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THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE

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THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE

  1. 1. THE FUNAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
  2. 2. MICROSCOPE
  3. 3. CELL • Cell is the fundamental unit of life . • Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. • It is known as structural and functional unit of life because whole body is made up of cell. • It is known as fundamental unit of life because all functions regulates inside the cell.
  4. 4. ONION PEEL
  5. 5. SPERM
  6. 6. FAT CELL
  7. 7. BLOOD CELL
  8. 8. SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL
  9. 9. TYPES OF CELLS UNICELLULAR Some organisms are constitute by a single cell .these organisms are called unicellular . eg – amoeba , paramoeuiem etc MULTICELLULAR Some organisms are constitute by many cells . These are called multicellular. eg – human being etc.
  10. 10. Amoeba
  11. 11. Paramoeuiem
  12. 12. CELL CONSIST OF DIFFERENT ORGANELLES • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Mitochondria • Lysosomes • Ribosomes • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Plastids • Cell wall • Golgi apparatus
  13. 13. CELL IS DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES - Prokaryotic i) well defined nucleus are not present. ii) Simple in structure . iii) It contains single chromosomes. iv)Nucleus is absent . v) Size of the cell is generally small (1-10 micrometer)
  14. 14. ENKARYOTIC i) well defined nucleus are present. ii) Complex in structure iii)It contain more than one chromosome. iv)Nucleus is present. v) They are generally large (5-100 u)
  15. 15. Various shapes of cell Cells are found in various shapes such as round shape, spherical shape , oval shape , spindele shape , branch shape etc. CELL ORGANELLES 1. Nucleus- it is a very important organelles of the cell as it regulates all the activities of the cell .
  16. 16. 2. Nucleolus – it is a part of nuclears -it is known as factory of ribosomes . -it helps in protein synthesis of the body . 3. Chromosomes – -They are vehicle of genes. - Genes are carried by chromosomes - Genes express our characterstics such as intelligency complexiom , height etc
  17. 17. Nucleus
  18. 18. Nucleolus
  19. 19. Chromosome
  20. 20. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • It is located around the nucleus of the cells. • They are large network like structure . • It looks like longs tubules or round on oblong bags (vesicles) • They are of two types – i) RER (rough Endoplasmic reticulum) ER - ii)SER (smooth Endoplasmic reticulum)
  21. 21. The main function of ER are detxification of poisonous material and exchanging of material . • Functions of RER – RER is the site of protein and they manufacture proteins . It consist of many ribosomes and so the surface is rough & they named after rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
  22. 22. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE • It is the outermost layer of nucleus . • It helps in the exchange of material . • It contains chromosomes .
  23. 23. GOLGI APPARTUS 1. Camillo Golgi , a famous biologist & a scientist recognised the Golgi body in the nerve cell . 2. They are located in the nerve cell as well as in every part of the cell . 3. They are in a parallel way . 4. It consist of a system of membrane – bound vesicles arranged approximately parallel to each other in stacks called misters
  24. 24. 5. The main functions Golgi body included the storage , modification and packing of products in vesicle . It helps in the synthesis of lysosomes .
  25. 25. GOLGI APPARTUS
  26. 26. LYSOSOMES • They are known as suicide bag of the cell. • They look like rounded bodies consist of digestive enzymes . • lysosomes acts as cleaners or sweppers of the cell . • lysosomes acts as suicide bag as they consist of powerful digestive enzymes
  27. 27. MITOCHONDRIA • It is known as power house of the cell as it helps in the production of ATP (adenosine tri phosphate ). • Mitochondria have two membrane covering in which outer membrane is porous in nature while the inner membrane is deeply folded . • It is a double membrane structure outer membrane porous and inner membrane deeply folded to create large surface area for ATP generation chemical reactions .
  28. 28. • ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) in the energy currency of cell it is used for. - ranking new chemical compounds. - For mechanical work.
  29. 29. MITOCHONDRIA
  30. 30. PLASTIDS 1. Present only in plant cell . 2. There are two types of plastids . - chromoplast (coloured plastids). - Leucoplast (colourless of white plastids ). 3. Plastids with chlorophyll pigment are called as chloroplast . They can be green , red, yellow , brown. 4. Depending upon the types of pigment
  31. 31. 5. Functions – - Chloroplast are known as kitchen of the cell . It helps in synthesis of food by the process of photosythesis - Lactoplast – stored material such as starch , oil and protein . - Chromoplast - chromoplast impart colures to flower which helps in pollination .
  32. 32. VACOULES • Storage sacs for solid or liquid material . • Vacuoles are large and numerous in plants cell. • They are small or absent in animal cell .
  33. 33. CELL WALL • A rigid outer covering outside plasma membrane is called cell wall . It is found mainly fungi , bacteria and plants cells . It is found mainly fungi , bacteria and plant cells. In plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.
  34. 34. CELL WALL
  35. 35. MEMBRANE/PLASMA MEMBRANE • Plasma membrane is the outermost covering of the cell that separate the cell from external environment . it is a semi- permeable membrane . It is flexible and is made up of liquids and protein microscope . • It flexibility helps the cell to engulf in food and other material from its external environment. This process is called as endrytosis . For eg - amoeba
  36. 36. Plasma membrane
  37. 37. Cell membrane
  38. 38. DIFFUSION - The movement of substance from a region of high concentration to a region of two concentration on it is called diffusion . - It plays as important role in gaseous exchange between cell as well as the cell and its external environment - When the level of oxygen inside a cell decrease oxygen from the external environment of the cell enters ,by the process of diffusion .
  39. 39. OSMOSIS • Osmosis is the passage of water form a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration through a semi - permeable membrane. • A membrane which permits the entry and exits of some material in the cell is called semi - permeable membrane . It also prevents movements of some material .
  40. 40. • If a cell is placed in a medium which has higher water concentration and lower solute concentration , that is the outside solution is dilute , cell will again water by osmosis and swell up . such a solution is called hypotonic solution . • If a cell is placed in a medium which has lower water concentration then cell sap [hytonic] , then the cell will again water. This is called osmosis
  41. 41. • When cell are kept in a solution more concentrated than cell sap [hypertonic] they start shrinking , as water comes out this is called exosmosis . • The absorption of water from soil by plant root takes place by osmosis . • If the water concentration outside the cell is similar to inside the cell , it is called as isotonic solution No net movement of water takes place in such conditions .
  42. 42. CLASS - 9 C DONE BY- Paulomi das

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