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Nanoscience• The prefix “nano”is a Greek word for “dwarf”• One nanometer (nm) is equal to one-billionth of a meter• About a width of 6 carbon atoms or 10 water molecules• A human hair is approximately 80,000 nm wide• Red blood cells is 7000 nm wide• Atoms are smaller than 1 nanometer• Molecules and some proteins are between 1 nm and above
Nanoscience• The concept of nanotechnology was first coined by Richard Feynman in 1959 in his lecture “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”• Manipulating material at a scale of individual atoms and molecules• Imagining the whole Encyclopedia Britannica written on head of a pin
Nanoscience• At IBM in the US, a technique called electron beam lithography was used to create nanostructures and devices as small as 40 to 70 nm in the early 1970s
Nanotechnology in MedicineNanotechnology is a new field with manypossible uses, medicine being one of them
Nanotechnology• “The manufacturing technology of the 21 st century"• The study and manufacture of devices of molecular dimensions, in the range of nanometers or one-billionth of a meter• Most of industrial manufacturing processes are based on top-down technologies -- i.e., they take larger objects and make them smaller yielding products of fairly high precision and complexity
Nanotechnology DNA serves as a data-storage system, transmitting digital instructions tomolecular machines e.g., the ribosomes, that manufacture protein molecules.
Nanomedicine• Some medicines are made through biotechnological processes, for example those using recombinant DNA (human hepatitis vaccine)• Under these processes the DNA of living creatures (usually bacteria) is altered• Nanotechnology represents a similar approach to the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and other goods.
Nanorobots: Medicine of the Future• What are they?• Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens.• They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns and will be constructed out of parts with dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers
Nanorobots• The powering of the nanorobots can be done by metabolizing local glucose and oxygen for energy• Other sources of energy within the body can also be used to supply the necessary energy for the devices• They will have simple onboard computers capable of performing around 1000 or fewer computations per second.
Nanorobots• A navigational network may be installed in the body, which may provide high positional accuracy to all passing nanorobots• This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body
A singleinhalednanorobotreaches,deeplyinspired intothe lungs,enters analveolar ductand attachesto the tissuesurface.
Mechanicaldrilling of asmall tumormass by ananorobot
Therapeutic Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicine• Nanotechnology also theoretically allows the mimicking of natural biological processes e.g., repair of damaged tissues – Using nanotech to build scaffoldings of artificial molecules that bone cells often adhere to and grow bones on – Broken bones would heal much faster.• Transport of oxygen within the body by creating an artificial red blood cell
Therapeutic Applications ofNanotechnology in MedicineTo cure skin diseases, a cream containingnanorobots may be used it may:- Remove the right amount of dead skin- Remove excess oils- Add missing oils- Apply the right amounts of naturalmoisturising compounds- Achieve the elusive goal of deep porecleaning by actually reaching down into pores and cleaning them out.
Therapeutic Applications ofNanotechnology in MedicineA mouthwash full of smart nanomachinescould identify and destroy pathogenicbacteria while allowing the harmless floraof the mouth to flourish in a healthyecosystem
DentalRobotsFour remote-controlled nanorobots examineand clean the subocclusal surfaces of apatients teeth, near the gumline.
Therapeutic Applications of Nanotechnology in MedicineMedicalnanodevicescould augment theimmune systemby finding anddisablingunwanted bacteriaand viruses.
A NANOROBOT NIBBLING ON AN ATHEROSCLEROTIC DEPOSIT IN A BLOOD VESSEL
“Stinger"nanorobotgrabs a sick Tlymphocyteand injects aglucocorticoiddesigned toinducecellularapoptosis.
NANOTECHNOLOGY• GOALS• Construction of a nano-assembler – A machine capable of building nanoprobes on a grand scale• The next step would be self-replication of nanoprobes- mitosis• Rough estimates say that this will be reached in about 10-20 years
NANOTECHNOLOGY• PREDICTIONS• Predicting the future of nanotechnology is much like trying to predict the remainder of a motion picture from a single frame• Although the future of medicine lies unclear, it is certain that nanotechnology will have a significant impact