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1) Introduction to automation
2) Industrial Automation
3) History of automation
4) Components of Industrial Automation
5) What is PLC
6) Components of PLC
7) PLC Programming Fundamentals
8) Applications of PLC
9) Advantages and Disadvantages
10) SCADA-Definition and Components
11) Features of SCADA
12) Application of SCADA
13) Future scope of automation
INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION
Automation= “Auto”(self) + “Matos”(moving)
•A step beyond mechanisation
• Use of computers to control the particular process with
minimal human involvement
•Increases the efficiency and productivity of the system
•Time taken for a process is less
Use of control systems, such as computers or robots,
and information technologies for handling different
processes and machineries in an industry to replace a
Industrial automation = process + automation
History of automation
COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION
1. Sensors : Examples- temperature, pressure,
2. Actuators: Examples- Relays, magnets,
3. Automation computers: microcontrollers,plc
4. Automation software system: Set of all
programs necessary for the execution of
WHAT IS PLC? • PLC - programmable logic controller
• Conceived by Dick Morley in 1968
• A special form of microprocessor-based
controller that uses a programmable memory
to store instructions and to implement
• Can be programmed by non-specialists
• The automation of many different processes,
such as controlling machines or factory
assembly lines, is done through the use of
these small computers .
• Designed for (logic) control and regulation
COMPONENTS OF PLC
1.The CPU :Contains Microprocessor which interprets the input signals and carries
out the control actions, according to the program stored in its memory
The CPU consists of following blocks :
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU),
Internal memory of CPU
Internal timers ,counters .
2.Memory: Used to store programs, data and information in PLC
>ROM and RAM are the types of memory used.
3.Input modules: receives data from field devices, and sends it to processor.
Ex. Of i/p field devices: digital-Switches, Pushbuttons.
4.Output module: Receives command from the processor and give it to the output
Ex. Of o/p field devices: digital: lamps, relay.
analog: motor spring, position of valve
COMPONENTS OF PLC
5.Power supply: Provides the voltage needed to run the
primary PLC components.
6.Programming device: The programming terminal is used for
programming the PLC and monitoring/sequencing PLCs operation.
CHECK INPUT STATUS
First the PLC takes a look at each I/O to determine if it is on or off.
Next the PLC executes the program
one instruction at a time.
UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS
Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs .It updates the
outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step.
PLC PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS AND EXAMPLES
Software used :RSLOGIX 500 (for micrologix Allen Bradley PLC)
RSLOGIX 5000( for control logics and compact logic PLCs)
Ladder Diagram is the most used programming language which has been specified by
IEC 1131-3 which is the international standard for programmable controller
>Developed to mimic relay logic
• vertical lines represent the power rails between which
circuits are connected.
•The power flow is taken to be from the left-hand vertical
across a rung
• Each rung defines one operation.
• A ladder diagram is read from left to right and from top to
1. RAIL AND RUNG
a. XIO:Examine if open-It acts like a Normally closed
b. XIC:Examine if closed-It acts like a Normally open
3. RELAY COILS-
The Output Energize (OTE) instruction looks and
operates like a relay coil.
>When set to 1 ,energizes the output.
To complete the entry of an instruction, addressing is needed..which will indicate
what input is connected to what input device, same for the output. Let’s first
understand the memory system:
Two fundamental types :- Program and Data files
Contains number of locations,
numbered from 0 to 999.
> For the input ‘I:’ and output ’O:’
files, these locations are converted
to physical locations on the PLC
and slot numbers.
This is a
TIMER COIL :
When its coil is energized, must wait for a fixed length of time before closing its contact or
must close its contact for some time only.
STATUS BITS: TT(timer timing),DN(done)
1.TON(TIMER ON DELAY)
2.TOFF(TIMER OFF DELAY)
3.RTO(RETENTIVE TIMER ON)
I:2/3 PLC O:5/1
TT =1 when rung =1, remain set until
DN=0 until preset value=accumulated
value ,remain set until rung=0.
COUNTER COIL : Counting is critical in industrial application.
>Primary Counter Types:
>UP Counters - PLC sense how many finished products leaving the machine
>Down Counters - PLC sense how many parts are left
>Up/Down Counters - PLC monitors an automated storage system to track how
many are coming and how many are leaving to determine total number in stock
>Choice used depend on the task
Manufacturing / Machining
Food / Beverage
• PLC Devices Are
• Initial Costs Are High
•There's Too Much Work
Required In Connecting
• Unemployment Rate
SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition.
It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and
controlling a process.
The major function of SCADA is for acquiring data from remote devices such as valves,
pumps, transmitters etc. and providing overall control This provides process control
locally so that these devices turn on and off at the right time, supporting the control
Softwares used:WONDERWARE INTOUCH
ALLEN BRADLEY- RSVIEW32
Features of SCADA
3.Telecom and information technology
FUTURE SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION
>It will generate explosive growth with :
>MEMS and NANOTECHNOLOGY
>Machine to machine networking (M2M)
Automation has many advantages over human operators.
Improves the economy of industries, society and humanity.
SCADA and PLC are the most important automation tools.
SCADA is used for controlling and monitoring activities.
PLC is used for automating things.
1. Hugh Jack, Automated Manufacturing Systems PLCs (Second Draft), page number-16 to 28,
Hugh Jack, 1993-2001
2. Kevin Collins, PLC Programming for Industrial Automation, page number-5 to 18, Kevin
3.Bentley systems, The fundamentals of SCADA,page number-1 to 18 ,Bentley systems,2004
4. W.Bolton, Programmable Logic Controllers, page number-12 to 80, Elsevier Newnes, 1996