Making the
grade at C1
ELENA MERINO
Pearson Morning for Teachers at Adult
Learner Centres, Valencia 21st April 2016 1Prese...
How do you send a spaceman’s baby to sleep?
Rocket!
2
What’s the difference between a guitar and a fish?
You can’t tuna fish!
3
What do you call a zoo with only one dog in it?
A Shih Tzu
4
Why the jokes?!
What is necessary to be able to get a joke?
Awareness of double meanings…
Homographs…
Homophones..
(+ Cult...
What does it mean to be a C1?
6
7
Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and
recognise implicit meaning.
Can express him/herself fluently...
Guess who!
8
B2, B2+, C1: IDENTIFY!
9
Can make jokes in writing using
words with similar spelling but
different meanings.
Can contribut...
10
Can make jokes in writing
using words with similar
spelling but different
meanings.
Can contribute fluently and
natural...
11
Can make jokes in writing
using words with similar
spelling but different
meanings. 76
Can contribute fluently and
natu...
The GSE
12
Can-do descriptors. CEFR
expanded upon. Descriptors
developed and graded with
input from teachers.
“I’m a B2. A...
13
14
15
SPEAKING
16
76 Can substitute an
equivalent term for a
word they can’t recall so
smoothly that it isn’t
noticeable.
Can contribute ...
17
79 Can contribute
fluently and naturally
to a conversation
about a complex or
abstract topic.
80 Can participate in
a f...
Fluency: what’s that?
18
Clichés
“You know you’re fluent when you think
in a foreign language”
19
Clichés
“You know you’re fluent when you dream in a
foreign language”
20
Clichés
“You know you’re fluent when apply the
grammar and vocabulary to your own language”
21
Real examples
22
“I’m going to go correcting the
work”
“This school has fantastic
installations”
“I’m going to pass the li...
Real examples
23
“Hay muchos estudiantes que dropean”
“He visto una oferta de trabajo
buenísima. Voy a aplicar”
Generally accepted criteria
24
Generally accepted criteria
Speed of delivery
For English native speakers,
average conversation has 100-
120 words per min...
Generally accepted criteria
26
No undue pauses or hesitation
The average pause when two
English native speakers are
talkin...
Perceived fluency:
Why would somebody think you are fluent?
27
According to research it’s using
language chunks and
intera...
“So, you don’t think it’s a good idea?”
“Well, the thing is, it just looks a bit pricey
to me, you know what I mean?”
Or
“...
Other characteristics of fluent speakers
Fluent speakers repeat and reformulate:
29
A: “Was it good?”
B: “Was it good? Yea...
A C1 candidate
What characteristics of his speech suggest that he is a C1?
30
1:20-2.00
31
Silvain: I really like, em, doing city trips with my brother. We’ve kind
of picked that up in the past, em, so every ye...
Helping our students to become C1 speakers
32
33
34
Idiomatic language,
collocation, fixed
phrases, etc.
Fluency matters
35
What can SS
do to learn
that type of
vocabulary?
Critically
evaluate a
model
36
Analyze its
function
37
Use it!
38
76 Can substitute an
equivalent term for a word
they can’t recall so smoothly
that it isn’t noticeable.
Can contribute ...
39
76 Can substitute an
equivalent term for a word
they can’t recall so smoothly
that it isn’t noticeable.
Taboo: synonyms, rephrasing, time pressure!
40
Into threes. One person turn around!
41
AMNESIA
Forget
Memory
Remember
Head
Bump
42
Follow up
1.What synonyms can students find in the cards?
Jealousy=envy juvenile=young
objective=goal assignment=task
2...
43
LISTENING
Helping our students to become C1 listeners
44
C1 Listening descriptors. Higher or lower?
45
C1 Listening descriptors. Higher or lower?
46
Can follow a fast-
paced conversation
between fluent
speakers well
enough to...
47
Always make predictions about the
content!
• Activate schema
• Generate vocabulary and ideas
• Check your predictions: ...
48
49
Right, well, the key to success is really all in the preparation.
Firstly, make sure you dress comfortably and in an ap...
Why exploit transcripts?
50
Pronunciation Elision, contraction, assimilation and other examples of
connected speech, sente...
51
52
B2: Can
understand
scripted
speech
delivered
quickly, if the
accent is
familiar
C1: a wider range of accents
53
54
55
Jimmy FallonJonathan Ross
Oprah Winfrey Graham Norton
80 Can follow films employing a considerable degree of
slang and ...
56
Yeah we did an advert that started in the UK and it was
during a programme called X Factor that we have and erm
yeah it...
57
Alternative
58
How do you pronounce these words?
Aunt, Roof, Route, Wash, Oil, Theater, Iron, Salmon,
Caramel, Fire, Water, Sure, Data...
59
1.What is it called when you throw toilet paper on a house?
2.What is the bug that when you touch it, it curls into a b...
Let’s wrap it up…
60
How can we keep our students
on track in their quest to reach
the C1 level?
...involve students in the
learning process
…make them responsible for
their own learning
…and understand why they are
lea...
Let’s wrap it up…
ESP: keeping our car on the right track!
ESP: keeping your students on the right track
1. Exposure: vari...
Tests and Beyond l 21/11/1563
Thank you!
Any Doubts?
Contact me!
Mail: elena.merino@pearson.com
Twitter: @merino_helen
Facebook: Elena MJ
Blog: http://e...
Making the grade at C1, by Elena Merino - Valencia, Spain
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Making the grade at C1, by Elena Merino - Valencia, Spain

  1. 1. Making the grade at C1 ELENA MERINO Pearson Morning for Teachers at Adult Learner Centres, Valencia 21st April 2016 1Presentation Title Arial Bold 7 pt
  2. 2. How do you send a spaceman’s baby to sleep? Rocket! 2
  3. 3. What’s the difference between a guitar and a fish? You can’t tuna fish! 3
  4. 4. What do you call a zoo with only one dog in it? A Shih Tzu 4
  5. 5. Why the jokes?! What is necessary to be able to get a joke? Awareness of double meanings… Homographs… Homophones.. (+ Cultural references) 5
  6. 6. What does it mean to be a C1? 6
  7. 7. 7 Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices. (Council of Europe, 2001) C1, according to the CEFR
  8. 8. Guess who! 8
  9. 9. B2, B2+, C1: IDENTIFY! 9 Can make jokes in writing using words with similar spelling but different meanings. Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. Can understand the intended double meaning of a word used in a joke. Can understand correspondence containing idiomatic or non- standard language Can engage in extended conversation in a clearly participatory fashion on most general topics. Can follow a natural group discussion, but may find it difficult to participate effectively. Can understand unscripted speech delivered quickly, if the accent is familiar. Can write a formal email/letter of invitation with appropriate register and conventions. Can understand complex, detailed correspondence, with occasional support from a dictionary. Can understand when something is being said ironically in a casual conversation. Can make a clear strong argument during a formal discussion. Can systematically develop an argument giving the reasons for or against a point of view.
  10. 10. 10 Can make jokes in writing using words with similar spelling but different meanings. Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. Can understand the intended double meaning of a word used in a joke. Can understand correspondence containing idiomatic or non-standard language Can engage in extended conversation in a clearly participatory fashion on most general topics. Can follow a natural group discussion, but may find it difficult to participate effectively. Can understand unscripted speech delivered quickly, if the accent is familiar. Can write a formal email/letter of invitation with appropriate register and conventions. Can understand complex, detailed correspondence, with occasional support from a dictionary. Can understand when something is being said ironically in a casual conversation. Can make a clear strong argument during a formal discussion. Can systematically develop an argument giving the reasons for or against a point of view. B2+ C1 B2
  11. 11. 11 Can make jokes in writing using words with similar spelling but different meanings. 76 Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. 79 Can understand the intended double meaning of a word used in a joke. 78 Can understand correspondence containing idiomatic or non-standard language. 76 Can engage in extended conversation in a clearly participatory fashion on most general topics. 61 Can follow a natural group discussion, but may find it difficult to participate effectively. 62 Can understand unscripted speech delivered quickly, if the accent is familiar. 64 Can write a formal email/letter of invitation with appropriate register and conventions. 60 Can understand complex, detailed correspondence, with occasional support from a dictionary. 70 Can understand when something is being said ironically in a casual conversation. 71 Can make a clear strong argument during a formal discussion. 74 Can systematically develop an argument giving the reasons for or against a point of view. 67 B2+ C1B2
  12. 12. The GSE 12 Can-do descriptors. CEFR expanded upon. Descriptors developed and graded with input from teachers. “I’m a B2. Again.” More granular definition of lanuage proficiency. Students are more motivated when they see progression.
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 SPEAKING
  16. 16. 16 76 Can substitute an equivalent term for a word they can’t recall so smoothly that it isn’t noticeable. Can contribute to group discussions even when speech is fast and colloquial. Can answer questions about abstract topics clearly and in detail. What does Speaking at C1 mean? (GSE) 77 Can rephrase controversial statements into more neutral language. 78 Can summarise clearly and precisely the arguments and event descriptions from a complex text. 79 Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. 80 Can participate in a fast-paced conversation with fluent speakers. 81 Can join a conversation already in progress between fluent speakers on complex topics.
  17. 17. 17 79 Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. 80 Can participate in a fast-paced conversation with fluent speakers. 81 Can join a conversation already in progress between fluent speakers on complex topics.
  18. 18. Fluency: what’s that? 18
  19. 19. Clichés “You know you’re fluent when you think in a foreign language” 19
  20. 20. Clichés “You know you’re fluent when you dream in a foreign language” 20
  21. 21. Clichés “You know you’re fluent when apply the grammar and vocabulary to your own language” 21
  22. 22. Real examples 22 “I’m going to go correcting the work” “This school has fantastic installations” “I’m going to pass the list”
  23. 23. Real examples 23 “Hay muchos estudiantes que dropean” “He visto una oferta de trabajo buenísima. Voy a aplicar”
  24. 24. Generally accepted criteria 24
  25. 25. Generally accepted criteria Speed of delivery For English native speakers, average conversation has 100- 120 words per minute 25 BUT. It’s not all about speed. What about this talk?
  26. 26. Generally accepted criteria 26 No undue pauses or hesitation The average pause when two English native speakers are talking is 0.6 seconds
  27. 27. Perceived fluency: Why would somebody think you are fluent? 27 According to research it’s using language chunks and interactive words appropriately, accurately and automatically. Language chunks should be said quickly for the speaker to appear fluent. These words are important to react to what the other person has said.
  28. 28. “So, you don’t think it’s a good idea?” “Well, the thing is, it just looks a bit pricey to me, you know what I mean?” Or “No, it looks expensive to me.” 28 Basically, we’re gonna go skiing, rock climbing, hiking, things like that.
  29. 29. Other characteristics of fluent speakers Fluent speakers repeat and reformulate: 29 A: “Was it good?” B: “Was it good? Yeah, amazing!” NB. Don’t go overboard!
  30. 30. A C1 candidate What characteristics of his speech suggest that he is a C1? 30 1:20-2.00
  31. 31. 31 Silvain: I really like, em, doing city trips with my brother. We’ve kind of picked that up in the past, em, so every year, em, we go and visit one city in Europe together, just for a weekend, for example, but it’s always a really good experience. Examiner: Is there anything you dislike about travelling? Silvain: Well, not really no, I really like travelling actually, I really enjoy it. Sometimes maybe, em, it’s difficult to find your way, and if you’re in a, in another place you don’t know, it might be difficult to get around but … Actually I really like travelling, to be honest. Chunks, interactive words Phrasal verbs, fixed phrases
  32. 32. Helping our students to become C1 speakers 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34 Idiomatic language, collocation, fixed phrases, etc. Fluency matters
  35. 35. 35 What can SS do to learn that type of vocabulary? Critically evaluate a model
  36. 36. 36 Analyze its function
  37. 37. 37 Use it!
  38. 38. 38 76 Can substitute an equivalent term for a word they can’t recall so smoothly that it isn’t noticeable. Can contribute to group discussions even when speech is fast and colloquial. Can answer questions about abstract topics clearly and in detail. What does Speaking at C1 mean? (GSE) 77 Can rephrase controversial statements into more neutral language. 78 Can summarise clearly and precisely the arguments and event descriptions from a complex text. 79 Can contribute fluently and naturally to a conversation about a complex or abstract topic. 80 Can participate in a fast-paced conversation with fluent speakers. 81 Can join a conversation already in progress between fluent speakers on complex topics.
  39. 39. 39 76 Can substitute an equivalent term for a word they can’t recall so smoothly that it isn’t noticeable.
  40. 40. Taboo: synonyms, rephrasing, time pressure! 40
  41. 41. Into threes. One person turn around! 41 AMNESIA Forget Memory Remember Head Bump
  42. 42. 42 Follow up 1.What synonyms can students find in the cards? Jealousy=envy juvenile=young objective=goal assignment=task 2.Can they come up with synonyms for the other words? Remember = recall, jail = prison, delinquent = criminal
  43. 43. 43 LISTENING
  44. 44. Helping our students to become C1 listeners 44
  45. 45. C1 Listening descriptors. Higher or lower? 45
  46. 46. C1 Listening descriptors. Higher or lower? 46 Can follow a fast- paced conversation between fluent speakers well enough to be able to contribute. 76 Can recognise coherence devices and follow complex arguments on unfamiliar topics. 77 Can understand the intended double meaning of a word used in a joke. 78 Can follow presentations on abstract and complex topics outside their field of interest. 79 Can follow films employing a considerable degree of slang and idiomatic usage. 80 Can recognise a wide range of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, appreciating register shifts. 83
  47. 47. 47 Always make predictions about the content! • Activate schema • Generate vocabulary and ideas • Check your predictions: a reason to read/listen
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. 49 Right, well, the key to success is really all in the preparation. Firstly, make sure you dress comfortably and in an appropriate style for the job you’re applying for – so nothing too trendy if you’re going for a banking job, and a conservative suit probably won’t help your cause if you’re after a job as a cutting-edge fashion designer. And obviously remember to prepare everything you’ll need to take the night before. Apart from your personal possessions, you’ll probably need a map, your CV, photocopies of certificates, that sort of thing. Go out and buy yourself a folder to put them in. It’s not too impressive when interviewees are fumbling around dropping paper all over the floor. Another important point is to go online and work out how you’re going to get to the interview so that you arrive in good time with no last-minute panics. Allow a safety margin for hold-ups and, if at all feasible, do a practice run first. Being late is a definite no-no. Related to that of course, doing research about the company will definitely pay off. If you do this, you’ll be able to ask one or two intelligent questions of your own. Finally, prepare yourself psychologically. Visualising success in advance helps. Everyone is nervous; it’s about controlling the butterflies in the stomach and the dry mouth. Take deep breaths and remain calm.
  50. 50. Why exploit transcripts? 50 Pronunciation Elision, contraction, assimilation and other examples of connected speech, sentence stress, intonation Speed Where and when speakers speed up and slow down Vocabulary Students relate the written form to the sound in connected speech Features of good listeners Backchanelling (mmm, I see, etc), paraphrasing, asking follow-up questions Features exclusive to speaking Fillers, false starts, hesitations, repair strategies Discourse markers Signals for speech functions such as changing the subject, softening an opinión, returning to the main point, etc Graphonic relationships between words Words that are related in spelling and meaning but differ greatly in sound (syllable shifts, silent letters etc). E.g. sign and signal, nation and nationality, know and knowledge Credit: JJ Wilson ‘How to teach listening’
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52 B2: Can understand scripted speech delivered quickly, if the accent is familiar C1: a wider range of accents
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55 Jimmy FallonJonathan Ross Oprah Winfrey Graham Norton 80 Can follow films employing a considerable degree of slang and idiomatic usage 83 Can recognise a wide range of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, appreciating register shifts
  56. 56. 56 Yeah we did an advert that started in the UK and it was during a programme called X Factor that we have and erm yeah it just came on. And it was just like a black screen with white writing just with the lyrics of a bit of the first verse of Hello and then it ended with three dots as in to be continued and erm I mean I was watching it, I like X Factor, so we were watching it and I just like shit myself, like absolutely lost the plot when it came on and I got really excited as if it wasn’t me as well and then afterwards I’m very new to like being on social media and afterwards I was like tried to check twitter but I didn’t have a twitter account, so I just saw what was on there if you’re not on there.
  57. 57. 57 Alternative
  58. 58. 58 How do you pronounce these words? Aunt, Roof, Route, Wash, Oil, Theater, Iron, Salmon, Caramel, Fire, Water, Sure, Data, Ruin, Crayon, New Orleans, Pecan, Both, Again, Probably, Spitting image, Alabama, Lawyer, Coupon, Mayonnaise, Syrup, Pajamas, Caught, Naturally, Aluminium, Envelope
  59. 59. 59 1.What is it called when you throw toilet paper on a house? 2.What is the bug that when you touch it, it curls into a ball? 3.What is the bubbly carbonated drink called? 4.What do you call gym shoes? 5.What do you say to address a group of people? 6.What do you call the kind of spider (or spider-like creature) that has an oval-shaped body and extremely long legs? 7.What do you call your grandparents? 8.What do you call the wheeled contraption in which you carry groceries at the supermarket? 9.What do you call it when rain falls while the sun is shining? 10.What is the thing you change the TV channel with?
  60. 60. Let’s wrap it up… 60 How can we keep our students on track in their quest to reach the C1 level?
  61. 61. ...involve students in the learning process …make them responsible for their own learning …and understand why they are learning what they are learning 61 Let’s wrap it up…
  62. 62. Let’s wrap it up… ESP: keeping our car on the right track! ESP: keeping your students on the right track 1. Exposure: variety! Genres, registers, accents 2. Strategies: chunks, discourse markers, synonyms, paraphrasing 3. Practice! 62
  63. 63. Tests and Beyond l 21/11/1563
  64. 64. Thank you! Any Doubts? Contact me! Mail: elena.merino@pearson.com Twitter: @merino_helen Facebook: Elena MJ Blog: http://eltlearningjourneys.com/

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