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Improvement in food reources

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Improvement in food reources

  1. 1. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES By Oakridge International School IX A
  2. 2. Introduction Food serve as a fuel to provide energy to run the body of an organism. Different food products provide us varies nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, etc. all of which are required body's growth and development. Human beings obtain food from both plants and animals. We obtain cereals, vegetables, etc. from plants and milk, egg, meat and cheese etc. from animals. However, the availability of food and other materials from agriculture and animal husbandry has always fallen short of requirement due to rapid rise in human population.
  3. 3. Improvement in Crop Yield In India, production of food grains has increased 4 times from 1960 to 2004 with only 25% increase cultivable land area. This has been possible by adopting following three scientific approaches in the farming practices:- • Choice of seeds for planting –Crop variety improvement • Nurturing of crop plants-Crop production management • Protection of cultivated and harvested crops from loss-Crop protection management
  4. 4. Crop variety improvement Crop variety improvement is the improvement of different crop plants by incorporating into them their desirable charterstics in relation to their economic use.
  5. 5. Recombinant DNA Technology In this method a gene with desirable charterstics is introduced in other genetic material to modify the latter. The organisms formed are called genetically modified organisms. The food crops formed by this method are known as genetically modified Foods. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis cotton which carries bacterial gene that protects the plant from insects
  6. 6. Hybridization Hybridization is the crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to obtain crops having useful characteristics like disease resistance, good quality and high yields. Hybridization may be intervarietal (between different varieties, interspecific (between different species of the same genus) or intergeneric (between different genera).
  7. 7. The factors for which crop variety improvement is done • Higher yield • Improved quality • Biotic and Abiotic resistance • Decrease in maturity duration • Wider adaptability • Desirable agronomic charterstics (for fodder crops)
  8. 8. Crop production management Different types of agricultural practices and technologies are being adopted by farmers depending upon their financial, educational and land holding conditions. Thus we can say that it is the money or the financial conditions that allow farmers to take up different or improved farming practices and agricultural technologies.
  9. 9. Nutrient Management Just as we need food for our basic life requirements in the same way plants require 17 nutrients they are:- 1. Carbon 2. Oxygen 3. Hydrogen 4. Nitrogen 5. Phosphorus 6. Potassium 7. Calcium 8. Magnesium 9. Sulphur 10. Iron 11. Manganese 12. Boron 13. Zinc 14. Copper 15. Molybdenum 16. Chlorine 17. Nickel
  10. 10. Manures • Manures are organic substances prepared by the partial decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. They supply nutrients in small quantities but organic matter large quantity to the soil. Manures are natural fertilizers and have different types they are:- • Farm yard manure- 1-3 months • Compost- 3-6 months • Green manure (plant manure)- 1-2 months
  11. 11. Advantages of Manure • It helps in enriching the soil with nutrients and organic manure • It adds large amount of organic matter • It increase the soil friendly organisms such as earthworms • It protects our environment from excessive use of chemical fertilizers • It is low cost and can even be prepared in rural homes or fields • It is prepared using biological waste materials and is a way of recycling the farm waste
  12. 12. Disadvantages of Manure • It releases minerals slowly • It is bulky thus inconvenient to handle • It has low nutrient content • It is not nutrient specific • It is insoluble to water • It cannot be stored beyond a period of 1-2 months
  13. 13. Fertilizers Fertilizers are commercially produced chemical substances which provide nutrients to the crop plants. Fertilizers supply critically nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. They are required for the vegetative growth.
  14. 14. Advantages of Fertilizers • It releases minerals instantly • It is not bulky thus convenient to handle • It has high nutrient content • It is nutrient specific • It is soluble to water • It can be stored beyond a period of 1-2 months
  15. 15. Disadvantages of fertilizers • It doesn’t helps in enriching the soil with nutrients and organic manure • It adds less amount of organic matter • It harms our environment with excessive use of chemical fertilizers • It is high cost and cannot be prepared anywhere anytime • The change the nature of soil making acidic or alkaline
  16. 16. Irrigation Water is essential for the survival and proper development of crops. Irrigation is required for the following purposes:- • To supply two essential elements hydrogen and oxygen • To provide sufficient moisture for the germination of seeds • For proper growth and elongation of roots of the crop plants • For the absorption of nutrients • Nutrients dissolved in water get transported to every part of the crop plants • Irrigation helps in replacement of water lost through transpiration
  17. 17. Irrigation systems and Ground-water augmentation • Wells 1. Dug wells 2. Tube wells • Canals • Tanks • River lift system • Rain water harvesting • Water shed management
  18. 18. Cropping patterns • Mixed cropping:- It is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. This type of cropping leads to an improvement in the fertility of the soil and increases in crop yield. It also helps the farmer to improve its yield and economy and avoid crop failure. • Crop rotation:- Crop rotation is one of the oldest and most effective cultural control strategies. It means the planned order of specific crops planted on the same field. It also means that the succeeding crop belongs to a different family than the previous one. The planned rotation may vary from 2 or 3 year or longer period.
  19. 19. Crop protection management Crop protection involves the protection of crops from various kinds of:- • Weeds • Insect pests • Diseases
  20. 20. Weeds Weeds are unwanted plants which grow along with the a cultivated crops. The weeds may sometimes be a crop plant or plant of another variety of the same crop. Weeds compete with main crop for water, nutrients, space and light. Weeds grow quickly, pick up more nutrients and water from the soil which affects the main the main crop.
  21. 21. Methods of weed control Mechanical methods : removal of weeds by 1. Pulling them out with hand 2. Ploughing burning and flooding of field before sowing seeds 3. Using trowel Cultural methods 1. Proper seed bed preparation 2. Timely sowing of crops 3. Utilization of various crop patterns Chemical methods: chemical methods of weed control involve the use of weedicides. Weedicides are the chemical formulations used to destroy weeds.
  22. 22. Insect pests Different types of insect pests attack the crop plants in the following ways:- • Chewing insects :- These insects cut the roots, stems and leaves of the crop plants. For example locusts, grasshoppers, caterpillars. • Sucking insects :- They suck the cell sap from different parts from different parts of the plant. For example aphids, plant bugs, leaf hoppers. • Borer Insects :- These insects bore holes into stems, roots, leaves, fruits, leaves, etc. of the crop plant . For example Pod borer, sugarcane borer, grain weevil, etc.
  23. 23. Chemical Methods to control Insect pests Chemical control : Pesticides are chemicals used to kill pests. Depending upon the type of target organisms, the pesticide are classified as insecticides (to kill insects), fungicides(to kill fungi), herbicides (to kill herbicides). These chemicals are sprayed on the crop plants or used for treating seeds and soil. However, excessive use of these chemical pesticides leads to environmental pollution. They also can be toxic to some plants and animals.
  24. 24. Biological methods to control Insect pests In this method some insects, birds or other organisms are deliberately put in the affected crop fields which can kill the pests but don’t cause any harm to the crops. The biological method of pests control is highly specific and non polluting but it acts slowly.
  25. 25. Disease of crop plants Disease causing organisms are called pathogens. Common pathogens of crop plants are bacteria, fungi, nematodes and viruses. These pathogens are present in the soil, water and air. On getting favorable conditions become active and infect the plant. The diseases caused by them to reduce the growth and yield of crops.
  26. 26. Preventive measures • Use of resistant varieties • Proper time of sowing • Clean cultivation • Cropping patterns • Summer ploughing in which fields are ploughed deep and left bare for a few days in summer which will destroy most of the pathogens and pests.
  27. 27. Storage Of Grains Storage of grains is done at the following three levels : • At producer level (farmer level)- rural storage • At traders level – by keeping food grains in gunny bags • At FCI (food corporation of India) level – by storing grains in silos
  28. 28. Factors responsible for losses during storage Biotic factors : These factors include living organisms such as insects, rodents, birds, worms, bacteria, fungi, viruses, mites, etc. Abiotic factors : Inadequate amount of moisture(present in food grains), humidity, temperature, etc. are the abiotic factors which lead to spoilage of food grains.
  29. 29. Animal husbandry
  30. 30. Introduction Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock which includes various aspects such as animal feeding, caring, breeding and disease control. So animal husbandry can de defined as the branch of agriculture which deals with the feeding, shelter and breeding of domestic animals, raised mainly for their proper economic utilization.
  31. 31. Cattle farming Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes- Milk and draught labor for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. Indian cattle belong two different species , Bos indicus cow and Bos bubalius , buffaloes. Milk- producing females are called milch animal while the ones used for farm labor are called draught animals.
  32. 32. QUALITY OF BUFFALO MILK Buffalo is most productive economic animal. Buffalo milk is richer in fat, protein, calcium ,phosphorus, contain low sodium potassium cholesterol. Buffalos milk is ideal for making milk product such as khoa ,rabri, dhai, ghee, etc., is always in great demand. Certain vitamins such as vitamins A and D are also present in milk
  33. 33. Cross breeding Suppose we have two cows of different breed but same species, each with desirable characters of both of these breed to be in a single breed. For that purpose these two animals are selected as parents and are crossed together to obtain the improved breed. This is called cross breeding.
  34. 34. Farm management practices The requirement of proper cleaning and shelter for cow and buffaloes is required for the production of clean milk and for the heath of animal. Both cow and buffalo require regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hairs. They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofed sheds that protect them from rain ,heat, cold. The floor of the cattle shed needs to be sloping so as to stay dry and to facilitate cleaning. Maintenance requirements for the cattle is the food that is required by the animal to perform the basic function of life it includes the type of food require during lactation period .
  35. 35. Poultry farming Poultry farming refers to the raising domestic fowls for production of eggs and meat. An egg- laying poultry is called a layer and the poultry bird reared for obtaining meat is called a broiler. Poultry industry is one of the fastest growing segments of the animal husbandry. It is cheap source of animal protein for non-vegetarian people.
  36. 36. Variety Improvement Cross breeding between Indian breeds and foreign breed of poultry is carried out to obtain improved breeds of poultry for the following desirable characters:- • Increase number and quality of chicks • Dwarf broiler parent for production of commercial chicks • Some more adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature • Reduction in the size of egg laying bird with ability to utilize more fibrous and cheaper diet formulated using agricultural bi products
  37. 37. Egg and Broiler production Egg production : production of eggs is the most important aspect of poultry. Hens raised for egg production are called layers. When the egg production becomes uneconomical, the layers are sold for slaughtering Broiler production : broilers are poultry birds that are reared for obtaining meat. Special care is required to avoid death of the broilers and to maintain feathering and carcass quality. They raised as broilers and sent to market for meat purposes
  38. 38. Poultry care Layers and broilers require different types of care. It is because the housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of layers and broilers are some what different from each other. Good management practices are very important for good production of poultry birds. Such practices include :- • a maintenance of hygienic conditions in poultry feed and housing maintenance of proper temperature of the shed • Prevention and control of disease, pests, etc.
  39. 39. Fish production Production of fish is called fish farming or water agriculture. Fish production includes rearing of true finned fish as well as shell fish. Fisheries are the establishments associated with capture preservation and utilization of various types of fish, prawns, lobsters, oysters, etc. depending upon the mood of obtaining fish, fishery of two types • Capture fishery includes catching fish from natural resources of water, both marine and fresh water sources
  40. 40. Culture fishery Culture fishery or fish culture is alternatively known as fish farming or pisciculture. On the basis of sources of water for fish production fishery can be categorized in two types.
  41. 41. Marine fisheries Marine fisheries includes fish catching areas found in oceans and seas. India's marine fishery resources include 7500 km of coastline and extensive deep sea. Different procedures are adapted for catching the fish. Fishing nets and trawlers can be used to capture them. The trawlers have fish locating electronic devices, eco sounders and satellite receptors for locating the fish shoals or fish schools. Fish production includes finned fishes like mullet and vhetki, pearls spot shell fish such as prawn mussels, oysters as well as sea weeds. As marine fish talks get further depleted, demand for fish can only be met by such culture fisheries. Cultivation or culturing of marine organisms for food and other products is called mericulture.
  42. 42. Inland fisheries Inland fishery is the collective term used for both fresh water and brackish water fisheries. Brackish water is slightly salty water where sea water and fresh water mix together. Yield from inland capture fishery is not very high, therefore, most fish production from inland water sources is through aquaculture practices.
  43. 43. Aquaculture It is the production of economically useful aquatic plants and animals by proper utilization of available waters in the country. It includes both marine and fresh water sources. Organisms included in aqua culture are fish, prawns, cray fish, lobsters, crabs, shrimps, mussels, oysters and sea weeds. Thus it includes both mericulture as well as fresh water culture fisheries.
  44. 44. Integrated fish culture Culturing fish along with agricultural crop is referred to as integrated fish culture. The crops may include paddy, banana, coconut, etc. certain species of fish which are able to leave in shallow water of rice fields and can tolerate high temperature or turbidity are cultured along with rice crop. Examples of such fish are catla catla and labeo rohita (rohu)
  45. 45. Composite fish culture In this type of culture system five or six fish species are cultured together in a single fish pound. Both Indian and exotic species can be used in this culture. However the should be so selected that they don’t compete with each other for space, nutriention, etc.
  46. 46. Apiculture Apiculture is the practice of rearing, caring and managing the honey bees for obtaining honey, bee wax and other useful substances. Honey is sweet, viscous and aromatic fluid formed from the nectar of flowers. It contains sugar ( glucose, fructose, sucrose and dextrin), moisture, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes and pollen grains.
  47. 47. Various uses of honey • Honey has medicinal value for treating disorders related to the digestion • It is blood purifier • It is rich in iron and calcium and thus helps in body growth • It helps in formation of haemoglobin • It is used as sweetener in confectionery industry • Honey is an immediate source of energy
  48. 48. Varieties of honey bees Some of the indigenous bee varieties used for commercial production of honey in India are :- • Apis cerana indica (indian bee) • Apis dorsata (rock bee) • Apis florae (little bee)
  49. 49. Apis melifera Apis melifera is an exotic breed variety has been brought to India from Italy, to increase the yield of honey. It is the variety commonly used for commercial honey production. This Italian bee variety has been domesticated in India because it has : • High honey collection capacity • Gentle nature • Longer stay periods in a given beehive • Very well breeding capacity • Good ability to protect itself from enemies
  50. 50. Apiary An apiary is a place where a number of beehives are kept in wooden boxes in a systematic manner at desirable locations. Apiaries are established for commercial production of honey.
  51. 51. Requirements for high yield • Pasturage • Apiary location • Beehive • Honey flow and season • Swarming • Selection of variety • Protection from pests and diseases