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  1. 1. MBA, 6th Trimester Final Presentation VITALITY AT WORK AND IT’S ASSOCIATIONS WITH WORKSTYLE AND SELF DETERMINATION 1 Submitted to Dr. Sonal Saxena Assistant Professor(Manageme nt) Submitted by Ananth pavan kilari (MBAN1MG20021) ITM University, Gwalior
  2. 2. Introduction of Variables • 1 INTRODUCTION • 1.1CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK • Relationship between vitality at work and self-determination and work style • Vitality at work is most strongly associated with basic psychological needs of self-determination, but also with healthy lifestyle behavior, having a balanced workstyle, and social capital. Vitality at work is also associated with effective personal functioning and with sustainable employability. • VITALITY • vitality can be defined as the desire for survival, growth and development. The health of the workers is due to the healthy, energetic people. In short, the most important people are those who feel good, physically and mentally. Mental and physical health are inextricably linked. • THE IMPORTANCE OF VITALITY • Valuable and motivated employees form the foundations of a healthy organization. Key employees are less likely to get sick, are more productive, feel more committed and are therefore an important factor in organizational success. An employee is important when there is a good balance between stress and energy. The employee will feel good at work and will always be healthy and important. If an employee does not feel important, the result may be that he or she does not feel comfortable at work. After all, you need energy to work. Those who feel good and healthy can work longer and be happier. 2
  3. 3. • VITALITY AT WORK • vitality at work is closely linked to the basic psychological needs of self-determination, but also to healthy living habits, a balanced work ethic, and public finances. Occupational health is also associated with effective work ethic and stable employment at workplace. • WORK STYLE • 'Workstyle' can be described as a mechanism by which ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors interact to affect the development, exacerbation and/or maintenance of upper limb pain and functional limitations. Workstyle is associated with the increase in the work demand, Deepak Sharan(2012, P.01) poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 3
  4. 4. • SELF DETERMINATION • To be self-determining means to experience a sense of choice in initiating and regulating one's own actions. Recent research linking self-determination to, enhanced creativity (Amabile, 1983), conceptual learning (Benware & Deci, 1984), self-esteem (Deci, Schwartz, Scheinman, & Ryan, 1981), and general well-being (Langer & Rodin, 1976) has stimulated psychologists to clarify the antecedent conditions that promote self-determination and to detail the relevance of self-determination to various applied settings. • Concepts related to self-determination have been vigorously researched and discussed in the organizational literature for over a quarter century. Argyris (1957) and McGregor (1960), for example, stressed that organizational contexts providing workers the opportunity to satisfy their higher order needs (Maslow, 1943) promote effective performance poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 4
  5. 5. • In psychology, self-determination is an important concept that refers to the individual's ability to make decisions and to manage his or her life. This ability plays an important role in mental health and well- being. Self-determination allows people to feel empowered to control their choices and their lives. It also contributes to motivation — people feel more motivated to act when they feel that what they are doing will contribute to the outcome. • • The concept of self-determination has been applied to various fields including education, employment, child rearing, exercise, and health. Research suggests that high self-esteem can promote success in many different areas of life. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 5
  6. 6. Review of Literature • 1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE • Edward L Deci, (1989) in this study it seems reasonable to conclude that, with certain limitations, the experience of self-determination, promoted by managers' being autonomy-supportive, has positive ramifications for people's work lives. What remains to be explored, beyond the possible limiting conditions on this effect discussed the extent to which the subordinates themselves contribute to their own experience of self-determination either by uniquely interpreting their manager's orientation as supporting self- determination or by behaving in a way that leads their manager to be more supportive of their self- determination. • E Kevin Kelloway, (2010) it states that organizational leadership is related to, and predictive of, health and safety-relevant outcomes in employees. Moreover, we believe that a small but growing body of literature supports the effectiveness of leadership development as a means of positively influencing these outcomes. Pursuing this suggestion will, we believe, substantially advance our knowledge of not only leadership development but also other areas of occupational health psychology. • William Macey, (2008) in this having engaged employees may be a key to competitive advantage. This will be especially true if we can show how the engagement construct produces effects at levels of analysis of concern to management. As with all good things, the challenge of establishing the conditions for state and behavioural employee engagement will be great. Once again, there seems to be no silver bullet. The beauty of this conclusion is that companies that get these conditions right will have accomplished something that competitors will find very difficult to imitate. It is easy to change price and product; it is another thing to create a state and behaviourally engaged. 6
  7. 7. • Ryan W. Quinn, (2005) in this theory of coordination as energy-in-conversation reveals how energy is a text affecting coordination according to people’s interpretations, that coordination is an affective process with dynamic contours that are consequential for creating and maintaining organizational arrangements, and that narratives and speech acts affect both the effort and direction of sub-sequent actions. These contributions can be used to re narrate the way in which organizational scholars study coordination. We hope that those of us who tell the story of the future of research on coordination do so with energy, zest, vitality, and enthusiasm. • David Markland, (2008) it states that the positive contribution of social engagement motive to intrinsic regulation is consistent with the notion that social engagement fulfils needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. However, whereas the effect of identified regulation on participation was positive, the effect of intrinsic regulation was neutral. Some other studies have also found identified regulation, more than intrinsic regulation, to predict exercise participation. • Maarten Vansteenkiste, (2007) in this study specifically, if materialistic work values occupy a more important place in employees’ entire work value configuration, they experience more negative job outcomes, less positive job outcomes, and they are more likely to intend to leave their jobs. This is because the pursuit of extrinsic, relative to intrinsic, values is less likely to be associated with the satisfaction of employees’ basic needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Hence, in order to facilitate employees’ job well-being, managers and organizational cultures might do well to promote an intrinsic mind-set, while simultaneously decreasing the importance of extrinsic work values. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 7
  8. 8. • Gretchen M. Spreitzer, (2005) it states important implications for employee health and development. We have developed a socially embedded model of thriving that shows how unit contextual features and resources created in the doing of work cultivate a set of agentic working behaviours. These behaviours bolster the creation of different kinds of resources that further promote agentic working behaviours. The notion that unit contextual features, deontic behaviours, and resources produced in the doing of work jointly enable individuals to thrive enhances our understanding of how social contexts and human agency interact to promote positive functioning at work. • Wilmar B Schaufeli, (2006) in this theory it states that the introduction of this short questionnaire to measure engagement, which seems to have encouraged psychometric features, stimulates further research on positive organizational psychology. • Luc Pelletier, (2004) findings hold some important implications for health professionals concerned with understanding why some people may be more successful than others at regulating their eating behaviours. One possible way of addressing this issue would be to inquire about the different reasons as to why people regulate their eating behaviours. Results of the present studies suggest that it is important to distinguish between autonomous and controlled motives, given the different associations that these two global categories of motives present with eating behaviours. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 8
  9. 9. • Gerard I.J.M Zwetsloot, (2010) the organizations had many data sources available that could potentially be of use in identifying and managing health and related business benefits. However, these data sources were fragmented across departments and, sometimes across service providers, and involved a variety of databases that were not always compatible. As a result, these frontrunner kempanes only rarely evaluated the business impact of their health interventions and could only hope to achieve the intended business benefits. • • Marlene Nunes Silva, (2010) demonstrated that the intervention produced measurable improvements in hand outcomes and psychological theory-grounded variables, relative to an appropriate control group; and 'how well does it work?'': moderate to strong effect sizes were observed, favouring the intervention. All participants are now being followed for two additional years to evaluate weight maintenance and other relevant long-term processes and outcomes • Martin E P Seligman, (2001) They developed sophisticated methods both experimental and longitudinal--for understanding the causal pathways that lead to such undesirable outcomes. Most important, they developed pharmacological and psychological interventions that have allowed many untreatable mental disorders to become highly treatable and, in a couple of cases, even curable. These same methods and in many cases the same laboratories and the next generation of scientists, with a slight shift of emphasis and funding, will be used to measure, understand, and build those characteristics that make life most worth living. As a side effect of studying positive human traits, science will learn how to buffer against and better prevent mental, as well as some physical, illnesses. As a main effect, psychologists will learn how to build the qualities that help individuals and communities, not just to endure and survive, but also to flourish. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 9
  10. 10. • Miron Zukerman, (1978) this experiment is consistent with the growing body of literature which suggests that people's motivation is greater when they have more rather than less control over their environment. In the present experiment subjects who were given a modest amount of additional self-control-namely the opportunity to select them. • • Wayne F Cascio, (1972) the findings presented in this paper give further support to the cognitive evaluation theory, there are still many unanswered questions which need to be investigated. It was reported that positive feedback can lead to an increase in intrinsic motivation. However, in one study (Deci, 1972a), one group of female subjects showed a substantial, though not significant, decrease in intrinsic motivation following the experience with verbal reinforcements. It was suggested that the effects of verbal reinforcements might be dependent on the amount or strength of I the verbal reinforcements. • • Carl A Benware, (1984) states that the opportunity to use information to act on one's environment facilitates intrinsic motivation for learning that information and results in improved conceptual learning, relative to learning that is aimed merely at passing an examination. Given that the aim of most educators is to promote conceptual learning, educational climates and procedures that facilitate intrinsically motivated learning would seem to be of central importance. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 10
  11. 11. • Mark Lepper, (1975) It may be objected, of course, that many activities we ask of children in school are of little or no intrinsic interest to the children; that there are many important activities in which children would not engage spontaneously without external pressure or offer of external reward. We agree completely and suggest that in these cases the use of extrinsic rewards is necessary and appropriate. Certainly the "lesson" to be learned from these studies is not that extrinsic rewards should be abandoned, but rather that if one wishes to foster an interest in activities which would manifest itself in situations or at times when extrinsic pressures are absent, one would be well advised to employ the minimal amount of pressure sufficient to elicit or maintain the desired behaviour. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 11
  12. 12. Rationale • 1.3 RATIONALE • Various study has been conducted to find out the relation between vitality at work and its associations with work style and self- determination . So, in this study vitality at work have been taken as independent variable while work style and self-determination has been taken as dependent variable and the relationship has been set up between the three variables. 12
  13. 13. Objectives and Hypothesis • 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To re standardize the questionnaire • To find out the underlying factors of questionnaire • To find out the impact of vitality at work on workstyle • To find out the impact of vitality at work on self-determination • To find the gender difference on each variable • • 1.5 HYPOTHESIS • H1= There is impact of vitality at work on workstyle • H2= There is impact of vitality at work on self-determination • H3= There is significant difference between male and female on vitality, workstyle, self-determination 13
  14. 14. Research Methodology • 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • 2.1 The Study • The study was exploratory in nature where a survey method has been used to collect the data in this research VITALITY AT WORK AND IT’S ASSOCIATIONS WITH WORKSTYLE AND SELF DETERMINATION Were analysed. • 2.2 The Sample Design • 2.2.1 Population- The employees from service sector was considered as the population for the study. • 2.2.2 Sample Size- Sample size is 308 • 2.2.3 Sample Elements- The individual employees from service sector were considered as the population as sample elements. 14
  15. 15. • 2.2.4 Sampling Technique- Nonprobability purposive sampling techniques was used to select the sample. • 2.2.5 Tools to Be Used for Data Collection • • Data was collected with the help of Standardize questionnaires. • 2.2.6 Tools to Be Used for Data Analysis • • Reliability Test- To know the reliability of questionnaires. • Factor Analysis- To know the factors that emerge during study. • Independent Sample T-Test- To know the difference between both the genders. • Regression Test- Linear regression was applied to find the impact of independent variable on dependent variable and multiple regression was used to find the impact of all independent variables on dependent variables. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 15
  16. 16. RESULT AND DISCUSSION • 3.1 Reliability Test • Cronbach’s Alpha reliability methods are applied to calculate the reliability of the given items in the questionnaire. The test was conducted using SPSS software and the obtained reliability can be seen in the table given below: • It can be seen from the above table that all the Alpha values are more significant than 0.7, hence all the statements in the questionnaire are reliable. • The value of Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.756 for 3 items of self determination. Whereas the value of Alpha was 0.717 for 5 items of work style, Whereas the value of alpha was 0.757 for 7 items of vitality • poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 16
  17. 17. Self determination 0.756 3 Work Style 0.717 5 Vitality 0.757 7 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 17 Table: Alpha reliability test for total data. Name of Variables Cronbach’s Alpha No. of Items
  18. 18. • 3.2. Factor Analysis • KMO(Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy) and Barlett’s test of sphericity was used to ascertain if the data is appropriate for the factor analysis. • The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of sampling Adequacy Value was 0.694 indicating that the sample was adequate to consider the data as normally distributed. The Barlett’s Test for Sphericity was tested through Chi-Square value 221.57 which was significant at 0.000 indicating that the data has low sphericity and is, therefore, suitable for factor analysis. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 18
  19. 19. KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .694 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 221.576 Df 3 Sig. .000 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 19
  20. 20. FACTOR NAME EIGEN VALU E % OF VARIANCE EXPLAINE D ITEM ITEM LOADING Self determinat ion 2.020 67.336 Autonomy .673 Competence 0.692 Relatedness 0.655 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 20
  21. 21. • 3.2.2FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR WORK STYLE • KMO(Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was used to ascertain if the data is appropriate for the factor analysis. • The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of sampling Adequacy Value was 0.757 indicating that the sample was adequate to consider the data as normally distributed. The Bartlett’s Test for Sphericity was tested through Chi-Square value 373.38 which was significant at 0.000 indicating that the data has low sphericity and is, therefore, suitable for factor analysis. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 21
  22. 22. KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .757 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 373.382 Df 10 Sig. .000 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 22
  23. 23. FACTOR NAME EIGENVALU E % OF VARIANCE EXPLAINED ITEM ITEM LOADING Work style 2.479 49.576 Balanced work style 0.537 Competitive 0.601 Loyal 0.739 Focused 0.620 B 1.000 20.005 Visually oriented 0.981 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 23
  24. 24. • 3.2.3FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR VITALITY • KMO(Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was used to ascertain if the data is appropriate for the factor analysis. • poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 24 KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .854 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 382.505 Df 21 Sig. .000
  25. 25. FACTOR NAME EIGENVALUE % OF VARIANCE EXPLAINED ITEM ITEM LOADING vitality 2.874 41.058 i feel that my work is vital 0.255 i am ready to put my physical energy to work 0.304 i am ready to put my mental energy to work 0.466 i wait for the next day to work 0.391 i am alert and ready to work 0.496 i feel active when working 0.469 i am physically energetic and mentally ready to work 0.493 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 25
  26. 26. • 3.3 INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TEST • • 3.3.1 IMPACT OF GENDER ON SELF DETERMINATION • From the the table given below it can be concluded that there is no significant impact of gender on work stress as the value of Levene’s test for Equality of Variance is 0.28 which is more than 0.05. In this f value is 4.859 and sig is 0.028 so f value is greater then 0.05 so we take lower value of t -1.289. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 26
  27. 27. Group Statistics Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean SD 1.00 178 12.1292 2.60598 .19533 2.00 130 12.4462 1.70299 .14936 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 27
  28. 28. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 28 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2- tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper SD Equal variances assumed 4.859 .028 -1.210 306 .227 -.31694 .26184 -.83217 .19829 Equal variances not assumed -1.289 302.569 .198 -.31694 .24589 -.80081 .16693 WS Equal variances assumed .001 .979 -.254 306 .799 -.08366 .32910 -.73124 .56392 Equal variances not assumed -.253 275.051 .800 -.08366 .33008 -.73347 .56614 Vitality Equal variances assumed .729 .394 -.484 306 .629 -.24166 .49914 -1.22383 .74051 Equal variances not assumed -.487 283.325 .627 -.24166 .49649 -1.21894 .73562
  29. 29. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 29 • 3.3.2 IMPACT OF GENDER ON WORK STYLE • It can be concluded from the table given below that there is no significant impact of gender on work ability as the value from Levene’s test for Equality of Variance is more than 0.05. . In this f value is 0.001 and sig is 0.979 so f value is greater then 0.05 so we take upper value of t -0.254. •
  30. 30. Group Statistics Gender N Mean Std. Deviatio n Std. Error Mean WS 1.00 178 20.8933 2.82940 .21207 2.00 130 20.9769 2.88397 .25294 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 30
  31. 31. • 3.3.3 IMPACT OF GENDER ON VITALITY • It can be concluded from the table given below that there is no significant impact of gender on work ability as the value from Levene’s test for Equality of Variance is more than 0.05. . In this f value is 0.729 and sig is 0.394 so f value is greater then 0.05 so we take upper value of t -0.494. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 31
  32. 32. Group Statistics Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Vitality 1.00 178 27.9045 4.38756 .32886 2.00 130 28.1462 4.24102 .37196 poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 32
  33. 33. • 3.4 REGRESSION ANALYSIS • 3.4.1 The Problem • To investigate if self determination has a significant impact on vitality at work • • Hypothesis • H1 There is a significant impact of self determination on vitality at work • The hypothesis tests if self determination carries a significant impact on vitality at work. The dependent variable SD was regressed on predicting value V to test the hypothesis H1. SD significantly predicted V,F(1,306)=33.897,p<0.5, which indicates that the v can play a significant role in shaping SD(b=.316,p<0.5). these results clearly direct the positive effect of the v. moreover the R2=.100 depicts that the model explains 10% of the variance in SD. Table shows the summary of the findings. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 33
  34. 34. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 34 Note: P<0.05, SD: self determination, V: vitality HYPOTHESIS Regression weights Beta coefficient R2 F P value t value Sig of t Hypothesis supported H1 VSD .316 .100 33.897 .000 9.424 .000 yes
  35. 35. Model Summaryb Mod el R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin- Watson 1 .316a .100 .097 2.15855 .628 a. Predictors: (Constant), Vitality b. Dependent Variable: SD poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 35 ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 157.939 1 157.939 33.897 .000a Residual 1425.759 306 4.659 Total 1583.698 307 a. Predictors: (Constant), Vitality b. Dependent Variable: SD Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardize d Coefficient s t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 7.614 .808 9.424 .000 Vitality .166 .029 .316 5.822 .000 a. Dependent Variable: SD
  36. 36. • 3.4.2 The Problem • To investigate if work style has a significant impact on vitality at work • Hypothesis • H2 There is a significant impact of work style on vitality at work • The hypothesis tests if work style carries a significant impact on vitality at work. The dependent variable Workstyle was regressed on predicting value Vitality to test the hypothesis H2. Workstyle significantly predicted V,F(1,306)=247.730,p<0.5, which indicates that the Vitality can play a significant role in shaping WS(b=.669,p<0.5). these results clearly direct the positive effect of the Vitality. moreover the R2=0.447 depicts that the model explains 10% of the variance in Workstyle. Table shows the summary of the findings. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 36
  37. 37. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 37 HYPOTHESI S Regressio n weights Beta coefficien t R2 F P valu e t value Sig of t Hypothesi s supported H2 VWS .669 .44 7 247.73 0 .000 10.81 1 0.00 0 yes Note: P<0.05, WS: work style, V: vitality
  38. 38. Model Summaryb Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin-Watson 1 .669a .447 .446 2.12074 1.513 a. Predictors: (Constant), Vitality b. Dependent Variable: WS poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 38 ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regressio n 1114.178 1 1114.178 247.73 0 .000a Residual 1376.251 306 4.498 Total 2490.429 307 a. Predictors: (Constant), Vitality b. Dependent Variable: WS Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 8.581 .794 10.811 .000 Vitality .441 .028 .669 15.739 .000 a. Dependent Variable: WS
  39. 39. • CHAPTER 4 • IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 39
  40. 40. • 4.1 Implications of the study • This study is a useful contribution for various organizations to understand the impact of vitality on work style and self determination. • This study will further help to eliminate the factors influencing the work style and self determination age groups of employees. • This study can be greatly used by various management institutions as well as psychological institutions where a similar topic is being researched about. • This study will be of great use to other researchers. • poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 40
  41. 41. • 4.2 Suggestions of the study • This study can be done from a broader perspective. • This study was limited to the Andhra Pradesh region, it can be done from employees working in other regions of the country to get better results. • The study was conducted to study the work stress of employees of service sectors, it can be extended to different sectors like primary and secondary which may include agricultural and manufacturing industries, etc. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 41
  42. 42. • CHAPTER – 5 • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 42
  43. 43. • 5.1 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY • The study has been divided into 5 chapters. The first chapter of this study was the introduction which was divided into 5 sub-parts conceptual frameworks, review of literature, rationale, objective, and hypothesis. In the conceptual framework, all definitions and introductions about the topic were written. In a review of literature, all research related to the study has to be written which has been done previously. Rationale is used to understand the importance and need of the study.. The objectives include all the objects of the research. And the next part was a hypothesis to find out the relation between and impact of all the variables. • The second chapter is a research methodology that includes sample size, and types of sampling techniques that have been adopted. Like this research was exploratory in nature and was include a sample size of 308 individual respondents. Data was collected through a standardized questionnaire to study the effect of vitality at work on self determination and work style. Reliability test, factor analysis, Regression, and T-test were applied to the sample. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 43
  44. 44. • The third chapter is the result and discussion, in this chapter the reliability of the questionnaire through the reliability statics was found. Factor analysis was also applied to the questionnaire to identify the underline factor under each constraint. And to know the effect of vitality at work on self determination and work style Regression Test was applied. • The fourth chapter of the study is implications and suggestions. • The fifth chapter is a summary and conclusion and in the end references and annexure. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 44
  45. 45. • 5.2 CONCLUSION • The objective of the study was to find out the effect vitality at work on self determination and work style. A reliability test was applied to test the reliability of the questionnaire and it was found that the reliability is more than the standard value which is 0.7. • For work style 0.717 and for self determination it was 0.756 and for vitality it was 0.757. Factor analysis was applied to know the underlying factor of individual variables. T-test was used to identify the impact of gender on perceived work style and self determination and vitality and it was seen that there was no significant impact of gender on work stress or working ability of individual respondents. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 45
  46. 46. • In regression The hypothesis tests if self determination carries a significant impact on vitality at work. The dependent variable SD was regressed on predicting value V to test the hypothesis H1. SD significantly predicted V,F(1,306)=33.897,p<0.5, which indicates that the v can play a significant role in shaping SD(b=.316,p<0.5). these results clearly direct the positive effect of the v. moreover the R2=.100 depicts that the model explains 10% of the variance in SD. • The hypothesis tests if work style carries a significant impact on vitality at work. The dependent variable WS was regressed on predicting value V to test the hypothesis H2. WS significantly predicted V,F(1,306)=247.730,p<0.5, which indicates that the V can play a significant role in shaping WS(b=.669,p<0.5). these results clearly direct the positive effect of the V. moreover the R2=.447 depicts that the model explains 44.7% of the variance in WS. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 46
  47. 47. References 47 • Zuckerman, M., Porac J., Lathin I D., Smith, R., & Deci, E. L. (1978). On the importance of self-determination for intrinsically motivated behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 443-446. • • Lepper, M. R. (1976). Effects of externally imposed deadlines on subsequent intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 92-98. • • Zwetsloot GUJM, Van Schapping AR, Dijk man AJ, Heinrich J, Den Beten H. The organizational benefits of investing in workplace health. Int J Workplace Health Manage. 2010:3:143-159. • • Zwetsloot GUM, Van Scheppingen AR. Towards a strategic business case for health management. In: Johanson U, Ahonen G., Roslender R, eds. Work Health and Management Control. Stockholm, Sweden: Thomson Fakta: 2007:183-213. • • Teixeira PJ, Caracca EV, Markland D, Silva MN, Ryan RM. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory, a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012:9:17. • • Verstuyf J, Patrick H, Vansteenkiste M. Teixeira PJ. Motivational dynamics of eating regulation: a self-determination theory perspective. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012:9:21.
  48. 48. • Macey WH, Schneider B. The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2008; 1:3-30. • • Quinn RW, Dutton JE. Coordination as energy-in-conversation. Academy of Management Review 2005;30(1):36-57. • • Spreitzer G, Sutcliffe K, Dutton J, Sonenshein S, Grant AM. A socially embedded model of thriving at work. Organization Science 2005;16(5):537-549. • • Ryan RM, Huta V, Deci EL. Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies 2008;9(1):139-170. • • Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychic 2000;55(1):68-78. • • Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Salanova M. The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement 2006;66(4):701- 716. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 48
  49. 49. • Kelloway EK, Barling J. Leadership development as an intervention in occupational health psychology. Work Stress 2010;24(3):260-279. • • Vansteenkiste M, Neyrinck B, Niemiec CP, Soenens B, De Witte H, Van den Broeck A. On the relations among work value orientations, psychological need satisfaction and job outcomes: A self-determination theory approach. J Occup Organ psyche 2007;80(2):251-277. • • Silva MN, Vieira PN, Coutinho SR, Minderico CS, Matos MG, Sardinha LB, et al. Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: A randomized controlled trial in women. J Behav Med 2010;33(2):110-122. • • Pelletier LG, Dion SC, Slovinec-D'Angelo M, Reid R. Why do you regulate what you eat? Relationships between forms of regulation, eating behaviours, sustained dietary behaviour change, and psychological adjustment. Motive Emotion 2004;28(3):245-277. poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 49
  50. 50. ANNEXURE poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 50
  51. 51. • Questionnaire • 1) Age • 2) Gender 1)male 2) female • 3) I feel that my work is vital • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 4) I am ready to put my physical energy to work • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 5) I am ready to put my mental energy to work • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 6) I wait for the next day to work • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 7) I am alert and ready to work • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 8) I feel active when working • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 9) I am physically energetic and mentally ready to work • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 10)Educational level • 1)primary 2)secondary 3)higher poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 51
  52. 52. • 11)shift work • 1)yes 2)no • 12) kind of work • 1)mainly mental 2)mainly physical • 13)autonomy • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 14)competence • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 15)relatedness • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 16)balanced work style • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 17)competitive • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 18)loyal • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 19)focused • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) • 20)visually oriented • Strongly Agree (1) Agree (2) Neutral(3) Disagree(4) Strongly Disagree(5) poojajain.som@itmuniversity.ac.in 52
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