Interaction Between Matter and X ray

P
Pratik PanasaraRadiology Resident
PRESENTATION BY:Dr. Pratik Panasara
Physical interaction of X ray with matter
Dual characteristics of X-ray
 X-rays belong to a group of radiation called electromagnetic radiation .
 Electromagnetic radiation has dual characteristic, comprises of both
 Wave
 Particle
Wave concept : Propagated through space in the form of waves. Waves
of all types have associated wavelength and frequency Relationship :
c=λν.
c=velocity of light
λ=wavelength
ν=frequency
The wavelength of diagnostic X-rays is very short around 0.1 to 1A.
Wave concept explains why it can be reflected.
Methods of Interactions
v Photons : absorbed / scattered.
v Attenuation : Reduction of intensity. Difference in attenuation gives
the radiographic image.
v Absorbed : completely removed from the x-ray beam & cease to exist.
v Scattered : Random course. No useful information. No image only
darkness. Adds noise to the system.
v Film quality affected : “film fog”.
v About 1% of the x rays that strike
a patient's body emerge from the
body to produce the final image.
The radiographic image is formed
on a radiographic plate that is
similar to the film of a camera.
v Remaining 99% of the x-rays ---
Scattered / Absorbed.
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
vX-ray photons may interact either with orbital electrons or
with the nucleus. In the diagnostic energy range, the
interactions are always with orbital electrons.
vThe molecular bonding energies ,however are too small to
influence the type and number of interactions .
vThe most important factor is the atomic make up of a tissue
and not its molecular structure.
Atomic structure
Ø K shell : 2 electrons
Ø L shell : 8 electrons
Ø Each shell has a specific binding energy & closer the shell is to the nucleus, the
tighter it is bound to the nucleus. The electrons in the outermost shell are loosely
bound to the nucleus & are hence called “free electrons”.
Basic structure of an ATOM :
PROTON ( +ve charge )
An atom is made up of NUCLEUS
NEUTRON ( neutral )
ORBITAL ELECTRONS ( -ve charge )
ORBITS / SHELLS ( K, L, M, N etc. )
Interaction Between Matter and X ray
Energy value of electronic shells is also determined by
the atomic number of the atom.
K-shell electron are more tightly bound in elements of
high atomic number. Pb : 88keV while Ca : 4keV.
Electrons in the K -shell are at a lower energy level than
electrons in the L-shell. If we consider the outermost
electrons as free ,than inner shell electrons are in energy
debt. The energy debt is greatest when they are close to
nucleus in an element with a high atomic number.
BASIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN X-RAYS AND
MATTER
 There are 12 mechanism, out of which five basic ways in which
an x-ray photon may interact with matter.
 These are :Broadly classified on the basis of-
A: PHOTON
SCATTERING:
- COHERENT SCATTERING
- COMPTON SCATTERING
B: PHOTON DISAPPEARANCE
- PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
- PAIR PRODUCTION
- PHOTODISINTEGRATION
1. COHERENT SCATTERING
Radiation undergoes
Only Change in direction. No change in wavelength
Thats why sometime called “ unmodified scattering”
Coherent scattering of X-rays is an interaction of the wave
type in which the X-ray is deflected.
Coherent Scattering occurs mainly at low energies.
It is of
two types : Both type described in terms of “ wave Particle
Interaction”
( also called “ Classical scattering”)
 Thomson scattering : Single electron involved in the interaction.
 Rayleigh scattering : Co-operative interaction of all the electrons.
1. COHERENT SCATTERING
What happens in coherent scattering ?
Low energy radiation encounters electrons
Electrons are set into vibration
Vibrating electron, emits radiation.
Atom returns to its undisturbed state
Fig : Rayleigh scattering
1. COHERENT SCATTERING
ØNo ionization --- why??? because, no energy transfer.
Only change of direction.
ØOnly effect is to change direction of incident photon.
ØLess than 5%. Not important in diagnostic radiology.
Produces scattered radiation but of negligible quantity.
2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
What happens in Photoelectric effect ?
An incident PHOTON encounters a K shell electron and ejects it from the orbit
The photon disappears, giving up (nearly) all its energy to the electron.
The electron (now free of its energy debt) flies off into space as a
photoelectron carrying the excess energy as kinetic energy.
The K shell electron void filled immediately by another electron and
hence the excess energy is released as CHARACTERISTIC
RADIATION.
The atom is ionised.
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Percentage of photoelectric reactions
Radiation
energy(keV)
Water Compact
bone
Sodium
iodide
20 65 89 94
60 7 31 95
100 2 9 88
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION
Characteristic radiation generated by the photoelectric effect is exactly the same
The only difference in the modality used to eject the inner shell electron.
In x ray tube a high speed electron ejects the bound electron,
while
In photoelectric effect an X ray photon does the trick.
In both cases-
the atom is left with an excess of energy = the binding energy of an ejected electron
Usually referred to as Secondary Radiation to differentiate
It from scatter radiation……
End result is same for both,
“A Photon that is deflected from its original path”.
Characteristic radiation
How does this happen ?
Ø After the electron has been ejected, the atom is left with a void in the K
shell & an excess of energy equivalent to the binding energy.
Ø This state of the atom is highly unstable & to achieve a low energy stable
state (as all physical systems seek the lowest possible energy state) an
electron immediately drops in to fill the void.
Ø As the electron drops into the K shell, it gives up its excess energy in the
form of an x-ray photon. The amount of energy released is characteristic
of each element & hence the radiation produced is called
Characteristic radiation.
Interaction Between Matter and X ray
2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Thus the Photoelectric effect yields three end products :
Ø Characteristic radiation
Ø A -ve ion ( photoelectron )
Ø A+ve ion (atom deficient in one electron )
2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Probability of occurrence :
 The incident photon energy > binding energy of the
electron.
 Photon energy similar to electron binding energy
Photoelectric effect ∞ 1 / (energy)³
 The probability of a reaction increases sharply as the
atomic no. increases
Photoelectric effect ∞ (atomic no.)³
Low atomic number : interaction mostly at the K shell.
High atomic number : interaction mostly at L and M shell.
In summary, Photoelectric reactions are most likely to
occur with low energy photons and elements with high
atomic numbers provided the photons have sufficient
energy to overcome the forces binding the electrons in
their cells.
For eg : I2
K shell :33.2keV
L-shell : 4.9keV
M shell 0.6 Kev.
From L-shell to K-
shell a 28.3 kev(33.2-
4.9=28.3) keV photon
is released.
The void in the L-shell
is then filled with a
photon from the M
shell with the
production of a ( 4.9-
0.6 KeV)4.3 keV
photon.
K-shell electron binding energies of elements
important in diagnostic radiology
Atom Atomic number K-shell binding energy(keV)
Calcium
Iodine
Barium
Tungsten
Lead
20
53
56
74
82
4.04
33.2
37.4
69.5
88.O
2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT :
Applications in diagnostic radiology :
Advantages :
Excellent radiographic images :
Ø No scatter radiation.
Ø Enhances natural tissue
contrast. Depends on 3rd
power of the atomic no., so it
magnifies the difference in
tissues composed of different
elements, such as bone & soft
tissue.
Ø Lower energy photons : total
absorption. Dominant upto 500
keV.
Disadvantage:
Maximum radiation exposure.
Ø All the energy is absorbed by the
patient whereas in other reactions
only part of the incident photon’s
energy is absorbed.
3. COMPTON EFFECT
The Compton effect occurs when the incident x-ray
photon with relatively high energy ejects an electron from
an atom and a x-ray photon of lower energy is scattered
from the atom.
The reaction produces an ion pair
v
A +ve atom
v
A –ve electron ( recoil
electron )
COMPTON SCATTERING
Almost all the scatter radiation that we encountered
In diagnostic radiology comes from Compton Scattering
Kinetic energy of recoil electron
Energy of photon distributed
Retained by the deflected photon.
Two factors determine the amount of energy the photon transmits :
 The initial energy of the photon.
 Its angle of deflection.
1. Initial energy :- Higher the energy more difficult to deflect.
High energy : Travel straight retaining most of the energy.
Low energy : Most scatter back at angle of 180º
2. Angle of deflection :- Greater the angle, lesser the energy trasmitted.
With a direct hit, maximum energy is transferred to the recoil electron. The
photon retains some energy & deflects back along its original path at an angle
of 180º.
3. COMPTON EFFECT
ENERGY OF COMPTON SCATTERED PHOTONS
•
The change in wavelength of a scattered photon is calculated as :
Δλ = 0.024 ( 1 – cos θ ) ,
where Δλ = change in wavelength
θ = angle of photon deflection
3. COMPTON EFFECT
Probability of occurence :
It depends on :-
 Total number of electrons : It further depends on density and
number of electrons per gram of the absorber. All elements contain approx.
the same no. of electrons per gram, regardless of their atomic no.
Therefore the no. of Compton reactions is independent of the atomic no. of
the absorber.
 Energy of the radiation : The no. of reactions gradually
diminishes as photon energy increases, so that a high energy photon is
more likely to pass through the body than a low energy photon.
Two subsequent points should also be noted:
 Firstly, the photoelectron can cause ionizations along its track.
 Secondly, X-ray emission can occur when the vacancy left by the
photoelectron is filled by an electron from an outer shell of the atom. 
Disadvantages of Compton reaction :
Scatter radiation : Almost all the scatter radiation that we encounter in
diagnostic Radiology comes from Compton scattering. In the diagnostic energy
range, the photon retains most of its original energy. This creates a serious problem,
because photons that are scattered at narrow angles have an excellent chance of
reaching an x-ray film & producing fog.
Exceedingly difficult to remove –
► cannot be removed by filters because they are too energetic.
► cannot be removed by grids because of narrow angles of deflection.
It is also a major safety hazard. Even after 90˚ deflection most of its original
energy is retained.
Scatter radiation as energetic as the primary radiation.
Safety hazard for the radiologist, personnel and the patient.
4. PAIR PRODUCTION
No importance in diagnostic radiology.
What happens in Pair production ?
A high energy photon interacts with the nucleus of an atom.
The photon disappears & its energy is converted into matter
in the form
of two particles
 An electron
 A positron (particle with same mass as electron, but with +ve
charge.)
Mass of one electron is 0.51 MeV.
2 electron masses are produced.
So the interaction cannot take place with photon energy less than 1.02
MeV.
4. PAIR PRODUCTION
Positron annihilation.
What happens to the
Positron ?
Slowly moving Positron
combines with a free electron
to produce two photons of
radiation.
2 mass units are converted,
giving a total energy of 1.022
MeV.
To conserve momentum, two
photons each with 0.511 MeV
energy are ejected in opposite
direction.
5. PHOTODISINTEGRATION
A photon with extremely high energy ( 7-15 MeV), interacts directly with the
nucleus of an atom.
May eject a neutron, proton or on rare occasions even an alpha particle.
No diagnostic importance.
We rarely use radiation >150 KeV in diagnostic radiology.
What happens in Photodisintegration ?
A high energy photon encounters the nucleus of an atom.
Part of the nucleus which may be a neutron, a proton, an alpha particle or a
cluster of particles, is ejected.
RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF BASIC
INTERACTIONS
Ø Coherent scattering : About 5% .
Minor role throughout the diagnostic energy range.
Ø Compton scattering : Dominant interaction in water.
Water is used to represent tissues with low atomic nos. such as air,
fat and muscle.
Ø Photoelectric reaction : usually seen in the contrast agents
because of their high atomic numbers.
 Bone is intermediate between water & the contrast agents. At low
energies, Photoelectric reactions are more common, while at high
energies, Compton scattering is dominant.
RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF BASIC INTERACTIONS
X-ray photon
energy
Photoelectric
absorption %
Compton scatter
%
Pair production%
10 keV 95 5 0
25 keV
(Mammograph
y
50 50 0
60 keV
(Diagnostic)
7 93 0
150 keV 0 100 0
4 MeV
0 94 6
10 MeV
(Therapy)
0 77 23
24 MeV 0 50 50
Scatter Radiation
Scatter Radiation
q Definition
§ A type of secondary radiation composed of photons of
lower energy than the photons that produced them and
which travel in a different direction.
§ The term scatter radiation is synonymous with
secondary radiation in the context of x-rays
Scatter radiation & Contrast - overview
q Radiographic images are maps of radiation attenuation. Bones
attenuate the most, air in lungs the least.
q Good radiograph : maximum contrast difference between different
tissues.
X-Ray beam enters body.
Large number of interactions producing scatter radiation.
Image contrast reduced depending on scatter radiation content
reaching film.
CONTRAST REDUCTION
Assumed that the object shown here is not penetrated and would
produce 100% contrast if no scatter radiation.
Sources of scattered radiation
q Transmitted scatter
constitutes greater portion of scattered radiation and originates
from the patient under examination.
q Scatter from cassette
q Side scatter
Side scatter originates from walls, or objects on the source side of
the film
q Reflection scatter or Back scatter
It is often called backscatter when it comes from objects behind the
film.
q Undercut
Undercut occurs due to scattering within the film
Factors affecting scatter radiation
q Field size
q Kilo voltage (kVp)
q Anatomical volume (Part thickness)
Factors affecting scatter radiation
Scatter radiation is maximum with high kvp
technique, large field , and thick parts.
Unfortunately, this is what we usually deal with in
diagnostic radiology.
The only variable we can control is kvp , but we
have less control.
Factors affecting scatter radiation
q Field Size
Most important factor in the production of scatter radiation.
A small x ray field usually called Narrow beam irradiates
less tissue and generates fewer scattered photons.
Contrast Improvement by
Reducing X-Ray Beam Size
Factors affecting scatter radiation
Kvp
The effect of kvp on the production of scatter radiation
is probably not as important as part thickness, and as
field size.
Factors affecting scatter radiation
q Part thickness
§ Scatter radiation is directly proportional to the part
thickness.
§ The operator has no control over this parameter.
Effects of scatter radiation
q Reduction of contrast: Scattered photons
§ Carry no useful information
§ Contribute to film blackness(film fog)
q Increased patient dose
q Increased risk to personnel
Control of scatter radiation
Backscatter : ‘B’ is industry
code.
Lead ‘B’ behind cassette to
assess backscatter.
If the letter "B" shows as a
"ghost" image on the film, a
significant amount of
backscatter radiation is
reaching the film.
Control of backscatter radiation
by : Backing film in the
cassette with a sheet of lead
that is at least 0.010 inch thick.
Industry practice : 0.005" lead
screen in front and a 0.010"
screen behind the film.
Different techniques are used to keep the
scatter radiation from reaching the films.
§
X ray filters
§
X ray beam
restrictors
§
Grids (most important)
Prevention of scatter radiation
SUMMARY
Only two interactions are important in diagnostic radiology, the Photoelectric effect &
Compton scattering.
The Photoelectric effect
- is the predominant interaction with low energy radiation & high atomic no. absorbers.
- It generates no significant scatter radiation & produces high contrast in the x-ray image.
- But, unfortunately it exposes the patient to a great deal radiation.
The Compton scattering
 is the most common interaction at higher diagnostic energies.
 responsible for almost all scatter radiation.
 radiographic image contrast is less compared to photoelectric effect.
Coherent scattering is numerically unimportant.
Pair production & Photodisintegration occur at energies above the useful energy
range.
SUMMARY
Scatter Radiation
Ø secondary radiation composed of photons of lower energy than
the photons that produced them and which travel in a different
direction.
Ø Factors affecting it :
q Field size
q Kilo voltage (kVp)
q Anatomical volume (Part thickness)
Ø No useful information, causes film fog and increases patient
exposure.
Thank you & Have A nice day
T H A N K Y O U
1 de 51

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Interaction Between Matter and X ray

  • 1. PRESENTATION BY:Dr. Pratik Panasara Physical interaction of X ray with matter
  • 2. Dual characteristics of X-ray  X-rays belong to a group of radiation called electromagnetic radiation .  Electromagnetic radiation has dual characteristic, comprises of both  Wave  Particle Wave concept : Propagated through space in the form of waves. Waves of all types have associated wavelength and frequency Relationship : c=λν. c=velocity of light λ=wavelength ν=frequency The wavelength of diagnostic X-rays is very short around 0.1 to 1A. Wave concept explains why it can be reflected.
  • 3. Methods of Interactions v Photons : absorbed / scattered. v Attenuation : Reduction of intensity. Difference in attenuation gives the radiographic image. v Absorbed : completely removed from the x-ray beam & cease to exist. v Scattered : Random course. No useful information. No image only darkness. Adds noise to the system. v Film quality affected : “film fog”. v About 1% of the x rays that strike a patient's body emerge from the body to produce the final image. The radiographic image is formed on a radiographic plate that is similar to the film of a camera. v Remaining 99% of the x-rays --- Scattered / Absorbed.
  • 4. ATOMIC STRUCTURE vX-ray photons may interact either with orbital electrons or with the nucleus. In the diagnostic energy range, the interactions are always with orbital electrons. vThe molecular bonding energies ,however are too small to influence the type and number of interactions . vThe most important factor is the atomic make up of a tissue and not its molecular structure.
  • 5. Atomic structure Ø K shell : 2 electrons Ø L shell : 8 electrons Ø Each shell has a specific binding energy & closer the shell is to the nucleus, the tighter it is bound to the nucleus. The electrons in the outermost shell are loosely bound to the nucleus & are hence called “free electrons”. Basic structure of an ATOM : PROTON ( +ve charge ) An atom is made up of NUCLEUS NEUTRON ( neutral ) ORBITAL ELECTRONS ( -ve charge ) ORBITS / SHELLS ( K, L, M, N etc. )
  • 7. Energy value of electronic shells is also determined by the atomic number of the atom. K-shell electron are more tightly bound in elements of high atomic number. Pb : 88keV while Ca : 4keV. Electrons in the K -shell are at a lower energy level than electrons in the L-shell. If we consider the outermost electrons as free ,than inner shell electrons are in energy debt. The energy debt is greatest when they are close to nucleus in an element with a high atomic number.
  • 8. BASIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN X-RAYS AND MATTER  There are 12 mechanism, out of which five basic ways in which an x-ray photon may interact with matter.  These are :Broadly classified on the basis of- A: PHOTON SCATTERING: - COHERENT SCATTERING - COMPTON SCATTERING B: PHOTON DISAPPEARANCE - PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT - PAIR PRODUCTION - PHOTODISINTEGRATION
  • 9. 1. COHERENT SCATTERING Radiation undergoes Only Change in direction. No change in wavelength Thats why sometime called “ unmodified scattering” Coherent scattering of X-rays is an interaction of the wave type in which the X-ray is deflected. Coherent Scattering occurs mainly at low energies. It is of two types : Both type described in terms of “ wave Particle Interaction” ( also called “ Classical scattering”)  Thomson scattering : Single electron involved in the interaction.  Rayleigh scattering : Co-operative interaction of all the electrons.
  • 10. 1. COHERENT SCATTERING What happens in coherent scattering ? Low energy radiation encounters electrons Electrons are set into vibration Vibrating electron, emits radiation. Atom returns to its undisturbed state Fig : Rayleigh scattering
  • 11. 1. COHERENT SCATTERING ØNo ionization --- why??? because, no energy transfer. Only change of direction. ØOnly effect is to change direction of incident photon. ØLess than 5%. Not important in diagnostic radiology. Produces scattered radiation but of negligible quantity.
  • 12. 2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT What happens in Photoelectric effect ? An incident PHOTON encounters a K shell electron and ejects it from the orbit The photon disappears, giving up (nearly) all its energy to the electron. The electron (now free of its energy debt) flies off into space as a photoelectron carrying the excess energy as kinetic energy. The K shell electron void filled immediately by another electron and hence the excess energy is released as CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION. The atom is ionised.
  • 14. Percentage of photoelectric reactions Radiation energy(keV) Water Compact bone Sodium iodide 20 65 89 94 60 7 31 95 100 2 9 88
  • 15. CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION Characteristic radiation generated by the photoelectric effect is exactly the same The only difference in the modality used to eject the inner shell electron. In x ray tube a high speed electron ejects the bound electron, while In photoelectric effect an X ray photon does the trick. In both cases- the atom is left with an excess of energy = the binding energy of an ejected electron Usually referred to as Secondary Radiation to differentiate It from scatter radiation…… End result is same for both, “A Photon that is deflected from its original path”.
  • 16. Characteristic radiation How does this happen ? Ø After the electron has been ejected, the atom is left with a void in the K shell & an excess of energy equivalent to the binding energy. Ø This state of the atom is highly unstable & to achieve a low energy stable state (as all physical systems seek the lowest possible energy state) an electron immediately drops in to fill the void. Ø As the electron drops into the K shell, it gives up its excess energy in the form of an x-ray photon. The amount of energy released is characteristic of each element & hence the radiation produced is called Characteristic radiation.
  • 18. 2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT Thus the Photoelectric effect yields three end products : Ø Characteristic radiation Ø A -ve ion ( photoelectron ) Ø A+ve ion (atom deficient in one electron )
  • 19. 2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT Probability of occurrence :  The incident photon energy > binding energy of the electron.  Photon energy similar to electron binding energy Photoelectric effect ∞ 1 / (energy)³  The probability of a reaction increases sharply as the atomic no. increases Photoelectric effect ∞ (atomic no.)³
  • 20. Low atomic number : interaction mostly at the K shell. High atomic number : interaction mostly at L and M shell. In summary, Photoelectric reactions are most likely to occur with low energy photons and elements with high atomic numbers provided the photons have sufficient energy to overcome the forces binding the electrons in their cells.
  • 21. For eg : I2 K shell :33.2keV L-shell : 4.9keV M shell 0.6 Kev. From L-shell to K- shell a 28.3 kev(33.2- 4.9=28.3) keV photon is released. The void in the L-shell is then filled with a photon from the M shell with the production of a ( 4.9- 0.6 KeV)4.3 keV photon.
  • 22. K-shell electron binding energies of elements important in diagnostic radiology Atom Atomic number K-shell binding energy(keV) Calcium Iodine Barium Tungsten Lead 20 53 56 74 82 4.04 33.2 37.4 69.5 88.O
  • 23. 2. PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT : Applications in diagnostic radiology : Advantages : Excellent radiographic images : Ø No scatter radiation. Ø Enhances natural tissue contrast. Depends on 3rd power of the atomic no., so it magnifies the difference in tissues composed of different elements, such as bone & soft tissue. Ø Lower energy photons : total absorption. Dominant upto 500 keV. Disadvantage: Maximum radiation exposure. Ø All the energy is absorbed by the patient whereas in other reactions only part of the incident photon’s energy is absorbed.
  • 24. 3. COMPTON EFFECT The Compton effect occurs when the incident x-ray photon with relatively high energy ejects an electron from an atom and a x-ray photon of lower energy is scattered from the atom. The reaction produces an ion pair v A +ve atom v A –ve electron ( recoil electron )
  • 25. COMPTON SCATTERING Almost all the scatter radiation that we encountered In diagnostic radiology comes from Compton Scattering
  • 26. Kinetic energy of recoil electron Energy of photon distributed Retained by the deflected photon. Two factors determine the amount of energy the photon transmits :  The initial energy of the photon.  Its angle of deflection. 1. Initial energy :- Higher the energy more difficult to deflect. High energy : Travel straight retaining most of the energy. Low energy : Most scatter back at angle of 180º 2. Angle of deflection :- Greater the angle, lesser the energy trasmitted. With a direct hit, maximum energy is transferred to the recoil electron. The photon retains some energy & deflects back along its original path at an angle of 180º. 3. COMPTON EFFECT
  • 27. ENERGY OF COMPTON SCATTERED PHOTONS • The change in wavelength of a scattered photon is calculated as : Δλ = 0.024 ( 1 – cos θ ) , where Δλ = change in wavelength θ = angle of photon deflection
  • 28. 3. COMPTON EFFECT Probability of occurence : It depends on :-  Total number of electrons : It further depends on density and number of electrons per gram of the absorber. All elements contain approx. the same no. of electrons per gram, regardless of their atomic no. Therefore the no. of Compton reactions is independent of the atomic no. of the absorber.  Energy of the radiation : The no. of reactions gradually diminishes as photon energy increases, so that a high energy photon is more likely to pass through the body than a low energy photon. Two subsequent points should also be noted:  Firstly, the photoelectron can cause ionizations along its track.  Secondly, X-ray emission can occur when the vacancy left by the photoelectron is filled by an electron from an outer shell of the atom. 
  • 29. Disadvantages of Compton reaction : Scatter radiation : Almost all the scatter radiation that we encounter in diagnostic Radiology comes from Compton scattering. In the diagnostic energy range, the photon retains most of its original energy. This creates a serious problem, because photons that are scattered at narrow angles have an excellent chance of reaching an x-ray film & producing fog. Exceedingly difficult to remove – ► cannot be removed by filters because they are too energetic. ► cannot be removed by grids because of narrow angles of deflection. It is also a major safety hazard. Even after 90˚ deflection most of its original energy is retained. Scatter radiation as energetic as the primary radiation. Safety hazard for the radiologist, personnel and the patient.
  • 30. 4. PAIR PRODUCTION No importance in diagnostic radiology. What happens in Pair production ? A high energy photon interacts with the nucleus of an atom. The photon disappears & its energy is converted into matter in the form of two particles  An electron  A positron (particle with same mass as electron, but with +ve charge.) Mass of one electron is 0.51 MeV. 2 electron masses are produced. So the interaction cannot take place with photon energy less than 1.02 MeV.
  • 31. 4. PAIR PRODUCTION Positron annihilation. What happens to the Positron ? Slowly moving Positron combines with a free electron to produce two photons of radiation. 2 mass units are converted, giving a total energy of 1.022 MeV. To conserve momentum, two photons each with 0.511 MeV energy are ejected in opposite direction.
  • 32. 5. PHOTODISINTEGRATION A photon with extremely high energy ( 7-15 MeV), interacts directly with the nucleus of an atom. May eject a neutron, proton or on rare occasions even an alpha particle. No diagnostic importance. We rarely use radiation >150 KeV in diagnostic radiology. What happens in Photodisintegration ? A high energy photon encounters the nucleus of an atom. Part of the nucleus which may be a neutron, a proton, an alpha particle or a cluster of particles, is ejected.
  • 33. RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF BASIC INTERACTIONS Ø Coherent scattering : About 5% . Minor role throughout the diagnostic energy range. Ø Compton scattering : Dominant interaction in water. Water is used to represent tissues with low atomic nos. such as air, fat and muscle. Ø Photoelectric reaction : usually seen in the contrast agents because of their high atomic numbers.  Bone is intermediate between water & the contrast agents. At low energies, Photoelectric reactions are more common, while at high energies, Compton scattering is dominant.
  • 34. RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF BASIC INTERACTIONS
  • 35. X-ray photon energy Photoelectric absorption % Compton scatter % Pair production% 10 keV 95 5 0 25 keV (Mammograph y 50 50 0 60 keV (Diagnostic) 7 93 0 150 keV 0 100 0 4 MeV 0 94 6 10 MeV (Therapy) 0 77 23 24 MeV 0 50 50
  • 37. Scatter Radiation q Definition § A type of secondary radiation composed of photons of lower energy than the photons that produced them and which travel in a different direction. § The term scatter radiation is synonymous with secondary radiation in the context of x-rays
  • 38. Scatter radiation & Contrast - overview q Radiographic images are maps of radiation attenuation. Bones attenuate the most, air in lungs the least. q Good radiograph : maximum contrast difference between different tissues. X-Ray beam enters body. Large number of interactions producing scatter radiation. Image contrast reduced depending on scatter radiation content reaching film.
  • 39. CONTRAST REDUCTION Assumed that the object shown here is not penetrated and would produce 100% contrast if no scatter radiation.
  • 40. Sources of scattered radiation q Transmitted scatter constitutes greater portion of scattered radiation and originates from the patient under examination. q Scatter from cassette q Side scatter Side scatter originates from walls, or objects on the source side of the film q Reflection scatter or Back scatter It is often called backscatter when it comes from objects behind the film. q Undercut Undercut occurs due to scattering within the film
  • 41. Factors affecting scatter radiation q Field size q Kilo voltage (kVp) q Anatomical volume (Part thickness)
  • 42. Factors affecting scatter radiation Scatter radiation is maximum with high kvp technique, large field , and thick parts. Unfortunately, this is what we usually deal with in diagnostic radiology. The only variable we can control is kvp , but we have less control.
  • 43. Factors affecting scatter radiation q Field Size Most important factor in the production of scatter radiation. A small x ray field usually called Narrow beam irradiates less tissue and generates fewer scattered photons. Contrast Improvement by Reducing X-Ray Beam Size
  • 44. Factors affecting scatter radiation Kvp The effect of kvp on the production of scatter radiation is probably not as important as part thickness, and as field size.
  • 45. Factors affecting scatter radiation q Part thickness § Scatter radiation is directly proportional to the part thickness. § The operator has no control over this parameter.
  • 46. Effects of scatter radiation q Reduction of contrast: Scattered photons § Carry no useful information § Contribute to film blackness(film fog) q Increased patient dose q Increased risk to personnel
  • 47. Control of scatter radiation Backscatter : ‘B’ is industry code. Lead ‘B’ behind cassette to assess backscatter. If the letter "B" shows as a "ghost" image on the film, a significant amount of backscatter radiation is reaching the film. Control of backscatter radiation by : Backing film in the cassette with a sheet of lead that is at least 0.010 inch thick. Industry practice : 0.005" lead screen in front and a 0.010" screen behind the film.
  • 48. Different techniques are used to keep the scatter radiation from reaching the films. § X ray filters § X ray beam restrictors § Grids (most important) Prevention of scatter radiation
  • 49. SUMMARY Only two interactions are important in diagnostic radiology, the Photoelectric effect & Compton scattering. The Photoelectric effect - is the predominant interaction with low energy radiation & high atomic no. absorbers. - It generates no significant scatter radiation & produces high contrast in the x-ray image. - But, unfortunately it exposes the patient to a great deal radiation. The Compton scattering  is the most common interaction at higher diagnostic energies.  responsible for almost all scatter radiation.  radiographic image contrast is less compared to photoelectric effect. Coherent scattering is numerically unimportant. Pair production & Photodisintegration occur at energies above the useful energy range.
  • 50. SUMMARY Scatter Radiation Ø secondary radiation composed of photons of lower energy than the photons that produced them and which travel in a different direction. Ø Factors affecting it : q Field size q Kilo voltage (kVp) q Anatomical volume (Part thickness) Ø No useful information, causes film fog and increases patient exposure.
  • 51. Thank you & Have A nice day T H A N K Y O U

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