into the ground to hold solar panels up at
a fixed angle. Some of these arrays can be adjusted manually.
POLE MOUNTS : In this systems, a single pole consists of multiple solar panels at higher level than standard
ground . These are often incorporate with tracking systems for sun light
STANDARD GROUND MOUNTSPOLE MOUNT
WALL MOUNTING SOLAR PV SYSTEMS
If south – facing roof is lacking and having a south – facing wall but an east-west roofline, a wall-mount is
a great option.
Structural design :
• Channels along the length of the rails and the fixtures allow lots
of adjustments in all axis.
• Engineered design is structural, making it very strong.
• Can resist heavy winds up to 120 MPH (193 km/h).
Window shading :
Manages the building temperature by setting
up at different tilt angles to optimize window
shading during the year.
BIPV : Façade
• can be set on a building façade for an
elegant and seamless building
• Residential and commercial.
• As per the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) notice, CFA (Central Finance Assistance)
or subsidy is available for Solar Roof top PV implementations.
For residence subsidy is 30%
• MNRE has set up a Nodal Agency (or Energy Development Agency) in every state, for instance, in
Maharashtra, it is MEDA (Maharashtra Energy Development Agency), in Andhra Pradesh it is NEDCAP (Non-
Conventional Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh (NEDCAP) Ltd.).
For more details and how to apply for subsidy visit the list of all State Nodal Agencies and their contact address/phone/website is available on this link
on MNRE website: http://mnre.gov.in/related-links/contact-us/state-nodel-agencies/
• In case of Indians - panels have to be Made in India to get subsidy.
To get subsidy - have to apply for it with State Nodal Agency with all the relevant details about the
project. The details include all technical and financial aspects of the project (a sample form available on this link).
Must take help from system integrator to fill in all the details (you will get all the technical data about panels,
inverters, etc). Once you fill in appropriate details, you need to put in an application with the State Nodal Agency.
The agency will evaluate the proposals and
estimate the level of subsidy that can be provided to a project. After nodal agency evaluation, the project is
forwarded to MNRE for final consideration and approval.
Note: If you are planning to get a subsidy, your project should not start execution till there is approval from nodal agency. But then you should also not
wait for the final subsidy to be disbursed as it can take quite a lot of time. So the project execution starts after nodal agency approval and before MNRE
makes final decision.
COST AND ECONOMICS WORK OUT
Rs 60,000 to 90,000 per kWp
Generate1300 to 1400 units/year
About 6500 units
Rs 45,500 per year
If Rs 7 per unit
With subsidy Without subsidy
5 years 8 years
Note : This is only when the batteries are kept aside