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BIS2C: Lecture 29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I

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BIS2C: Lecture 29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I

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BIS2C: Lecture 29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 2 •Previous lecture: •28: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Lophotrochozonas •Current Lecture: •29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I •Next Lecture: •30: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans II
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity Topics • Major Groups • Diversity within Groups • Key Features of Groups !Body Plans, Forms and Symmetry !Reproduction and Life Cycles !Mobility !Feeding • Examples 3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoa • Key Features of Ecdysozoa !Molting • Major Groups • Key Features of Key Groups • Focus on !Nematodes !Tardigrades 4
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 5 Diploblasts Triploblasts Monoblasts
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 6 Triploblasts
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 7
  8. 8. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 8
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 9
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 10
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoan Feature #1: Cuticle and Molting 11
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoan Feature #1: Cuticle and Molting • Ecdysozoans have a cuticle, secreted by the epidermis. • For animal to grow, cuticle must be shed, or molted, and replaced with a larger one (a process known as ecdysis). • Molting evolved ~500 mya, apparently only once. All ecdysozoans have a single common ancestor. 12
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoan Feature #1: Cuticle and Molting 13
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoan Feature #1: Cuticle and Molting 13
  15. 15. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • In some wormlike ecdysozoans, the cuticle is thin and flexible. • A thin cuticle allows gas and water exchange but restricts animal to moist habitats. • In arthropods, the cuticle is an exoskeleton, thickened by proteins and chitin, a waterproof polysaccharide. • The exoskeleton restricts movement and gas exchange; new mechanisms for these functions evolved. 15 Ecdysozoan Feature #1: Cuticle and Molting
  16. 16. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 A Few Summaries for Your Enjoyment … 16
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 17
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 18 Ecdysozoans
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Wormlike Marine Ecdysozoans 19 Priapulids Kinorhynch Loriciferan
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Wormlike Marine Ecdysozoans • Priapulids: !Unsegmented, three-part body plan !Burrow in soft sediments !Capture prey with a toothed, muscular pharynx that is everted through the mouth • Kinorhynchs: !Microscopic !Body has 13 segments, with separate cuticular plates that are molted !Feed by ingesting sediments through their retractable proboscis • Loriciferans: !Minute !Not discovered until 1983 !Body is covered by six plates (lorica = “corset”) 20
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 21
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Horsehair Worm Larvae Are Parasitic 22
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Horsehair Worms • Horsehair worms: very thin; up to a meter in length; most are freshwater. • Larvae are internal parasites of insects and crayfish. • Adult has no mouth and a reduced gut. Some may feed only as larvae; others continue to grow and molt, and may be absorbing nutrients from the environment. 23
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Horsehair Worms • Horsehair worms: very thin; up to a meter in length; most are freshwater. • Larvae are internal parasites of insects and crayfish. • Adult has no mouth and a reduced gut. Some may feed only as larvae; others continue to grow and molt, and may be absorbing nutrients from the environment. • WHATEVER YOU DO - DO NOT - DO NOT GOOGLE “HORSEHAIR WORM VIDEO” 24
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Not Just for Your Enjoyment … 25
  26. 26. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 26
  27. 27. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 27
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following would make the most sense to add to the UC Davis Department of Nematology and Entomology? A: Plants B: Vertebrates C: Echinoderms D. Annelids E. Cnidarians 28
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following would make the most sense to add to the UC Davis Department of Nematology and Entomology? A: Plants B: Vertebrates C: Echinoderms D. Annelids E. Cnidarians 29
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 30
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 31
  32. 32. Nematodes (roundworms) !32Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Name from Greek: nematos (thread) eidos (form)
  33. 33. Nematodes (roundworms) !33Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Thick, multilayered cuticle
  34. 34. Nematodes (roundworms) !34Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Pharynx, a muscular organ at the anterior end, moves materials through the gut.
  35. 35. Nematodes (roundworms) !35Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Gas and nutrient exchange occurs through the cuticle and the gut wall, which is only one cell thick.
  36. 36. Nematodes (roundworms) !36Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mouthparts modified for specialized tasks
  37. 37. Nematodes (roundworms) !37Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Brain
  38. 38. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Extremely abundant and universally distributed. • >25,000 species described. • Includes scavengers, parasites, predators • Many are microscopic; the largest is 9 meters long—a parasite in placentas of female sperm whales. • Reduced musculature and digestive system (pseudocoelom) 38 Nematode Features
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Caenorhabitis elegans is used as a model organism in genetics and developmental biology research. • It is easy to cultivate, matures in three days, and has a fixed number of body cells. 39 Nematode Example: C. elegans
  40. 40. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker From an evolutionary point of view, which of the following is the best candidate for a model organism to compare with humans A. C. elegans (Nematode) B. Fruit fly (Arthropod) C. Giant squid (Cephalopod) D. Earthworm (Annelid) E. All are equally good 40
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker From an evolutionary point of view, which of the following is the best candidate for a model organism to compare with humans A. C. elegans (Nematode) B. Fruit fly (Arthropod) C. Giant squid (Cephalopod) D. Earthworm (Annelid) E. All are equally good 41
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 42 Triploblasts
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Whatever you do 
 
 DO NOT - I REPEAT DO NOT- GOOGLE - GIANT NEMATODE SLITHERING DEAD SPIDER 44
  45. 45. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Root-Knot Nematodes 45 • Meloidogynes nematodes infect root systems of plants • The nematodes cause galls where juvenile worms develop
  46. 46. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • WARNING THE NEXT FEW SLIDES COULD GROSS PEOPLE OUT 46
  47. 47. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematode Example: Filarial Diseases 47 • Caused by several different parasitic nematodes and transmitted by mosquitoes • Infect lymph nodes, which can then get blocked. This leads to edema (swelling) and other problems.
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematode Example: Filarial Diseases 47 • Caused by several different parasitic nematodes and transmitted by mosquitoes • Infect lymph nodes, which can then get blocked. This leads to edema (swelling) and other problems.
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematode Example: Filarial Diseases 47 • Caused by several different parasitic nematodes and transmitted by mosquitoes • Infect lymph nodes, which can then get blocked. This leads to edema (swelling) and other problems.
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematode Example: Filarial Diseases 47 • Caused by several different parasitic nematodes and transmitted by mosquitoes • Infect lymph nodes, which can then get blocked. This leads to edema (swelling) and other problems.
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematode Example: Filarial Diseases 48 HOW CAN WE TREAT THESE DISEASES?
  52. 52. Opisthokonts !49Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Shared derived traits of clade?
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Anti fungal drugs 50 http://www.slideshare.net/drjankiborkar/antifungals-14155209
  54. 54. !51 Filasterea Ichthyosporea Microsporidi Chytrids Zygospore Arbuscular Sacfungi Clubfungi Dik It’s Always More Complicated III Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  55. 55. !52 Filasterea Ichthyosporea Microsporidi Chytrids Zygospore Arbuscular Sacfungi Clubfungi Dik Humans & Nematodes Much Closer than Humans and Fungi Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 HumansNematodes
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 53 http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/video/2014/06/30/treating-river-blindness- and-other-neglected-tropical-diseases
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine 54
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 But … 55
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Wolbachia 56 http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/10/ivermectin-nobel-drugs-elephantiasis-filariasis-nematodes-wolbachia/ 409306/ Ed Yong
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 57 The avermectins that Campbell and Ōmura discovered, and especially their most potent member ivermectin, can control the symptoms of these diseases by killing the larval nematodes. But they aren’t cures, because they don’t damage the astonishingly sturdy adults. And since these worms can live for a decade, and can release thousands of new larvae every day, their hosts must resign themselves to years of regular treatments. http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/10/ivermectin-nobel-drugs- elephantiasis-filariasis-nematodes-wolbachia/409306/
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Filarial Nematodes Permanently House Wolbachia 58
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 59 And unfortunately, this means that killing the worms would make everything much worse, because they’d release all their Wolbachia in their death throes. “You get exploding nodules, and scrotal inflammation,” he told me. “You don’t want that. You want to kill the worms slowly, and it’s hard to think how you’d do that with an anti- nematode drug.”
  63. 63. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 What Would You Use to Kill Wolbachia? 60
  64. 64. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoa 61
  65. 65. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tardigrades 62
  66. 66. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tardigrades (aka water bears) • Fleshy, unjointed legs • Use a fluid-filled body cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton • Extremely small • No circulatory or gas exchange systems • Live in marine sands and on water films on plants 63
  67. 67. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 64
  68. 68. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 65
  69. 69. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • When water films dry up, tardigrades lose water and shrink to form a dormant state that can last at least a decade. • Tardigrades have been found at densities as high as 2 million / m^2 of moss. 66 Tardigrades
  70. 70. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Velvet worm 67
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Onychophorans (velvet worms) • Live in leaf litter in the humid tropics • Thin, flexible cuticle • Use fluid-filled body cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton • May look similar to arthropod ancestors 68
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Figure 32.19 A Trilobite Fossil 69

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