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Matter

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Lesson plan abot Matter with explanations and activities. Level: 3º ESO (CLIL).

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Matter

  1. 1. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química MATTER Subject Physics and Chemistry Course/Level 3º ESO Primary Learning Objective Students will acquire a knowledge of what scientific “matter” is and how scientists study matter in scientific inquiry to understand our world and the universe. Subject Content 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing States. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles’s law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating Mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. Language Content / Communication Vocabulary Density, states, phase, kinetic, molecular, mixture, solution, alloy, heterogeneous, homogeneous, fusion, melting, boiling, evaporation, freezing, sublimation, condensation, graduated cylinder, meniscus, solubility, etc. Structures Routines: Are gases, like the gases in air, matter? How do you know that the air is taking up space? Why do the states of matter have the properties that they have? How would you measure the volume of an apple? Contents: Conditionals, present, future, comparatives. Classroom management: Take out your notebook/recorder/pen, write down the following sentence, right! / you're right, well done! / very well! / good job , etc. Discourse type Exposition, description, argument. Language skills Writing, reading, speaking and listening Activities The presentation includes different activities with an explanation in order to the students answer a question or solve a problem, make observations and collect data, and draw a conclusion as to the answer to the question or problem. LESSON PLAN
  2. 2. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química METHODOLOGY Organization and class distribution / timing The number of sessions considered to develop the contents on this unit are at least 8 sessions of 50 minutes each one (+ 2 week final Project) It’s very important to point out that the methodology will be active and participatory in order to facilitate both individual and group learning. For that, teacher observation is very important during student's work. Key Competences Language proficiency Know, acquire and apply the vocabulary of the subject. Exercising a comprehensive reading of texts related to the topic. Mathematical Competence Be able to mathematically calculate the volume, mass and density of various objects Solve problems based on Charle's law and Boyle's Law. Be able to perform calculations related to solution concentration. Digital competence and treatment of information I use PDI to explain content and implementation of web quest by students. Make the online activities. Social and civic competences Fostering respect between and other values like cooperation, coeducation when they work in groups. Autonomy and personal initiative To be autonomous for individual activities. Evaluation Acquired content knowledge Students will understand what the scientific term “matter” is. Be able to describe properties of all matter and identify the units used to measure volume and mass. Be able to mathematically calculate the volume, mass and density of various objects. Explain how kinetic energy is related to the mass and velocity of a particle. Describe the origins and assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory, and use this model to describe the nature of matter at the molecular level. Students will understand the states of the matter. Describe the energy changes associated with changes of state. Describe various observed relationships between the pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of a gas, including Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lussac’s law, and Avogadro’s law. Be able to perform calculations using these relationships. Classify matter according to its composition. Distinguish among elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures, and hetrerogeneous mixtures. Define and give examples of solvents and solutes. Describe and give examples of chemical solutions. Describe the concept of concentration as it applies to solution and be able to perform calculations related to this. Define the term solubility and describe factors affecting the solubility of a particular solution. Instruments The unit will be evaluated daily with: Individual participation in classroom activities and homework. Works in groups. Notebook. Behaviour. Tests. Glossary. Conceptual maps Final Project.
  3. 3. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  4. 4. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  How do you know that the air is taking up space? 1. WHAT IS MATTER? Initial Evaluation
  5. 5. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  We can see clouds.  Birds and airplanes can glide because of air.  When we blow up a balloon, air fills it. 1. WHAT IS MATTER?
  6. 6. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  How do you know that the air is taking up space?  How do we know that there is air around us?  What is inside the balloon?  What is causing the balloon to expand and hold its shape?  How does this show us that air takes up space? 1. WHAT IS MATTER?
  7. 7. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  The air is the only thing in the balloon which could be giving it its expanded shape. 1. WHAT IS MATTER? Sometimes, students may have difficulty imagining that gases have mass. In that case this video or that one is a good demonstration to show that gas has mass.
  8. 8. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT IS MATTER? Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is all the physical things in the universe. All the stars in the galaxies, the sun and planets in our solar system, the Earth, and everything on it and in it are matter. All human-made objects, all organisms, the gases in the atmosphere, and anything else that has mass and takes up space, including you, are examples of matter.
  9. 9. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  10. 10. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Physical Properties (A physical property is one that is displayed without any change in composition) Alkali metals react with water Paper's ability to burn. Chemical Properties (Any characteristic that gives a sample of matter the ability/inability to undergo a change that alters its composition) Intensive properties A physical property that will be the same regardless of the amount of matter Extensive properties A physical property that will change if the amount of matter changes The properties of matter refer to the qualities that distinguish one sample of matter from another. They are generally grouped into two categories like like like Density Color Conductivity Malleability Luster Mass Volume Length
  11. 11. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  12. 12. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.1 MASS REMEMBER! Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space Mass Is the measure of how much matter an object contains. The more matter an object contains, the more mass it will have. The mass of the body is the inherent property of the body. Actually mass is the quantity of the matter contained in the body. Mass of a body is a scalar quantity and its S.I. unit is kilogram. Mass of the body is the measurement of the inertia of the body. The mass of the body remains constant in whole the space. The mass cannot change as we measure it on the earth or on the moon or on any other planet and any other space. Here, we discuss how to measure mass of a body.
  13. 13. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.1 MASS Analytical Balance The another type of the balance used to measure the mass is analytical balance. The analytical balance is used due to its very high accuracy. It is kept inside a glass container to avoid it from dust and the air. So, that the reading is highly accurate. What Instrument is used to measure mass? Beam Balance or Physical Balance The physical balance or called as the beam balance was the first instrument which is used to measure the solid mass. It contains a pivoted horizontal lever having the same lengths of the arms. This is called as beam. It has two pans in which the standard weights and the solid substance is to be placed. The unknown mass is placed in the right pan and the standard pans are placed in the left pan, generally. We want to balance the beam so that the beam is completely horizontal. Now calculate the total mass of the standard weights and find out the mass of the unknown substance.
  14. 14. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  15. 15. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME REMEMBER! Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space Volume Is the amount of space an object takes up (the space an object occupies). Larger objects occupy larger spaces and therefore have larger volumes. It is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is the cubic metre (m3) The unit for the volume of object can also be derived from any other unit for length such as the cubic centimetre, cubic kilometre, etc.
  16. 16. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME How to determine the volume? The method to determine the volume depends on the nature. VOLUME OF LIQUIDS In science there are several devices used for dispensing measured volumes of liquid substances and solutions like graduated cylinders, pipette, burette and so on.
  17. 17. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME Graduated cylinders are used to measure liquid volume because it is the instrument with the greatest accuracy. Liquids do not sit level in a container. Because of this, the surface of a liquid in any container is curved. This curve at the surface of a liquid is called a meniscus. Volume must be measured from the lowest point of the meniscus, as the following figure shows. Because the meniscus only curves slightly, water’s meniscus looks flat in a large-mouthed container. To find the volume of the object in the graduated cylinder you must take the reading at eye level as shown in the picture. In the example below the marking lines each represent 1ml.
  18. 18. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME VOLUME OF SOLIDS The volume of solids is expressed in cubic measurements, such as cubic centimeter or cubic meter. It depends on the shape. REGULAR SOLIDS The volume of solids is expressed in cubic measurements, such as cubic centimeter or cubic meter. The volume of regular objects is determined by measuring the dimensions of the object and finally using an equation. The following are different regular objects and the equations used.
  19. 19. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME IRREGULAR SOLIDS We can use water displacement to measure the volume (space) of solid objects if we don’t have a formula, or if we don’t know or remember the formula. In the example, the water level rose from 19ml to 29ml when the chalk stick was placed in the graduated cylinder this shows the chalk stick displaced 10ml of water so the objects volume is 10ml. This number was found by subtracting the starting volume of water (19ml) from the final volume reading (29ml). Now it is your turn to find the volume of the example with the ring.
  20. 20. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.2. VOLUME Activities Activity 2.2.1: Video about matter Activity 2.2.2: Video about volume and mass comparison Activity 2.2.3: Video about properties of matter Activity 2.2.4: Lab activities about volume
  21. 21. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  22. 22. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.3. DENSITY  What is density?
  23. 23. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.3. DENSITY  What is density? To develop a meaning of density, you will experiment with objects that have the same volume but different mass and other objects that have the same mass but different volume to develop a meaning of density. You also will experiment with density in the context of sinking and floating and look at substances on the molecular level to discover why one substance is more or less dense than another. However, before that, you need to know some key concepts about density.
  24. 24. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.3. DENSITY - Density is a characteristic property of a substance. - The density of a substance is the relationship between the mass of the substance and how much space it takes up (volume). - The mass of atoms, their size, and how they are arranged determine the density of a substance. - Density equals the mass of the substance divided by its volume; D = m/v. - Objects with the same volume but different mass have different densities. MASS VOLUME
  25. 25. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2.3. DENSITY Activity 2.3.1: Video Seven layer density Try to do at home. Good luck and Challenge Students have to design an experiment to show that cubes of the same volume but made of different metals have different masses fallowing the scientific method. (clue)
  26. 26. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  27. 27. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  Can you explain what is happening in this video? 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT)
  28. 28. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  Can you explain what is happening in this video? 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT)
  29. 29. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química  Can you explain what is happening in this video? The glass on the left has cold water in it, while the glass on the right has warm water. When the dye is put in both glasses, the blue dye in the warm water mixes much quicker that than the red dye on the right. This is because, agreeing with Kinetic Theory of Matter, the molecules in the warm water are moving much quicker than the molecules in the cold water. Thus, the dye mixes much quicker in the warm water. 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT)
  30. 30. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT) Some of the observations and assumptions we just made about particle behavior at the molecular level were proposed in independent works by August Kroning (1856) and Rudolf Clausius’s 1857 work titled "the theory of moving molecules." This work became the foundation of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases. The kinetic-molecular theory of gases makes the following assumptions:
  31. 31. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT) 1.Gases consist of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). 2.These particles are so small, compared with the distances between them, that the volume (size) of the individual particles can be assumed to be negligible (zero). 3. The particles are in constant random motion, colliding with the walls of the container. These collisions with the walls cause the pressure exerted by the gas. 4. The particles are assumed not to attract or to repel each other. 5. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. The kinetic-molecular theory of gases makes the following assumptions:
  32. 32. 2. …are in constant, straight-line motion 3. …experience elastic collisions in which no energy is lost 4. …have no attractive or repulsive forces toward each other 5. …have an average kinetic energy (KE) that is proportional to the temperature of gas MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.1. KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT) The kinetic-molecular theory of gases:  explains why gases behave as they do  deals w/“ideal” gas particles… 1. …are so small that they are assumed to have zero volume AS TEMP KE
  33. 33. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  34. 34. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) is a model used to explain the behavior of matter. How KMT can be used to explain the properties of liquids and solids and gases: Solids, liquids and gases  How many states of matter you know?
  35. 35. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) is a model used to explain the behavior of matter. How KMT can be used to explain the properties of liquids and solids and gases: Solids, liquids and gases  How many states of matter you know? Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) are different states that have different physical properties. Each of these states is also known as a phase.
  36. 36. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES PLASMAS BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES (BEC)
  37. 37. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, PLASMAS, and BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES (BEC) are different states that have different physical properties. Each of these states is also known as a phase. Activity 5.1.1: There are more than three states of matter...many more
  38. 38. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES SOLIDS In a solid, the atoms are very attracted to one another. Because of this strong attraction, the atoms are held tightly together. The attractions are strong enough that the atoms can only vibrate where they are. They cannot move past one another. This is why a solid keeps its shape. Solids can be hard like a rock, soft like fur, big like an asteroid, or small like grains of sand. The key is that solids hold their shape and they don't flow like a liquid. A rock will always look like a rock unless something happens to it. The same goes for a diamond. Solids can hold their shape because their molecules are tightly packed together.
  39. 39. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES LIQUIDS In a liquid, the molecules are also in motion. The attractions between the molecules in liquids are strong enough to keep the molecules close to each other but not in fixed positions. Although the molecules stay very near one another, the attractions allow the molecules of a liquid to move past one another. This is why a liquid can easily change its shape. Examples of liquids at room temperature include water (H2O), blood, and even honey. If you have different types of molecules dissolved in a liquid, it is called a solution. Honey is a solution of sugar, water, and other molecules. Liquids fill the shape of any container they are in. If you pour water in a cup, it will fill up the bottom of the cup first and then fill the rest. If you freeze that cup of water, the ice will be in the shape of the cup. Another trait of liquids is that they are difficult to compress.
  40. 40. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES GASES Gases are everywhere. You may have heard about the atmosphere. The atmosphere is an envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth. In a gas, the molecules are also moving. The attractions between the molecules of a gas are too weak to bring the molecules together. This is why gas molecules barely interact with one another and are very far apart compared to the molecules of liquids and solids. A gas will spread out evenly to fill any container. When compared to solids or liquids, those spread out gaseous systems can be compressed with very little effort. Scientists and engineers use that physical trait all of the time.
  41. 41. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES PLASMAS Plasmas are a lot like gases, but the atoms are different, because they are made up of free electrons and ions of an element such as neon (Ne). You don't find naturally occurring plasmas too often when you walk around. They aren't things that happen regularly on Earth. Plasma can be made from a gas if a lot of energy is pushed into the gas. In the case of neon, it is electrical energy that pulls the electrons off. On Earth, plasmas are commonly found in some kinds of fluorescent lights and neon signs. Another form of plasma on Earth happens during storms as lightning. Auroras are another form of plasma, where atoms in the upper atmosphere are affected by particles coming in from outer space. The most common form of plasma is in the stars – our Sun exists in the plasma state. Overall, plasmas are the most common state of matter – they make up 99% of the visible universe. Activity 3.2.2: Video about plasma
  42. 42. BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES (BEC) MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES To understand a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), you must first know a bit about temperature. There is a temperature at which molecular motion (therefore everything) stops, this is called absolute zero (0K or around -273°C). Just a fraction above this temperature – and only for some elements – a BEC occurs. The atoms start behaving like little waves and start overlapping one another until they eventually act like one wave and essentially become a super atom. They are not bonded or mixed – they have become indistinguishable from one another, having the same qualities and existing in the same place. Activity 3.2.3: Video about Bose-Einstein Condensate
  43. 43. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES Activity 3.2.4: small research project Science is the daughter of experience, so scientists are really only people who observe experiences and try to explain the results. In order to simplify the explanations they invent models, which help us to understand how our world works. Answer these questions: Do we act like scientists in our daily lives? Do people know about the structure of matter? You must: 1. Develop a questionnaire to find out what your family, friends (not your classmates) and teachers (not your science teachers) know about matter. 2. You must translate these questions into Spanish if your interviewee doesn’t understand English. 3. Present the results of your research.
  44. 44. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.2. STATES Name Relationship Question Answer How many states of matter you know? What are their properties? Why do the states of matter have the properties that they have? Three changes of state Name Relationship Question Answer How many states of matter you know? What are their properties? Why do the states of matter have the properties that they have? Three changes of state Name Relationship Question Answer How many states of matter you know? What are their properties? Why do the states of matter have the properties that they have? Three changes of state QUESTIONNAIRE
  45. 45. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  46. 46. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.3. CHANGING STATES It is important to understand that matter exists in all states and that matter can also change states. It does this by either using or releasing energy, and it is usually associated with changes in temperature and pressure.
  47. 47.  Do you know the differences between boiling and evaporation? MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.3. CHANGING STATES
  48. 48. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.3. CHANGING STATES  Do you know the differences between boiling and evaporation?
  49. 49. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.3. CHANGING STATES A simple example is water. If you have a block of ice, you have solid water. Add heat (a form of energy) and the ice melts into liquid water that you could drink (it has reached its melting point). Continue to apply heat, and the water will evaporate and turn into steam, which is water in a gaseous state (it has reached boiling point). HEATING CURVE OF WATER
  50. 50. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 3.3. CHANGING STATES In plasma TVs, little pockets of gas are excited with electricity disrupting the normal balance of atoms so there are lots of free ions and electrons, turning them into plasma, which creates a light. Plasma can be made from a gas if a lot of energy is pushed into the gas. In the case of neon, it is electrical energy that pulls the electrons off. When it is time to become a gas again, just flip the neon light switch off. Without the electricity to energize the atoms, the neon plasma returns to its gaseous state. Gas can also change to a plasma and vive-versa:
  51. 51. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  52. 52. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. GAS LAWS One of the most amazing things about gases is that, despite wide differences in chemical properties, all the gases more or less obey the gas laws. Gas laws deal with how gases behave with respect to pressure, volume, temperature, and amount. Gas properties can be modeled using math. Model depends on: V = volume of the gas (liters, L) T = temperature (Kelvin, K) P = pressure (atmospheres, atm) n = amount (moles, mol)
  53. 53. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. GAS LAWS Pressure - Temperature - Volume Relationship Gay-Lussac’s P Ta Charles V Ta Boyle’s P 1 Va___
  54. 54. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4.1. BOYLE’S LAW Pressure - Volume Relationship Boyle's law or the pressure-volume law states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure when the temperature and mass are constant. (V is proportional to the inverse of P) Another way to describing it is saying that their products are constant. PV = Cte When pressure goes up, volume goes down. When volume goes up, pressure goes down. From the equation above, this can be derived: P1V1 = P2V2 = P3V3 etc. P 1 Va ___ Activity 4.1.1: Boyle's Law
  55. 55. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4.2. CHARLES LAW Activity 4.2.1: Charles Law Temperature - Volume Relationship This law states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant pressure is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. (V is proportional to T) Same as before, a constant can be put in: V / T = Cte As the volume goes up, the temperature also goes up, and vice-versa. Also same as before, initial and final volumes and temperatures under constant pressure can be calculated. V1 /T1 = V2 /T2 = V3 /T3 etc. V Ta
  56. 56. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4.3. GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW Activity 4.3.1: Gay-Lussac's Law Pressure - Temperature Relationship This law states that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. (P is proportional to T) Same as before, a constant can be put in: P / T = Cte As the pressure goes up, the temperature also goes up, and vice-versa. Also same as before, initial and final volumes and temperatures under constant pressure can be calculated. P1 /T1 = P2 /T2 = P3 /T3 etc. V Ta
  57. 57. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4.4. AVOGRADO’S LAW Activity 4.3.1: Avogadro's Law Volume - Amount Relationship Gives the relationship between volume and amount when pressure and temperature are held constant. Amount is measured in moles. Also, since volume is one of the variables, that means the container holding the gas is flexible in some way and can expand or contract. If the amount of gas in a container is increased, the volume increases. If the amount of gas in a container is decreased, the volume decreases. (V is proportional to n) As before, a constant can be put in: V / n = Cte This means that the volume-amount fraction will always be the same value if the pressure and temperature remain constant. V1 /n1 = V2 /n2 = V3 /n3 etc. V na
  58. 58. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 4. GAS LAWS The previous laws all assume that the gas being measured is an ideal gas, a gas that obeys them all exactly. But over a wide range of temperature, pressure, and volume, real gases deviate slightly from ideal. The ideal gas law is: R is a constant called the universal gas constant and is equal to approximately 0.0821 L-atm / mole-K. Activity 4.1: Gas laws exercices
  59. 59. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  60. 60. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Matter can be classified into two categories (cannot be separated into different kinds of matter by physical means such as filtering, heating, or cooling) (contain more than one kind of matter. They are combinations of pure substances) (is a substance made from two or more elements that have reacted chemically with each other. The elements in the compound can NOT be separated by physical means) (we can clearly distinguish the different components. They include colloids, emulsions or suspensions) (we cannot see the different substances that make up a mixture. They include alloys and solutions) (is a substance made from only one type of atom)
  61. 61. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.1. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Activity 5.1.2: Classifying matter quiz Activity 5.1.1: Video about classification of matter Activity 5.1.3: Review and practice on classification of matter Activities Activity 5.1.4: Video about mixture and compounds experiment
  62. 62. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  63. 63. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.2. SEPARATING MIXTURES Mixtures come in many forms and phases. Most of them can be separated, and the kind of separation method depends on the kind of mixture it is. Below are some common separation methods: PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY Activity 5.2.1: Chromatografy experiments
  64. 64. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.2. SEPARATING MIXTURES FILTRATION EVAPORATION
  65. 65. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.2. SEPARATING MIXTURES SIMPLE DISTILLATION FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
  66. 66. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 5.2. SEPARATING MIXTURES MAGNETISM SEPARATING FUNNEL Activity 5.2.2: Separation of the components of a mixture Activity 1.4.2: Let’s go to the lab! Separation of the components of a mixture.
  67. 67. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. What is matter? 2. Properties of matter. 2.1. Mass. 2.2. Volume. 2.3. Density. 3. States of matter. 3.1. Kinetic-molecular theory. 3.2. States. 3.3. Changing states. 4. Gas Laws. 4.1. Boyle’s law. 4.2. Charles law. 4.3. Gay-Lussac’s law. 4.4. Avogadro’s law. 5. How do scientists classify matter? 5.1. Classification of matter. 5.2. Separating mixtures. 6. Solutions. 6.1. Solution concentration. 6.2. Solubility. OUTLINE
  68. 68. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6. SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture involving a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that gets dissolved and the solvent is the liquid in which the solute dissolves. The solute (may be liquid or solid) is broken down completely into individual ions or molecules in a way that can no longer be seen as a separate entity. For example: If you dissolve salt (solute) in water (solvent), the salt is broken down into Sodium and Chlorine ions within the solvent. This mixture will look and taste the same everywhere in the cup, and would have salt and water in the same proportions. In this example, salt is a soluble material.
  69. 69. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6. SOLUTIONS  How can you identify a solution from other mixtures?  What is a saturated solution?
  70. 70. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6. SOLUTIONS 1. No particles will be visible. 2. It will have a clear look. 3. Nothing will settle at the bottom of the bottle holding it. 4. It cannot be filtered.  How can you identify a solution from other mixtures?  What is a saturated solution? If you keep adding a solute to a solvent, it gets concentrated. if you keep adding, eventually, no more solute can be dissolved with temperature remaining constant. Here, the solution is said to be saturated.
  71. 71. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6.1. SOLUTIONS CONCENTRATION DILUTE: a solution that contains a small proportion of solute relative to solvent, or CONCENTRATED: a solution that contains a large proportion of solute relative to solvent. UNSATURATED: a solution in which more solute will dissolve, or SATURATED: a solution in which no more solute will dissolve. There are a number of ways to express the relative amounts of solute and solvent in a solution. Which one we choose to use often depends on convenience. For example, it is sometimes easier to measure the volume of a solution rather than the mass of the solution. Percent by mass Normality Percent by volume g/LMole fraction Molarity Molality
  72. 72. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6.1. SOLUTIONS CONCENTRATION DILUTE: a solution that contains a small proportion of solute relative to solvent, or CONCENTRATED: a solution that contains a large proportion of solute relative to solvent. UNSATURATED: a solution in which more solute will dissolve, or SATURATED: a solution in which no more solute will dissolve. There are a number of ways to express the relative amounts of solute and solvent in a solution. Which one we choose to use often depends on convenience. For example, it is sometimes easier to measure the volume of a solution rather than the mass of the solution. Percent by mass Normality Percent by volume g/LMole fraction Molarity Molality
  73. 73. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6.2. SOLUBILITY Solubility is the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Some solutes have greater solubility than others in a given solvent. For example, table sugar is much more soluble in water than is baking soda. Activity 6.2.1: Video about solubility
  74. 74. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6.2. SOLUBILITY Many factors affect the solubility of one substance in another. We will discuss a few, in particular. Temperature - If a solute is a solid or liquid, increasing the temperature increases its solubility. For example, more sugar can dissolve in hot tea than in iced tea. - If a solute is a gas, increasing the temperature decreases its solubility. For example, less carbon dioxide can dissolve in warm ocean water than in cold ocean water.
  75. 75. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 6.2. SOLUBILITY Pressure Increasing the pressure on a gas increases its solubility. Did you ever open a can of soda and notice how it fizzes out of the can? Soda contains carbon dioxide. Opening the can reduces the pressure on the gas so it is less soluble. As a result, some of the carbon dioxide comes out of solution and rushes into the air. Activity 6.2.2: Sports drinks can be very helpful with replenishing your fluids after exercise. They can get expensive to purchase if you are working out often though. This is a guide about making your own sports drink. Make your own sports drink
  76. 76. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química BIBLIOGRAPHY VIDEOS
  77. 77. MATTER Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES

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