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A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS

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soil borne pathogens cause a significant economic losses in agricultural production all over the world. The disease caused by these pathogens are difficult to predict, detect, diagnose and successfully control. A sustainable management approaches are very important to minimize the activity of these pathogens. ther eare various method to manage the soil borne pathogens such as cultural methods, physical methods, chemical methods, biological methods and growing a resistant varieties. The effective control of the soil borne pathogens is possible only through detailed study on survival and dessemination of these pathogens. effect of environmental conditions, role of cultural practices and host resistance and susceptibility will play a major role in disease management.

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A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS

  1. 1. CREDIT SEMINAR ON A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS PRESENTED BY; PRAKASH MANI KUMAR M.Sc. (Ag), 3rd sem M/PP/94/2016-17 Deptt. of Plant Pathology
  2. 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHY PLANT DISEASE OCCURS? PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT CULTURAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL PHYSICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL BIOLOGICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL CHEMICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL CONCLUSION HOST RESISTANCE IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Environmental sustainability Social sustainability Financial sustainability The application of sustainable practice in the category of Agriculture, business, society, environment and in personal life by manage them in the way that will be benefit current and future generation
  5. 5. PREDOMINANT SOILBORNE PATHOGENS  FUNGI- Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium sp, Pythium, Phytophthora etc.  BACTERIA- Erwinia, Raltsonia, Rhizomonas, Agrobacterium, Streptomyces etc.  VIRUS- Wheat mosaic virus  NEMATODES- Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Longidorus, Paratrichodorus, Trichodorus etc. (Veena et al., 2014)
  6. 6. WHY PLANT DISEASE OCCUR..?
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENT TIME favourable ENVIRONMENT HOST Susceptible PATHOGEN Virulent
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  9. 9. PATHOGEN EXCLUSION AVOIDANCE OF PATHOGEN PATHOGEN ERADICATION OR REDUCTION OF INNOCULUM PLANT PROTECTION RESISTANT VARIETY THERAPY
  10. 10. 45 % 28% 8% 4% 15% Chemical method Cultural method Physical method Biological method Host resistance Practices for sustainable management of soil borne plant disease
  11. 11. 1.CULTURAL PRACTICES
  12. 12. Cultural practices involves all the activities carried out on the farm before, during and after planting of crops. They are grouped into: pre-planting, planting and post-planting operation. Cultural practices involves the principle of:  Avoidance  eradication  exclusion
  13. 13. Crop rotation Date of sowing Nutrient management Organic amendment Cover cops Depth of sowing Mix cropping CULTURAL METHODS INCLUDES
  14. 14. CROP ROTATION
  15. 15.  Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.  When the same crop is grown in the same field year after year then many diseases build up in the soil.  Rotation to a non-susceptible crop can break this cycle by reducing pathogen levels.  It help in the control of those pathogens which are survive long time in the soil without a host. Eg- Fusarium Sp
  16. 16. VEGETABLES DISEASE YEAR OF ROTATION Asperagus Fusarium rot (F. proliferatum) 8 Beans Root rot (F. phaseoli) 3-4 Cabbage Club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae) 7 Cabbage Black leg (Phoma lingum) 3-4 Cabbage Black rot (X. compestris) 2-3 Muskmelon Fusarium wilt (F. melonis) 5 Parsnip Root canker (Itersonilia pastinacae) 2 Peas Root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches f. sp. Pisi) 3-4 Peas Fusarium wilt (F. oxysporium) 5 Pumpkin Black rot (Didymella bryoniae) 2 Radish Club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae) 7 ROTATION PERIODS TO REDUCE VEGETABLE SOIL-BORNE DISEASES
  17. 17. MIXED CROPPING
  18. 18. PATHOGEN MAIN CROP SECOND CROP EFFECCT REFERENCE Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Chick pea Linseed Reduce disease incidence Agrawal et al., 2002 Otten et al., 2005 Rhizoctonia solani Radish Mustard Reduce disease progress Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici Wheat Grasses Reduce disease severity and incidence in bioassay Gutteridge et al., 2006 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Watermelon Rice Reduced wilt Renet et al., 2007
  19. 19. DATE OF SOWING
  20. 20.  Early and delayed sowing of crops enables it escape critical period of disease incidence.  Peas and chickpea sown in October usually suffer heavily from root rot and wilt (a complex of Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium). When these crops are sown late, the diseases are not so severe or almost absent.  Avoiding cool and cloudy days for planting will help to reduce red rot of sugarcane. Late sowing of winter wheat and barley is considered to be the most effective measures in reducing take all disease of wheat.
  21. 21. Effect of planting dates on days to first symptoms appearances, vine mass and tuber yield of potato at Chitwan, Nepal. DATE OF PLANTING DAYS TO 1ST SYMPTOMS APPEARANCE (DAP) VINE MASS(t ha-1) TUBER YIELD(t ha-1) 25th October 40.33 6.77 16.65 4th November 30.00 4.28 9.171 14th November 26.33 3.01 6.695 24th November 24.92 2.66 5.457 (Gaire et al., 2014)
  22. 22. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
  23. 23.  It play an important role in supreesion of disease.  It influence the health of plants and their susceptibility to disease.  Plants suffering a nutrient stress will be more susceptible to disease.  It makes plant more tolerant or resistant to disease.  The nutrient status of the soil and the use of particular fertilizers and ammendments can have significant impacts on the pathogen’s environment.
  24. 24. HOW CAN MINERAL NUTRITION PREVENT PLANT DISEASE.? Mineral nutrition can affect two primary resistance mechanism: a) Formation of mechanical barrier Eg- thickness of cell wall b) Synthesis of natural defence compounds Eg- phytoalexins, antioxidants and flavanoids
  25. 25. Effect of form of ‘N’ on Plant Diseases CROP DISEASE NO3-N NH4-N Corn Stalk rot (Fusarium) Increase Decrease Root rot (Pythium) Increase Decrease Soybean Root rot (Aphanomyces) Decrease Increase Cyst nematode (Heterodera) Increase Decrease Wheat Root rot (Fusarium) Decrease Increase Take all (Ophiobolus) Increase Decrease Cotton Root rot (Phymatotrichum) Increase Decrease Wilt (Fusarium) Decrease Increase (Huber et al., 2007)
  26. 26. PATHOGEN HOST/DISEASE FACTOR EFFECT Phytophthora infestans Potato late blight K Decrease High K High N Increase P. capsici Pepper blight K Decrease P. drechsleri Pigeon pea blight High K Low N Decrease P. parasitica Citrus gummosis High K Low Ca Increase (Paul, 1983) EFFECT OF ‘K’, ‘N’ AND ‘Ca’ ON SEVERITY OF PHYTOPHTHORA DISEASE
  27. 27. HOST PLANT DISEASES EFFECT OF ‘S’ Cotton, tomato Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt Decrease Crucifers Club root Decrease Potato Common scab, late blight, Stem canker Decrease Soybean Rhizoctonia root rot Decrease (Huber et al., 2015) EFFECT OF ‘S’ ON DIFFERENT DISEASES
  28. 28. (Kausadikar et al., 2006) ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY ON SOIL-BORNE DISEASES MICRONUTRIENT DIFFICIENCY DISEASE PATHOGEN Boron(Bo) Tomato Wilt Verticillium alboatrum Beans Root rot Fusarium solani Zinc(Zn) Take all of wheat G. Graminis var. tritici Rhizoctonia Root rot Rhizoctonia solani Manganese(Mn) Take all of wheat G. Graminis var. tritici
  29. 29. SOIL AMENDMENT (COMPOST)
  30. 30.  Compost increase the chemical and physical quality of the soil.  It also increase the diversity of bacteria and fungi in the soil.  Compost encourages healthy plants that are better equipped to fight off disease and increase in yield.  Root rot caused by Pythium and Phytophthora are generally supressed by the high numbers and diversity of beneficial microbes found in the compost.
  31. 31. SOME CASE STUDY OF SUPRESSION OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGEN BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPOST COMPOST MATERIAL DISEASE SUPRESSION OBSERVED EFFECT REFERENCES Hardwood bark Pythium ultimum in cucumber plant Hardwood bark centre pile(high temperature, >60°C) was conducive and after 3-4 days at 25°C became suppressive. Suppression was due to mesophilic organism, great microbial activity and low levels of nutrients, importance of microbiostasis. Chen et al., 1988 Compost municipal waste Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus seedling Disease decreased increasing proportions of one CMW(20% v/v) Widmer et al., 1998 Grape marc compost (GMC), Cork compost(CC) Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici (Fusarium wilt of tomato) GMC was the most suppressive, CC was intermediate and peat and vermiculite were conducive media. Heated GMC was still moderately suppressive. Importance of pH,β- glucosidase activity and microbial populations. Borrero et al., 2004
  32. 32. COMPOST MATERIAL DISEASE SUPRESSION OBSERVED EFFECT REFERENCES Mature bio solid compost (sewage sludge and yard waste) Sclerotina rolfsii in bean plant Prolonged compost curing negates suppressiveness. Combination of microbial populations and the chemical environment were responsible for pathogen suppression. Danon et al., 2007 Cork compost and light peat Verticillium wilt of tomato Cork compost was suppressive in comparision with peat. This compost had higher microbial activity and biomass. Borrero et al., 2002 Grape marc + extracted olive press cake (GM+EPC), Olive tree leaves+olive mill waste water (OL+OMW) and spent mushroom compost(SMC) Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. radices lycopersici in tomato plants The three composts were highly suppressive and suppression is related to the presence of specific microorganism Ntougias et al., 2008; Kavroulakis et al., 2010
  33. 33. COVER CROPS
  34. 34.  They are non-host crops sown with the purpose of making soil borne pathogens waste their infection potential before the susceptible main crop is grown.  It will increase soil microbial diversity by enhancing the soil microflora  Create unfavourable environment  Mustard and Brassica (Broccoli) helps to reduce the load of soil borne pathogens. (Divyarani et al., 2013)
  35. 35. DEPTH OF SOWING
  36. 36.  The depth of sowing has important effect on pathogen that attack seedling.  By delaying the emergence of seedling, deep sowing may help to increase the resistance of a susceptible crop to pathogen  Deep sowing is advisable in case of disease caused by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp.
  37. 37. 2. PHYSICAL METHODS
  38. 38.  It inactivate and immobilized the pathogen  It creat a barrier in between pathogen and host plant and also their vector.  Plastic or net covering of row crops may protect the crop from infection by preventing pathogens or vectors from reaching the plants.  Most commonly used physical agents for controlling plant diseases are;  Temperature (high and low)  Dry air  Light wavelength
  39. 39. SOIL SOLARIZATION
  40. 40.  Soil solarisation is a method of heating soil by covering it with transparent polythene sheet during hot period to control soil borne diseases.  It trap solar energy and this energy cause physical, chemical and biological changes in soil.  Eg- control of Verticillium and Fusarium diseases in vegetable crops in Israel, control of Verticillium dahlias in orchard in California, USA and control of chickpea and pigeonpea wilt in India.
  41. 41. SOME DISEASES ARE CONTROL BY SOIL SOLARIZATION CROP DISEASE PATHOGEN Tomato Didymello stem rot Didymella lycopersici Cucumber Fusarium wilt Fusarium oxysporium Cotton Fusarium wilt Fusarium oxysporium Onion Pink root Plosmodiophoro brassicae Peanut Pod rot Pythium myrothecium Tomato Canker Clavibacter michiganensis Potato Scab Streptomyces scabies (Vegetable research and information centre, University of California)
  42. 42. HEAT STERILIZATION
  43. 43.  is a farming technique that sterilizes soil with steam in open fields or greenhouses.  Soil sterilization provides secure and quick relief of soils from substances and organisms harmful to plants such as:  It can generally achieved by heat produced electrically than supplied by steam or hot water.  bacteria  viruses  fungi  Nematodes Eg- 50°C- Nematode and some Oomycetes are killed 60°-70°C- most pathogenic bacteria and fungi
  44. 44. FLOODING
  45. 45.  Prolonged water logging leads to lack of oxygen and accumulate CO2.  Flooding the field to eliminate soil borne plant pathogen in both physical and cultural method.
  46. 46. PLANT DISEASE CONTROLLED BY FLOODING PATHOGEN DISEASE Alternaria porri f.sp. solani Alternaria blight of tomato and potato Alternaria dauci Blight of carrot Aphelenchoides besseyi White tip of rice F. Oxysporium f. sp. cubens Wilt of banana Verticillium dahlia Wilt of cotton Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Black shank of tobacco Meloidogyne sp. Root knot of celery Sclerotiana sclerotiorum White mold of vegetables Pyrenophora teres Canker and blight of barley (Stover, 1955: Rotein and Palti, 1969: Tarr, 1972: Palti, 1981)
  47. 47. 3. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
  48. 48. TWO WAYS OF DISEASE SUPRESSION By Antagonistic association By Symbiotic association
  49. 49. Bio control agents suppress disease causing organism in following ways;  Competition: Beneficial organism out-compete disease causing plant pathogens in the search for nutrients or colonization space in specific habitats such as the root zones. Increased competition prevents pathogens from becoming established and multiplying to levels that cause plant disease.  Antibiotics and secretions: produced by some microorganisms inhibit the growth of plant pathogen. Eg- Antibiotic production is common in soil-dwelling bacteria and fungi. For example, zwittermicin a production by B. cereus against Phytophthora Root rot in alfalfa  Predation and parasitism: of plant pathogen by bio control agents (where beneficial microbes use pathogen as a food) Antagonistic association
  50. 50. Hyphae of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma wrap around the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia.
  51. 51. USE OF TRICHODERMA IN DISEASE CONTROL CROP DISEASE PATHOGEN Elephant foot yam Collar rot Sclerotium rolfsii Chilli, Tomato, Brinjal Damping off Pythium, Phytopthora, Fusarium Ginger, Turmeric, Onion Rhizome rot Pythium, Phytopthora, Fusarium Banana, Cotton, Tomato, Brinjal Wilt Fusarium oxysporium (Ranasingh et al., 2006)
  52. 52. Symbiotic association  In this association beneficial microorganism protect the host plant from pathogen by keeping an association with the host plant of pathogen. Example:- Mycorrhiza
  53. 53. MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND DISEASE SUPPRESSION MYCORRHIZA : it is an association between fungi and root of higher plants It is considered as the most beneficial root-inhabiting organisms, which forms a fungal mat over the root and protect the root of plant from the attack of soil borne pathogen.
  54. 54. Protection from the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was shown in a field study using a cool-season annual grass and mycorrhizal fungi. In this study the disease was suppressed in mycorrhizae-colonized grass inoculated with the pathogen. (Newsham et al., 1995) in field studies with eggplant, fruit numbers went from an average of 3.5 per plant to an average of 5.8 per plant when inoculated with Gigaspora margarita mycorrhizal fungi. Average fruit weight per plant went from 258 grams to 437 grams. (Matsubara et al., 1995) EXAMPLE
  55. 55. SOIL SUPPRESSIVE
  56. 56. EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT PLANT PATHOGENS CONCEALED BY DISEASE SUPPRESSIVE SOILS PATHOGEN INVOLVED REFERENCE Cyst nematode Heterodera sp. Kerry 1988; Westphal & Becker, 1999 Streptomyces scabies Menzies, 1959 Fusarium oxysporum Stotzky & Martin, 1963; Scher & Baker, 1980 Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici Cook & Rovira, 1976 Phytophthora cinnamomi Broadbent & Baker, 1974 Plasmodiophora brassicae Murakami et al., 2000 Pythium sp. Hancock, 1977 Rhizoctonia solani Henis et al., 1978, 1979
  57. 57. 4. CHEMICAL CONTROL
  58. 58.  A few chemical treatments, however, are aimed at eradicating or greatly reducing the inoculum before it comes in contact with the plant. They include soil treatments (such as fumigation), disinfestation of warehouses, sanitation of handling equipment, and control of insect vectors of pathogens  Chemicals in plant disease are used to create the toxic barrier between the host surface and pathogen.  These are applied in the soil as pre and post plant applications. Generally these treatments are being given in high value cash crops.  Applied as soil fumigation, soil drenching and seed treatment.  Fungicides like prothiocarb, propamocarb and metalaxyl are useful to control the Oomycetes pathogens.  Fosetyl – Al is the fungicide which controls the soilborne pathogens when it is used as foliar spray.  Chemical pesticides are generally used to protect plant surfaces from infection or to eradicate a pathogen that has already infected a plant.
  59. 59. 5. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE
  60. 60. Growing of resistance plants is one of the most effective and economical method. Host plant resistance not only reduces the crop losses but lessens the expenditure incurred on disease control as well as reduces the pollution hazards. Resistance is of two types: i) Monogenic (Vertical) ii) Polygenic (Horizontal)
  61. 61. RESISTANT VARIETIES OF SOME CROPS CROP VARIETIES DISEASE Tomato Big beef, Celebrity tomato, Sweet Chelsea Wilt, Nematode, Tobacco mosaic Potato Elba Late blight(highly resistant) Kennbee, Sebago, Rosa Late blight (Moderate resistant) Meris bard Scab Brinjal Arka anand Wilt
  62. 62.  Management of soil-borne diseases is most successful and economical when all the required information pertaining to the crop, disease affecting it, history of these in the previous years, resistant levels of the host and environmental conditions to prevail is available.  Combination of disease management practices may have additive or synergistic effects and such an approach is especially desirable in the case of soilborne diseases which are entirely different epidemiologically.  All the management practices will be adopt in a proper way to minimize the soil borne pathogens.

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