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• Cell is the fundamental unit of life .
• Cell is the structural and functional
unit of life.
• It is known as structural and
functional unit of life because
whole body is made up of cell.
• It is known as fundamental unit of
life because all functions regulates
inside the cell.
TYPES OF CELLS
Some organisms are constitute by a single cell
.these organisms are called unicellular .
eg – amoeba , paramoeuiem etc
Some organisms are constitute by many cells .
These are called multicellular.
eg – human being etc.
CELL IS DIVIDED INTO
TWO CATEGORIES -
i) well defined nucleus are not
ii) Simple in structure .
iii) It contains single chromosomes.
iv)Nucleus is absent .
v) Size of the cell is generally small
i) well defined nucleus are present.
ii) Complex in structure
iii)It contain more than one
iv)Nucleus is present.
v) They are generally large (5-100 u)
Various shapes of cell
Cells are found in various shapes such as
round shape, spherical shape , oval shape ,
spindele shape , branch shape etc.
1. Nucleus- it is a very important organelles
of the cell as it regulates all the activities of
the cell .
2. Nucleolus – it is a part of nuclears
-it is known as factory of ribosomes .
-it helps in protein synthesis of the body .
3. Chromosomes –
-They are vehicle of genes.
- Genes are carried by chromosomes
- Genes express our characterstics such as
intelligency complexiom , height etc
• It is located around the nucleus of the cells.
• They are large network like structure .
• It looks like longs tubules or round on oblong
• They are of two types –
i) RER (rough Endoplasmic reticulum)
ii)SER (smooth Endoplasmic reticulum)
The main function of ER are
detxification of poisonous material
and exchanging of material .
• Functions of RER – RER is the site
of protein and they manufacture
proteins . It consist of many
ribosomes and so the surface is
rough & they named after rough
Endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
• It is the outermost layer of
• It helps in the exchange of
• It contains chromosomes .
1. Camillo Golgi , a famous biologist & a
scientist recognised the Golgi body in the
nerve cell .
2. They are located in the nerve cell as well as
in every part of the cell .
3. They are in a parallel way .
4. It consist of a system of membrane –
bound vesicles arranged approximately
parallel to each other in stacks called
5. The main functions Golgi body
included the storage ,
modification and packing of
products in vesicle . It helps in
the synthesis of lysosomes .
• They are known as suicide bag of the cell.
• They look like rounded bodies consist of
digestive enzymes .
• lysosomes acts as cleaners or sweppers of the
• lysosomes acts as suicide bag as they consist
of powerful digestive enzymes
• It is known as power house of the cell as it
helps in the production of ATP (adenosine tri
• Mitochondria have two membrane covering in
which outer membrane is porous in nature
while the inner membrane is deeply folded .
• It is a double membrane structure outer
membrane porous and inner membrane deeply
folded to create large surface area for ATP
generation chemical reactions .
• ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) in the
energy currency of cell it is used for.
- ranking new chemical compounds.
- For mechanical work.
1. Present only in plant cell .
2. There are two types of plastids .
- chromoplast (coloured plastids).
- Leucoplast (colourless of white plastids ).
3. Plastids with chlorophyll pigment are
called as chloroplast . They can be green ,
red, yellow , brown.
4. Depending upon the types of pigment
5. Functions –
- Chloroplast are known as kitchen of the
cell . It helps in synthesis of food by the
process of photosythesis
- Lactoplast – stored material such as starch ,
oil and protein .
- Chromoplast - chromoplast impart colures to
flower which helps in pollination .
• Storage sacs for solid or liquid
• Vacuoles are large and numerous in
• They are small or absent in animal
• A rigid outer covering outside
plasma membrane is called
cell wall . It is found mainly
fungi , bacteria and plants cells
. It is found mainly fungi ,
bacteria and plant cells. In
plant cell wall is made up of
• Plasma membrane is the outermost covering
of the cell that separate the cell from external
environment . it is a semi- permeable
membrane . It is flexible and is made up of
liquids and protein microscope .
• It flexibility helps the cell to engulf in food
and other material from its external
environment. This process is called as
endrytosis . For eg - amoeba
- The movement of substance from a region of
high concentration to a region of two
concentration on it is called diffusion .
- It plays as important role in gaseous
exchange between cell as well as the cell and
its external environment
- When the level of oxygen inside a cell decrease
oxygen from the external environment of the
cell enters ,by the process of diffusion .
• Osmosis is the passage of water
form a region of high water
concentration to a region of low
water concentration through a
semi - permeable membrane.
• A membrane which permits the
entry and exits of some material in
the cell is called semi - permeable
membrane . It also prevents
movements of some material .
• If a cell is placed in a medium
which has higher water
concentration and lower solute
concentration , that is the outside
solution is dilute , cell will again
water by osmosis and swell up .
such a solution is called hypotonic
• If a cell is placed in a medium which
has lower water concentration then
cell sap [hytonic] , then the cell will
again water. This is called osmosis
• When cell are kept in a solution more
concentrated than cell sap
[hypertonic] they start shrinking , as
water comes out this is called
• The absorption of water from soil by
plant root takes place by osmosis .
• If the water concentration outside the
cell is similar to inside the cell , it is
called as isotonic solution No net
movement of water takes place in such