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Education as a multilingual and multicultural space


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Education as a multilingual and multicultural space

  1. 1. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' Round'Table,'April'17,'2015' Universidad'Politécnica'de'Madrid,'Spain'
  2. 2. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' ' Contribu-ons:'Part'1' ' Discussant:'Ute'Smit,'' University'of'Vienna' '
  3. 3. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' Striving'to'boost'mul-lingualism'in' higher'educa-on:'A'case'study' ' David'Lasagabaster,'University'of'the'Basque'Country'UPV/EHU'
  4. 4. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' Iden-fying'the'challenges'of'bilingual' programmes'in'Higher'Educa-on:' first'decisions' ' Victor'Pavón,'University'of'Córdoba'(Spain)' '
  5. 5. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' EnglishTmedium'instruc-on'as'a' transforma-on'policy' ' Pascual'Pérez'Paredes,'University'of'Murcia'
  6. 6. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' ' Contribu-ons:'Part'2' ' Discussant:'Julia'HüXner,' University'of'Southampton''
  7. 7. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' The'Interna-onal'Classroom'in'the' European'Higher'Educa-on' Area:'Mul-lingual'policies'towards' interna-onaliza-on'in'a'bilingual' university' Carmen'Pérez'Vidal,'Universidad'Pompeu'Fabra' '
  8. 8. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' Quality'of'Plurilingual'Higher' Educa-on'programs'in'Andalusia' ' Fernando'D.'Rubio'Alcalá,'Universidad'de'Huelva' '
  9. 9. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' An'interdisciplinary'and'interna-onal' approach'to'EnglishTmedium' instruc-on'in'Higher'Educa-on' ' Emma'Dafouz'Milne,'Universidad'Complutense'Madrid' '
  10. 10. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space' Discussion:'ques-ons'and' comments'from'audience'
  11. 11. XXXIII AESLA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE Madrid, 16-18 April 2015 Striving(to(boost(mul/lingualism(in( higher(educa/on:(A(case(study( (! David Lasagabaster University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU 1
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION • When researching language education policy it is often difficult to obtain clear evidence: • Spolsky (2008: 31) encourages “the study of the beliefs and attitudes of the community and its various sectors. What values do they attach to plurilingual proficiency? How do they value the languages potentially included in the policy? […] At this point, one can usefully look for conflicts in values and attitudes” • There is scant research into the effect of multilingualism on the different bodies (most studies focus on students) + bilingual HEIs
  13. 13. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • RQ1: What are the attitudes of the 3 university bodies towards the spread of multilingualism? • RQ2: What do they think about the implementation of EMI?
  14. 14. 4 The University of the Basque Country: Public & bilingual 46,500 students; + 5,000 teachers; + 1,500 adm. personnel THE MULTILINGUAL PROGRAM (MP) Part of the strategic plan for internationalisation ! FLs used as medium of instruction ! 150 subjects (8 in French + 1 in German) ! A trilingual language policy THE STUDY 6#year#long!research!project •  The context
  15. 15. THE STUDY •  The sample •  785 participants: 632 students, 103 teaching staff, 50 administration personnel •  17 different faculties •  International Ss: 25 nationalities •  Instruments •  Mixed methods methodology: questionnaires, discussion groups & interviews 5
  16. 16. ! Interest in English and multilingualism, but the presence of a minority language makes multilingualism a challenge (widespread agreement against 2 FLs) ! How it affects each body (personal situation): Adm. personnel > Teachers > Students ! Linguistic tensions acknowledged & even found in group discussions RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  17. 17. "  Students more concerned about the normalisation of Basque and the purported negative impact of English !  Bunker attitude (Baker, 1992) from L1=Basque Ss, but also from pro-English teaching staff "  Teaching staff and administration personnel are more neutral or positive !  Trilingualism essential to improve the human, social and intellectual capital "  Teachers and students concerned about lack of competence in English !  Problem in Spain in general and in the BAC in particular !  Even good Ss reluctant to take risks (local vs. international Ss)
  18. 18. Final thoughts!! ! We should have a linguistically balanced implementation of EMI: •  attaining language ecology in a multilingual setting such as the UBC requires careful planning, more so when scarce economic resources dictate the need for decisions which limit the financing of different strategies
  19. 19. XXXIII AESLA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE Madrid, 16-18 April 2015 Striving(to(boost(mul/lingualism(in( higher(educa/on:(A(case(study( (! David Lasagabaster University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU 9
  20. 20. AESLA%XXXIII% 16th%,%18th%April%2015% Identifying the challenges of bilingual programmes in Higher Education: first decisions Víctor Pavón Vázquez Round Table Higher Education as a Multilingual and Multicultural Space
  21. 21. Motivations !  Obvious (students and teachers’ mobility). !  Invisible (quality of publications). !  Necessary (research and professional networking). !  Supranational policies and regulations. !  Enhancing the professional profile of students. !  Upgrading multicultural competencies. Internationalisation? Others?
  22. 22. Decisions Top-down policy makers Bottom-up particular initiatives Decisions should include controlling the volume and type of programmes taught in a specific language.
  23. 23. EMI programmes, ICLHE or CLIL?
  24. 24. Challenges !  Teachers’ linguistic accreditation: minimum level required !  Students’ linguistic competency: entry level. !  Teachers’ misconceptions: lecturing and teacher-fronting, bilingual immersion programmes, pedagogy and strategies, using the two languages. !  Benchmarking: possible lowering content objectives. !  Approval of Departments.
  25. 25. Requirements Necessity of a global language policy Cooperation between different departments and teacher collaboration Beyond linguistic support… pedagogical guidance and assistance
  26. 26. Incentives 1.  Priority access to mobility programmes. 2.  Teaching load reduction. 3.  Certificate for teaching recognition. 4.  Training programme: academic language. 1.  Priority for Erasmus and international scholarships. 2.  Opportunities to get a double degree. 3.  Certification of bilingual credits/studies. Teachers Students
  27. 27. Higher'Educa-on'as'a'mul-lingual' and'mul-cultural'space'' English8medium'instruc-on'as'a' transforma-on'policy' Pascual'Pérez8Paredes' English'Studies'Dept.' Former'General'Coord.'Excellence'Program,'Campus'Mare'Nostrum'
  28. 28. Follow%this%presenta/on%on%%
  29. 29. 1.  Melville' 2.  Tolstoi' 3.  Woolfe' 4.  Dahl' 5.  Williams' English8medium'instruc-on'as'a' transforma-on'policy'
  30. 30. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  31. 31. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  32. 32. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  33. 33. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  34. 34. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  35. 35. CALL%ME%ISHMAEL%
  36. 36. All%happy%families%are%alike;%each%unhappy%family% is%unhappy%%in%its%own%way.%
  37. 37. All%happy%families%are%alike;%each%unhappy%family% is%unhappy%%in%its%own%way.%
  38. 38. All%happy%families%are%alike;%each%unhappy%family% is%unhappy%in%its%own%way.%
  39. 39. All%happy%families%are%alike;%each%unhappy%family% is%unhappy%%in%its%own%way.%
  40. 40. Mrs.%Dalloway%said%she%would%buy%% the%flowers%herself%
  41. 41. Mrs.%Dalloway%said%she%would%buy%% the%flowers%herself% 2010H2011% 2011H2012% 2012H2013% 2013H2014% 2014H2015%
  42. 42. Mrs.%Dalloway%said%she%would%buy%% the%flowers%herself%
  43. 43. Mrs.%Dalloway%said%she%would%buy%% the%flowers%herself% Grado'en'Administración'y' Dirección'de'empresas' Grado'en'Educación'Primaria' Máster'en'' Máster'en'Biología'y'Tecnología' de'la'Reproducción'de' Mamíferos' Máster'en'Nuevas'Tecnologías' en'Informá-ca' Grado'en'Ing.'en'Sistemas'de' Telecomunicación' Grado'en'Ingeniería'telemá-ca' Grado'en'Administración'y'Dirección'de' empresas' Grado'en'Ing.'Agroalimentaria'y'de' Sistemas'Biológicos' Grado'en'Arquitectura' Grado'en'Ing.'En'Edificación' Grado'en'Ingeniería'civil' Grado'en'Ing.'Eléctrica'(GIE)' Grado'en'Ing.'Electrónica'Industrial'y' Automá-ca'(GIEyA)' Grado'en'Ing.'Mecánica'(GIM)' Grado'en'Ing.'Química'Industrial'(GIQI)'
  44. 44. It's%a%funny%thing%about%mothers%and%fathers.%Even% when%their%own%child%is%the%most%disgus/ng%liOle% blister%you%could%ever%imagine,%they%s/ll%think%that% he%or%she%is%wonderful%
  45. 45. It's%a%funny%thing%about%mothers%and%fathers.%Even%when% their%own%child%is%the%most%disgus/ng%liOle%blister%you% could%ever%imagine,%they%s/ll%think%that%he%or%she%is% wonderful%
  46. 46. It's%a%funny%thing%about%mothers%and%fathers.%Even%when% their%own%child%is%the%most%disgus/ng%liOle%blister%you% could%ever%imagine,%they%s/ll%think%that%he%or%she%is% wonderful%
  47. 47. William'Stoner'entered'the'University'of'Missouri'as'a'freshman'in' the'year'1910,'at'the'age'of'nineteen.'Eight'years'later,'during'the' height'of'World'War'I,'he'received'his'Doctor'of'Philosophy' degree'and'accepted'an'instructorship'at'the'same'University,' where'he'taught'un-l'his'death'in'1956' %
  48. 48. William'Stoner'entered'the'University'of'Missouri'as'a'freshman'in' the'year'1910,'at'the'age'of'nineteen.'Eight'years'later,'during'the' height'of'World'War'I,'he'received'his'Doctor'of'Philosophy' degree'and'accepted'an'instructorship'at'the'same'University,' where'he'taught'un-l'his'death'in'1956' %
  49. 49.''
  51. 51. LINGUISTIC POLICIES HIGHER EDUCATION !  No official mandatory regulation at university level: !  SOCIOLINGUISTIC FIGURES: !  Catalan (60-65%) !  Spanish (30-35%) !  English, German, French (5-10%) !  Linguistic Services operating with a brief to cater for Catalan and Spanish (when needed) !  University Language Schools promoting all languages
  53. 53. THREE GOALS FOR THE SHORT-MID and the LONG-RUN 1.  Establish Catalan as the UPF’s own and official language. 2.  Guarantee the presence of English as lingua franca for international communication and Spanish as the other official language in Catalonia, and of personal interest to a large part of the international student community visiting us. 3.  Incorporate other European languages with an academic tradition (German, French, Italian) and our new communities languages (of a Marrocan, Rumanian, Chinese origin) THE PAM: GOALS I The case of UPF, a Catalan university with a multilingual ethos
  54. 54. •  THE UNIVERSITY’S MULTILINGUAL PROFILE –  Teaching staff –  Students –  Administration –  The institutional interfaces (webs, documentation, landscape?) #  INTERNATIONALISATION FOR ALL students and teachers: –  ERASMUS (& OTHER) EXCHANGES (25%) –  INTERNATIONALISATION ‘AT HOME’ (IaH) (75%) THE PAM: GOALS II The case of UPF, a Catalan university with a multilingual goal I
  55. 55. PLAN OF ACTION FOR MULTILINGUALISM #  3 domains: institutional, teaching and research, administration #  5 strategic strands: norm, information, train, support, dinamize #  25 steps courses of action #  3 key concepts: –  English as a “working language” and other European languages as languages for communication –  “Linguistic security” –  “Managing multilingualism in the classroom” THE PAM: ITS DESIGN I The case of UPF, a Catalan university with a multilingual GOAL
  56. 56. THE PAM: DESIGN II INSTITUTIONAL DOMAIN TEACHING AND RESEARCH DOMAIN ADMINISTRATION DOMAIN NORMS INFORMATION TRAINING LINGUISTIC SUPPORT 3 key concepts Linguistic security Managing multilingualism in the classroom Catalan, our own official language, Spanishnour official language, ENglish our “working language” DYNAMICS WHAT WE DO WHERE?
  57. 57. THREE KEY CONCEPTS #  English as a third “working language”: –  The use of official languages (Catalan/Spanish) are regulated at higher levels –  We add English as the ‘internally official working language at UPF –  Teachers and students have the obligation to have at least passive command of those languages •  Free pre-sessional Catalan/Spanish courses for teachers, postgrads, Erasmus •  Free English for teachers and administration #  “Linguistic security”: –  Teachers decide language of instruction –  Languages of instruction are publicized –  Information is binding cannot be changed under any concept throughout the academic year. –  This guarantees teachers’ rights to use any of the three working languages at all moments, particularly in the case of Catalan for which there is an established legal right. #  “Managing the multilingual classroom”: –  Students decide which of the three languages they use in class. –  Need to abide to the previous regulations, guaranteeing a smooth use of all languages at UPF, and contributing to the preservation of linguistic rights establihsed amidst our community. THE PAM: OUR PHILOSOPHY The case of UPF, a Catalan university with a multilingual GOAL
  58. 58. Fernando(D.(Rubio(Alcalá( Vicedecano(de(Relaciones(Exteriores(y(Plurilingüismo( (( Facultad(de(Ciencias(de(la(Educación( ( 1( Quality(of(Plurilingual( Higher(EducaFon( programs(in(Andalusia((
  59. 59. Contents' 2( General(remarks( Andalusian(project( PEP((Plurilingual(EducaFon(Plan;( Faculty(of(EducaFon)(
  60. 60. General'remarks' 3( Conceptual(disFncFon( PluriP( MulFP( Plurilingualism( differs( from( mulFlingualP( ism,( which( is( the( knowledge( of( a( number( of( languages,( or( the( coPexistence( of( different(languages(in(a(given(society((CEFR,(2001:(4)(
  61. 61. Teachers’'level'required' 4(What(is(the(final(aim(of(a(plurilingual(educaFon( program?(
  62. 62. How'do'students'learn'content' and'language'integrated?' 5(
  63. 63. “Require'but'give'a'chance”' 6( C1:(Reading(skills(
  65. 65. Main'objectives' 1.(To(analyze(plurilingual(programs(in( Andalusia((Higher(EducaFon);( 2.(To(idenFfy(factors(that(account(for( quality(assurance;( 3.(To(develop(a(quality(assurance( program(of(plurilingual(programs.( 8(
  66. 66. 9(
  67. 67. 10(
  68. 68. Context' 1993P( 12.000(students( 3.500(students( Primary(EducaFon( Early(Childhood( EducaFon( Etc.( Faculty(of( EducaFon( University(of( Huelva(
  69. 69. Stage'of'preparation' •  Is(it(feasible?( Rubio,(F.D.(y(Hermosín,(M.((2010).(Implantación(de(un( programa(de(plurilingüismo(en(el(Espacio(Europeo( de(Educación(Superior:(Análisis(de(contexto(y( detección(de(necesidades.(Siglo(XXI.(Revista(de( Educación.(
  70. 70. Current'situation'PEP:'' Preliminary'data' •  Enrolled(in(first(course:( •  Primary(EducaFon(Degree:(N=72( •  Early(Childhood(EducaFon(Degree:(N=61( •  Average(enrolment(mark:(M=7( 51 5,1 10 25,6 7,7 Página.UHU Distrito.Único Matricula Amigo Clase INFORMACIÓNDEL-GRUPO-
  71. 71. Sa#sfac#on)levels) ) ( About(teachers:(M=(4.28;(SD=(.68( ( Language(proficiency(improvement:(M=3.53;(SD=(.96( Current'situation'PEP:'' Preliminary'data'
  72. 72. Proyecto INTE-R-LICA (2014-16) An interdisciplinary and international approach to English-medium instruction in Higher Education The INTE-R-LICA project Emma DAFOUZ MILNE ROUND TABLE - AESLA, 16-18 April 2015
  73. 73. INTE-R-LICA What is INTE-R-LICA? INTE-R-LICA is an international and interdisciplinary project, funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, based at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Acronym: La Internalización de la Educación Superior a través de los grados bilingües: Retos Lingüísticos, Culturales y Académicos.
  74. 74. INTE-R-LICA Why international? International researchers: from 4 different countries Spain (UCM and UAH) Finland (JAMK) Austria (UW) UK (UoS) Disciplinary cultures and pedagogical practices may be different across contexts
  75. 75. INTE-R-LICA Why interdisciplinary? Because it combines: the views of applied linguists (the language specialists) with that of economics/business scholars (the content specialists). These views of EMI practices may not always coincide but both need to be acknowledged if we want effective EMI teaching/learning to take place.
  76. 76. INTE-R-LICA The INTE-R-LICA Objectives Overarching objectives are grouped in three challenges: Sub-project 01: linguistic cultural (disciplinary) Sub-project 02: academic
  77. 77. INTE-R-LICA ‘ROAD-MAPPING’ as FRAMEWORK for EMEMUS discourses Dafouz and Smit (2014) Applied Linguistics
  78. 78. INTE-R-LICA Academic Disciplines + Practices and Processes discourses
  79. 79. INTE-R-LICA Practices and Processes + Academic Disciplines + Internationalization & Glocalisation discourses
  80. 80. INTE-R-LICA INTE-R-LICA and Plan de Lenguas para la Internacionalización (PLI)