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A presentation for IDEAZ “Cell 2” onLight as an architectural element Date: 23 March 2013 Slot no. : 08 Atul Pathak B.Arch First Year Department of Architecture BIT Mesra (Patna Extn.)
1.Designing using light as an architectural element:• Light plays a central role in the design of a visual environment.The architecture, people and objects are all made visible by the lighting.• Light influence our well being, the aesthetic effect and the mood of the room or area.• It is the light that first enables ”what you see?”.Our perception of architecture will be influenced by light:1.Light defines zones and boundaries.2.Light expands and accentuates rooms.3.Light creates links and delineates one area from another
2. Necessity of lighting in designing spaces:lighting has several functions, although to allow for artisticeffect, no hard and fast rules can ever be applied. The functionsof lighting include:Illumination: The simple ability to see what is occurring on . Any lighting design will be ineffective if the viewers cannot see the characters; unless this is the explicit intent.Revelation of form: Altering the perception of shapes on space, particularly three-dimensional elements.Focus: Directing the public attention to an area of the region or distracting them from another.
Contrast: lighting of an object or area so that it becomes brighter than its surroundings Functionality : The level of illumination required for a particular application depends greatly upon seeing the task involved and upon the surrounding conditions. Lighting objectives: Safety Performance( to allow work to be carried out in the night) Enhanced appearance to advertise To model a feature such as a statue To enable sporting events to be seen by spectators or to be televised in stage lighting
3. Planning and Process: 3.1 PRE ANALYSIS: The basis for every lighting concept is an analysis of the project: -- the tasks the lighting is expected to fulfill . --the conditions and special features of a space or work surface. • A quantitative design concept can to a large extent follow the standards laid down for a specific task: --standards will dictate how much light is needed. --the degree of the glare limitation. --the source color and the color rendering. • When it comes to qualitative planning: -- It is necessary to gain as much information as possible about the environment to be illuminated -- It is to be known that how it is used, who will use it and the style of architecture.
3.2 POST ANALYSIS:• Preliminary light properties that lighting should possess. They may give no exact information about the choice of lamps or fixtures etc.• Further analysis provides illumination guidelines giving information about the individual forms of lighting…i.e. high levels will need high performance fixtures and lamps etc.• The challenge of a qualitative lighting design is to develop a design concept that combines the aesthetical and technical requirements of complex guidelines.• A concept that delivers the required performance with an equal level of technical expertise and the highest level of artistic clarity will produce the most convincing solution.
3. Concept of Architectural Lighting: Comprehensive lighting design requires: Consideration of the amount of functional light provided. The energy consumed. The aesthetic impact supplied by the lighting system. For example : • A)Public buildings, like surgical centers and sports facilities, are primarily concerned with providing the appropriate amount of light for the associated task. • B)Official buildings, like warehouses and office buildings, are primarily concerned with saving money through the energy efficiency of the lighting system. • C)Other buildings, like casinos and theatres, are primarily concerned with enhancing the appearance and emotional impact of architecture through lighting systems.
• Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings :
• Each of these three aspects is looked at in considerable detail when the lighting designer is at work :a)In aesthetic appeal, the lighting designer attempts to raise thegeneral attractiveness of the design, measure whether it shouldbe subtly blended into the background or whether it shouldstand out, and assess what kind of emotions the lighting shouldevoke.b)The functional aspects of the project can encompass the needfor the project to be visible (by night mostly, but also byday), the impact of daylight on the project and safety issues(glare, colour confusion etc.).
• As the design phase progresses , decisions are made regarding:--the lamps and fixtures to be used.--the arrangement and installation of the fixtures.--any required electrical and control devices.• The decision regarding lamp type can be made at the beginning of a project or left until an advanced planning stage.• Lighting layouts(the plan)can be determined by the choice of the light fixture or could be the criteria for fixture selection.• Lighting design process should be seen as “back and forth” check in which developed solutions are repeatedly compared to the predetermined goals and requirements.
4.Functions of light as a design element in residences , offices and other workingplaces: 4.1 Forming functional zones: Distinct contrasts between individual zones and their surroundings remove them from their spatial context. a) Exterior.
4.6 Exhibiting Psychology:• Because the sense of sight is contrast sensitive, the brightness contrast of a space determines its emotional impact.• Emotional Impact: Individual impressions of a space are a function of brightness contrast--the relationship of surfaces that are lighted to those left in thedark.--the focus or foreground to the surround or background.• General illumination in a room will permit vision . The emotional impact of the interior through the manipulation of brightness contrast is the real challenge for the creative lighting designer.
5. Lighting in places apart from recidences,offices,complexesetc. 5.1 Lightning for stages and theatres: Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in the pursuit of the various
Principles or goals of glamour lighting• Luminance contrast between the object and the surroundings• Beam spread of the luminaires – polar curve• Type of the lamp• Position or location of projectors• Background luminance• Nature of surface to be lit• Atmospheric losses• Maintenance factor• Glare
6.Lighting by use of natural sunlight-DAYLIGHTING :
The daylight factor in a particular building space depends upon a numberof design factors including 1. • size of daylight apertures (windows, skylights, etc.); 2. • location of daylight apertures (sidelighting, toplighting, etc.); 3. • access to daylight (considering the site, building, and room 4. contexts); 5. • room geometry (height, width, and depth); 6. • location of the point of interest relative to apertures; 7. • visible transmittance (VT) of glazing; 8. • reflectances of room surfaces and contents; 9. • reflectances of exterior surfaces affecting daylight entering the aperture; 10. • the effects of daylighting enhancements (such as light shelves).
Cross section showing lighting distribution from a single-sided windowinstallation
7.Inferences:• Light is an fundamental element of architecture.• Lighting can alter the spatiality, visibility and aesthetics of spaces• Dealing the concept of daylight with housing has an imposing effect physically as well as psychologically.• Association of light and designs could be by natural means (by virtue of day lighting ) or artificial means (use of lamp,fixtures and other lighting devices.)• It’s the need to manipulate and work out for advancements in lighting concepts for designing spaces of our surroundings.
References: Websites: • Gary R. Steffy, Architectural lighting design, John Wiley and Sons, 2002, chapter 1. ISBN 0-471-38638-3. • http://www.anticos.it/ Journals and Books: • Lighting design glossary • Lights in Alingsås, international workshop • International Association of Lighting Designers • Luceonline.it the cultural portal of light and new technologies • Hochschule Wismar, Architectural Lighting Design Master • Association des concepteurs Lumière et Eclairagistes