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RIBOSOMES.pptx

  1. 1. RIBOSOMES
  2. 2. Ribosomes  Ribosomes are macromolecular machines, found within all living cells, that perform biological protein synthesis. Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by the codons of messenger RNA molecules to form polypeptide chains.  The ribosome is a complex molecule made of ribosomal RNA molecules and proteins that form a factory for protein synthesis in cells.  In 1955, George E. Palade discovered ribosomes and described them as small particles in the cytoplasm that preferentially associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.  Ribosomes are important because they are responsible for protein synthesis. Free ribosomes, in particular, are important because they produce proteins essential for internal cellular activity, which are not synthesized elsewhere. Without free ribosomes, the various components of the cell could not function.
  3. 3.  When a cell needs to make proteins, it looks for ribosomes.  Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell. They are like construction guys who connect one amino acid at a time and build long chains. Ribosomes are special because they are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Ribosomes are known as the protein factory of the cell. As they synthesize the proteins by gathering and assembling amino acids into protein chains.  A ribosome is a complex of RNA and protein and is, therefore, known as a ribonucleoprotein. It is composed of two subunits – smaller and larger.  The smaller subunit, where the mRNA binds and is decoded and in the larger subunit, the amino acids get added. Both of the subunits contain both protein and ribonucleic acid components.
  4. 4.  Ribosomes are a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.  The job of the ribosome is to make new proteins. It does this by moving along a strand of RNA and building a protein based on the code it reads. Making a protein this way is called translation.  Ribosomes are usually found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but can also be found throughout the cytoplasm.
  5. 5. STRUCTURE,TYPES AND FUNCTIONS  Ribosomes are minute particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins that function to synthesize proteins.  Proteins are needed for many cellular functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes. Ribosomes can be found floating within the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum .  Ribosomes comprise of two subunits that are suitably composed and function as one to translate the mRNA into a polypeptide chain amid protein synthesis.  Due to the fact that they are made from two subunits of differing size, they are a little longer in the hinge than in diameter.  Ribosome also called catalytic RNA, ribozymes are found in the ribosome where they join amino acids together to form protein chains. ... Scientists have developed synthetic ribozymes in the laboratory that are able to catalyze their own synthesis under specific conditions. One example is the RNA polymerase ribozyme.
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