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Basic aspects of Open Access

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Presenation about "Basic aspects of Open Access" hold on July, 22 2015 at the German Science Center Cairo.

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Basic aspects of Open Access

  1. 1. Basic aspects of Open Access Pascal-Nicolas Becker | University Library of TU Berlin | DWZ Round Table OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 If not indicated otherwise content is licensed under CC BY 4.0 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International | https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  2. 2. Agenda 1. The Idea of Open Access  Scholarly communication and electronic publishing  Open Access declarations 2. Open Access Basics  Green Road & Golden Road 3. Access to Open Access publications Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 2
  3. 3. The Idea of Open Access Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 3
  4. 4. Standing on the shoulders of giants “Bernard of Chartres used to compare us to [puny] dwarfs perched on the shoulders of giants. He pointed out that we see more and farther than our predecessors, not because we have keener vision or greater height, but because we are lifted up and borne aloft on their gigantic stature.” John of Salisbury: Metalogicon 3,4,46-50 “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Isaac Newton (both quotes from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_on_the_shoulders_of_giants) Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 4 Library of Congress, Rosenwald 4, Bl. 5r, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Library_of_Congress,_Rosenwald_4,_Bl._5r.jpg
  5. 5. Research Data Lifecycle Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 5
  6. 6. xxx.lanl.org / ArXiv.org Source: Paul Ginsparg, First Steps Towards Electronic Research Communication. In: Computer in Physics, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1994, pp. 390-396. Image with kind permission of Paul Ginsparg. “In my own community of high-energy theoretical physics, the rapid acceptance of electronic communication of research information was facilitated by a pre-existing ‘preprint culture’, in which the irrelevance of refereed journals to ongoing research has long been recognized. […] technological advances – combined with a remarkable lack of initiative on the part of conventional journals in response to the electronic revolution – rendered the development of e-print archives ‘an accident waiting to happen.’” Paul Ginsparg 1994 Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 6
  7. 7. Digital Repositories Source: The Directory of Open Access Repositories, http://www.opendoar.org, retrieved June 06, 2014. Repositories are systems to safely store and publish digital objects and their descriptive metadata. Not in the meaning of software repositories. Examples: • Digital archives • Institutional repositories (OA preprints & postprints, theses, grey literature, …) • Digital image libraries • Research data repositories • … More than 2500 Open Access repositories worldwide. Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 7
  8. 8. Open Access Declarations Budapest Open Access Initiative: Budapest Declaration Feb 2002 Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing June 2003 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities Oct 2003 Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 9
  9. 9. Budapest Open Access Initiative “By ‘open access’ to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.” http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 10
  10. 10. Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing 1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship[2], as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use. 2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well- established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository). http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/bethesda.htm Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 11
  11. 11. Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities For the first time ever, the Internet now offers the chance to constitute a global and interactive representation of human knowledge, including cultural heritage and the guarantee of worldwide access. […] 1. Open access contributions must satisfy two conditions: The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship […] as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use. 2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited (and thus published) in at least one online repository […] that is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, inter operability, and long-term archiving. http://openaccess.mpg.de/Berliner-Erklaerung Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 12
  12. 12. What is Open Access all about?  Open Access is a publishing model  It does not completely change the scholarly communication, it just lowers barriers  OA is not per se indicator on quality  Just like in closed access world: publishers and editors have to ensure quality  Open Access is the idea of free and accessible human knowledge  Free in the sense of no charge  Free in the sense of free licenses  Free in the sense of no technical barriers (as far as possible) Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 13
  13. 13. Benefits of Open Access Increased visibility and citation advantage Free access to publicly financed research results Authors retain exploitation rights Good findability by search engines & other indexing services Promote international and inter- disciplinary cooperation Promote research efficiency by rapid discussion of research results Improved supply of information & response to serials crisis Slide 14 Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015
  14. 14. Open Access Basics Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 15
  15. 15. Copyright protection (within Germany) • Author = creator of a work • Only natural persons (creators) can claim full copyright • vs. rights holder: natural or legal person WHO • Protection of original works • Ideas, concepts etc. are not protectable • Work = intellectually created by a natural person (§ 2 UrhG) WHAT • Protected by law • No further registration necessary (in contrast to patents, trademarks, logos etc.) • Copyright term: 70 years after the creator‘s death HOW Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 16
  16. 16. Transfer of rights • Rights of use can be transfered (§ 31 UrhG) • … for each type of use individually • … limited in time (e.g. timespan of 5 years) • … geographically limited (e.g. distribution within Europe) • … as exclusive or non-exclusive right Exploitation rights • Rights holder can use the work exclusively • Even creator has to obtain rights for further use(s)Exclusive • Rights holder can use the work • Creator can transfer non-exclusive rights to different (natural or legal) persons Non- exclusive Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 17
  17. 17. CC in a nutshell  Non-profit organization  Founded in 2001 in USA  Version 1.0 of licenses released in 2002  Licenses developed in the US  Intended for international use  License modules evolved over the years  Latest version is 4.0 of 2013  Main idea: make licensing easy  Simple way to transfer rights  Only CC-BY complies with demands to re-use Open Access works! Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 18
  18. 18. Two ways of Open Access Green Road  In addition to traditional closed access publication  Deposit on  Institutional repository  Disciplinary repository  Usually no transfer of further rights to public (restricted re-use)  Dependant on rights holder‘s policy  Embargo?  Version? Golden Road  Publishing with „Open Access publishers“  Access to peer reviews version  Immediately  Online  Worldwide  Free of cost  Transfer of rights to public  Copy  Share  Distribute  Derivate Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 19
  19. 19. Green and Golden Roads towards Open Access Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 20 Graphic: Anton Katzer
  20. 20. Insitutional repositories, ... https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-tuberlin https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/ Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 21 ... cross-institutional and/or disciplinary repository And many more:  Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) http://www.opendoar.org  Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) http://roar.eprints.org/  Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data) http://re3data.org/
  21. 21. Open Access publishers And many more  Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) http://doaj.org/  Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAB) http://www.doabooks.org/ Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 22
  22. 22. Business and publication models  Publication types  Journals, series, monographs, …  Publishing models  E-only, hybrid  OA is not free of cost  Business models e.g.  Article processing charge (APC)  Membership models  Institutional sponsorship  Subscription fees for hybrid model Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 23
  23. 23. Recommendations for authors • Check out OA alternatives in your discipline • Ask library or program manager for help • Be aware of the benefits OA gives you Publish Open Access! • Proper licensing (CC-BY) • Professional publisherGo Gold OA! • Read publishing contracts & negotiate terms • Retain rights to self-archive • Keep post prints Gold OA not possible? Go Green OA! Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 24
  24. 24. Access to Open Access publications Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 25
  25. 25. xxx.lanl.org / ArXiv.org Source: Paul Ginsparg, First Steps Towards Electronic Research Communication. In: Computer in Physics, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1994, pp. 390-396. “Although the WorldWideWeb still represents only a small fraction of the overall usage, this access mode is expected to become dominant in the near future.” Paul Ginsparg 1994 Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 26
  26. 26. Internet = distributed network Many Open Access platforms, many repositories, but:  Open Access is a publishing model, not a complete change of scholarly communication  Open Access Journals are still “journals”  Managers of Open Access platforms want their content to be found  The Internet is huge, but we have search engines and aggregator services  Most library discovery systems may include a OA publications automatically Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 27
  27. 27. Search engine for academic literature from Google http://scholar.google.com Search enginge for academic literature from Microsoft http://academic.research.microsoft.com 62,5m records out of >3000 sources http://www.base-search.net 30m records from >1500 organisations (run by OCLC) http://oaister.worldcat.com 9900 Open Access Journals http://doaj.org Registry of OA repositories (actually >2500) http://www.opendoar.org Registry of Research Data Repositories (>1000) http://www.re3data.org Services to find and use Open Access Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 28
  28. 28. Actual topics  Find ways to support scholars in OA Publishing (e.g. APC funds)  Open APC: Article Process Charge made transparent (http://github.com/OpenAPC/)  Research Data: If we share publications, why don‘t we share the resources (data, software, …) behind the publications? Why are we still missing recognition for „data publications“?  Linked Data: Export repository contents to the Semantic Web. How can it be used elsewhere?  And still: Convince authors of Open Access, create awareness, … Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 29
  29. 29. Services of TU Berlin Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 30 Provide advice regarding all questions of archiving and publication of research data and scholarly publications. Repository for Open Access publications and electronic PhD and habilitation theses. Will be merged together with DepositOnce. System to run Open Access journals. University Press and Open Access Publisher. Produces digital and hybrid publications, giving advice regarding Open Access and publications. Repository for research data and publications. Will be merged together with the „Digital Repository“ (see OPUS).
  30. 30. Additonal Credits  I reused several slides from my colleague Michaela Voigt and her great presentation “Open Access 101”, http://de.slideshare.net/UB_TU_Berlin/oaipodi20150615, also licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International  Slide 8, “What Is the Problem?” graphic, content by Jill Cirasella / graphic design by Les LaRue, http://www.leslarue.com/, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 31
  31. 31. Technische Universität Berlin Universitätsbibliothek Pascal-Nicolas Becker p.becker@tu-berlin.de Servicezentrum Forschungsdaten und -publikationen http://www.szf.tu-berlin.de Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin http://www.verlag.tu-berlin.de Repositories DepositOnce: http://depositonce.tu-berlin.de OPUS: http://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-tuberlin Basic aspects of Open Access | Pascal-Nicolas Becker | DWZ Roundtable OA | Cairo, 22.07.2015 Slide 32

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