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Personality disorders;cluster A

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Personality disorders;cluster A

  1. 1. Personality Disorders<br />Panagiotis Pentaris<br />
  2. 2. “A Personality Disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.”<br />
  3. 3. Personality Disorders<br />Cluster A <br />Cluster B <br />Cluster C<br />
  4. 4. Cluster A<br />Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)<br />Schizoid Personality Disorder <br />Schizotypal Personality Disorder <br />
  5. 5. Cluster B<br />Antisocial Personality Disorder <br />Borderline Personality Disorder <br />Histrionic Personality Disorder <br />Narcissistic Personality Disorder <br />
  6. 6. Cluster C<br />Avoidant Personality Disorder <br />Dependant Personality Disorder <br />Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder <br />
  7. 7. Paranoid Personality Disorder<br />
  8. 8. Diagnostic Features <br />Pattern of distrust and suspiciousness of others such as their motives are malevolent. <br />
  9. 9. Specifiers <br />Individuals think that people intend to harm, exploit, or deceive them<br />Lost trust<br />Misinterpretation of good motives<br />Reluctant to relationships<br />Hidden messages<br />Unwillingness for forgiveness <br />Counterattacks<br />Pathologically jealous <br />
  10. 10. Associated Features<br />Overt argumentativeness <br />“cold” with no tender feelings <br />Self-sufficiency <br />Autonomy <br />Control<br />Litigious <br />Negative stereotypes<br />Fanatical worldviews<br />
  11. 11. Associated Disorders<br />Psychotic episodes <br />Delusional Disorder<br />Schizophrenia <br />Major Depressive Disorder<br />Agoraphobia<br />Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder <br />Drug (Alcohol) Abuse<br />
  12. 12. Co-occurring Disorders<br />Schizotypal<br />Schizoid<br />Narcissistic <br />Avoidant <br />Borderline <br />
  13. 13. Prevalence <br />0.5%-2.25% <br />10%-30%<br />2%-10% <br />Course:<br /><ul><li>Early adulthood
  14. 14. Chronic </li></li></ul><li>Cultural Prevalence & Features <br />Minority groups<br />Economic/political refugees <br />Unfamiliarity <br />Most common in males <br />
  15. 15. Schizoid Personality Disorder <br />
  16. 16. Diagnostic Features<br />“…pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings.”<br />
  17. 17. Specifiers <br />Distant relationships <br />Solitary activities<br />No sexual desires<br />Rare pleasure<br />Lack of network<br />Indifference <br />Emotional detachment <br />
  18. 18. Associated Descriptive Features <br />Difficulty to express emotions <br />Difficulty to respond to significant life events <br />Single lifestyle <br />Isolated occupations are a good fit<br />Brief psychotic episodes <br />
  19. 19. Associated Disorders <br />Delusional Disorder<br />Schizophrenia <br />Major Depressive Disorder <br />Co-occurring Disorders <br />Schizotypal Personality Disorder<br />Paranoid Personality Disorder <br />Avoidant Personality Disorder<br />
  20. 20. Course<br />Early adulthood <br />Variety of contexts <br />
  21. 21. Prevalence <br />Individuals with Schizophrenia<br />Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder <br />More males<br />Impairment to males <br />
  22. 22. Schizotypal Personality Disorder<br />
  23. 23. Diagnostic Features <br />“…a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior.”<br />
  24. 24. Specifiers <br />Misinterpretations <br />“magical thinking”<br />Illusions <br />Odd thinking and speech <br />Suspiciousness <br />Eccentric behavior and appearance <br />Lack of confidants <br />Excessive social anxiety <br />
  25. 25. Associated Diagnostic Features <br />Mistreatment <br />Psychotic episodes <br />Associated Disorders <br />Brief Psychotic Disorder <br />Schizophreniform Disorder <br />Delusional <br />Schizophrenia <br />
  26. 26. Co-occurring <br />Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) <br />
  27. 27. Prevalence <br />3% of the general population<br />First-degree relatives with Schizophrenia<br />More common in males <br />Course <br />Stable course<br />Early adulthood<br />Variety of contexts <br />
  28. 28. Social Work/Counseling Interventions<br />Psychotherapy<br />
  29. 29. Types of Psychotherapy <br />Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)<br />Dialectical Behavior Therapy <br />Psychodynamic Psychotherapy <br />Psychoeducation<br />
  30. 30. Medication Management <br />Anti-anxiety<br />Anti-depressant<br />Anti-psychotic<br />Mood-stabilizing <br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Additional Sources <br /><br />Kantor, M. (2004). Understanding Paranoia: a guide for professionals, families, and sufferers. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. <br /><br /><br />