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  2. Table Of Content CELLULAR JAIL [Kaala paani] 01 QUTUB MINAR 02 ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Island, India Mehrauli, New Delhi, India National Library Of India 03 Belvedere Estate in Alipore, Kolkata HUGLI RIVER FRONT 04 West Bengal, India
  3. CELLULAR JAIL [KAALA PAANI] A colonial prison situated at the Atlanta point in Port Blair, Capita of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It was used by the Britishers. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The jail surrounded by kaala paani (black waters) hides the darkest secrets of torture, atrocities and hardships faced by the political prisoners during the time of British Raj. It is now a national memorial museum that is one of the most visited tourist spots in Port Blair.
  4. HISTORY & BACKGROUND The Cellular jail was then used to capture the suspected British India supporters and members of the Indian Independence League. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The Revolt Of 1857 [Sepoy Muting] The Britishers were using these islands as prisons for such freedom fighters, but the Cellular jail was built between 1896 and 1906. Many activists were executed, while two hundred of them were sent here for life imprisonment Independence Struggle The start of Penal Settlement, suggested by Charles James Lyall They felt that the purpose for sending the prisoners wasn’t getting fulfilled & the transported prisoners should be subjected to sessions of harsh treatment. Reason for Penal Stage - Revolt of 1868 The prisoners tried to revolt and hence 238 prisoners tried to escape in March. They were caught by April, 87 of them were hanged. In attempt of another resistance, some prisoners went for hunger strikes in May 1933 Suring this period the islands were under the control of Subhas Chandra Bose who hoisted the Indian flag on these islands for the first time. He announced the Azad Hind Government and freed the territory from the British rule. But the British got the islands under their control again on 7th October in 1945. Empire of Japan Invasion 1942 Protest against the demolition This is because the demolition was seen as a way of removing and erasing the proof of evident black history of India’s struggle to freedom. There was a hospital constructed in the premises of the Cellular jail in 1963 named as the Govind Ballabh Pant hospital. After India got independence two wings of the cellular jail were demolished but it was followed by a lot of protests from former prisoners and leaders.
  5. Central Tower CONSTRUCTION The architecture of the jail is just as amazing and unique as its history. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The Basic Structure The Seven wings with three floors each The cental tower was used by the British guards to keep an eye on the inmates. The Whole Idea Inspired by Jeremy Benthan's idea - TThe design of the wings was in such a wave that the front side of it faced the back side of the adjacent wing to make sure zero communication between the prisoners. The goal was to make every prisoner experience solitary confinement. The Cell Construction No dormitories and a total of 696 cells in 7 wings which were triple floored Each Cell Dimension - 4.5 x 2.7 m With a Ventilator located at the height of 3 m Life of prisoners Subjected to forced labor Flogging, chaining Deprived of social contact Denied proper clothing and nutrition Subjected to inhumane conditions, often leading to death. The extreme punishments - The original building was puce colored that is dark red brown purple as the brick that were brought from Burma were puce colored.
  6. SIGNIFICANCE OF KAALA PAANI 'Kaale paani ki saza' was the phrase used for the act of putting the political activists in the cells. It was clear that even if they try to escape they won't be able to do that because the island has water all around. As horrifying as it sounds because the prisoners faced the kind of atrocities which shake us to the core. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The current scenario Light and sound show [ which is conducted in the premises itself. It takes you back to the times when these empty cells had prisoners residing in them and narrating the incidents of our history. The format includes the dialogues by inmates and Britishers. It is converted into a Museum and Memorial, a tourist destination - The main highlights of this place
  7. WHY CELLULAR JAIL [KAALA PAANI] IS A SYMBOL OF DARK ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY A symbol of the oppressive and dark architecture that India has witnessed throughout its history. HISTORY The constant violence that took place, the gruesome details of what happened there will always live in our memories whenever we hear the 'Kaala Paani' Freedom Fighters The thought behind the construction was to isolate and psychologically torture them and create a sense of paranoia that someone is constantly on watch when there was not one. The punishments, illegal medical procedures, psychological torment that they went threw just because they demanded freedom independence. Architecture The jail was aptly called ‘Kala Paani’ by the inmates due to the oppressive atmosphere created by its dimly lit hallways and cells. The prison was also known for its extreme brutality and torture, making it a symbol of dark architecture in India.
  8. QUTUB MINAR COMPLEX Layers of cultural, religious, and political history converge in the Qutub archaeological complex . In its beautiful gateways, tombs, lofty screens, and pillared colonnades is a record of a centuries-long history of artistic vision, building techniques, and patronage. At the heart of the Qutub complex is a twelfth century mosque — an early example in the rich history of Indo-Islamic art and architecture. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY
  9. HISTORY & BACKGROUND ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The current scenario “Delhi Sultanate” is a collective term that refers to the Turko-Islamic dynasties that ruled, one after the other, from Delhi The iron pillar Qutub Minar The tomb of Iltutmish The Alai Darwaza And the Alai minar In addition to the mosque, Qutub complex of monuments: It is located within the citadel of Qal'a-e-Rai Pithora (Qila Rai Pithora) where Qutub Ud-Din also set up his administrative quarters and residence. Also known as Quwwat Ul Islam, meaning the 'might of Islam', the Qutub complex was created with the dismantling and reassembling of the 27 existing Hindu and Jain temples on the site. The Qutub complex was built by Qutub Ud-Din Aybak (reg. 1206 - 1211) who established the first Islamic sultanate in the Indian subcontinent in Delhi in 1192.
  10. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Qutub Minar QUTUB AL - DIN AIBAK (1192-1206 C.E.) 1 The Qutub Minar, the impressive 238-foot-tall minaret (tower) of red and light sandstone for his Ghurid overlord. Its balconies are decorated with muqarna style (three- dimensional honeycomb forms) corbels that allow us to imagine the expansive views of Delhi from each of its five stories. Built in 1192 by Qutab-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. The Minar is decorated with bands of calligraphy that are both historic (referencing Muhammad Ghuri) and religious. There are 379 stairs inside the tower, which lead to the top. The Diameter is 14.32 m at the base and 2,75 m on the top.
  11. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Quwwat-Ul-Islam Masjid QUTUB AL - DIN AIBAK (1192-1206 C.E.) 2 Pillars, ceilings and stones from multiple older Hindu and Jain temples were reused in the construction of the colonnades surrounding the mosque’s open courtyard and in the prayer hall. Since the desired height for the colonnade did not match the height of older temple pillars, two or three pillars were stacked, one on top of the other, to reach the required elevation. Indian temple pillars are often adorned with anthropomorphic figures of deities and divine beings, mythical zoomorphic, and apotropaic motifs, as well as decorative bands of flowers. A belief by the builders of this mosque in a proscription against the portrayal of living beings is evident in the removal of the faces carved in the older stonework. Other decorative motifs were left untouched, likely for their apotropaic and ornamental qualities.
  12. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY QUTUB AL - DIN AIBAK (1192-1206 C.E.) Art historian Finbarr Flood has examined the complex motivations behind the re-use of stone at the Qutub mosque within a broad socio-political framework and has asked questions that go beyond the generally held view of religious iconoclasm (destruction of images). The probable use of spoliated (repurposed) stones from temples associated with the polities that were conquered by the Ghurid army (hence suggesting a political rather than religious motive) In 1198 Aibak commissioned a monumental sandstone screen with five pointed arches that was built between the courtyard and the prayer hall. The screen was constructed with corbeled arches and is emphatically decorative with bands of calligraphy, arabesques, and other motifs, including flowers and stems that pop over, under, and through the stylized letters. The prayer hall west of the screen has lost most of its components and the original mihrab (the niche that marks the direction of Mecca) no longer survives.
  13. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Iron Pillar ILTUTMISH (1211-1236 C.E.) 3 The Iron Pillar dates back to the 4th century BC. It bears inscriptions that dedicate it as a flagstaff to honor the Hindu god Vishnu and in memory of Gupta King Chandragupta II (375-41 AD). The pillar is a symbol of the progress of metallurgy in ancient India. It is made of 98 percent wrought iron and has survived 1600 years without rusting. It is said to have been brought to Delhi by the Tomar King Anangpal, somewhere in the 11th century from Udaygiri. There are no other relics from the same period in this site. The Pillar was cast in its present from not forged. Length - 7.2 m of which 93 cm is underground. Diameter - 0.41 m Garuda idol at the top
  14. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Iltutmish’s tomb ILTUTMISH (1211-1236 C.E.) 4 Constructed from new stone (that is, not spolia), this square tomb is relatively simple in its exterior decorative program, but its interior stuns with its overwhelming ornament. Tall pointed arches frame arched doorways and niches, and calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran, floral ornament, arabesques, and geometric patterns adorn the walls. Although it has been suggested that the tomb is missing its dome, its absence may have been intentional, allowing light to bathe the marble grave marker. Like the ornament that surrounds the tomb’s interior, this light directs our focus to the center of the monument, below which lies Iltutmish’s burial chamber. The Qutb mosque and screen, Iltutmish’s tomb was built in the post and lintel fashion and its arches were corbeled. In contrast, less than a hundred years later, arches in Ala al-Din Khalji’s monuments were constructed with a keystone at its summit.
  15. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Alai Darwaza ALA - DIN KHALJI (1296-1316 C.E.) 5 The Iron Pillar dates back to the 4th century BC. Like Iltutmish’s tomb, the gateway is built from new stone. The tall red base, the alternation of white marble and red sandstone ornament, and the latticed windows lend substantial grandeur to the gateway. The arches in the Alai Darwaza are in the form of horseshoe arches (literally an arch in the form of a horseshoe); the same form is used to also ornament the squinches, i.e., the transition (at the corners of the structure) from the square base to the octagonal ceiling that helps receive the dome. The dome rests on the arches and squinches, in the fashion commonly found in contemporaneous Islamic architecture outside of India. The use of Indic style architectural ornament (flowers, lotus buds, and bells), for example, remained an emphatic part of the sculptural vocabulary of Sultanate architecture.
  16. HISTORY & BACKGROUND Parts of complex - HIGHLY EXPLORED ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Alai Minar ALA - DIN KHALJI (1296-1316 C.E.) 6 Ala al-Din also began construction of a minar that would have been considerably taller than the Qutb Minar, had it been completed—the unfinished base rises 80 feet in height. All that was built is the rubble core of the structure; the minar would have eventually been faced with stone, perhaps in a fashion and with adornment similar to that of the Qutb Minar. The Qutub Complex today The Qutub complex of monuments is now a popular tourist destination, a transformation that can be traced back to the nineteenth century when the grounds were redesigned to appeal to English colonial visitors. The monuments were surrounded by neatly manicured lawns, roads were diverted for the exclusive use of visitors, and enclosures were built to fashion a tranquil setting. Although the Qutub complex has been changed throughout its history, the vision of its original builders remains plainly transparent.
  17. CONCEPT AND IDEA ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Known to be a 5-level structure was built by various rulers. Before delving deeper into details of the magnificent creation. Muhammad Ghuri The mosque is believed to have been built quickly as a matter of necessity—not only would the Ghurid forces have needed a place to pray, but a mosque was crucial for the proclamation of the name of the ruler during the weekly congregational prayer. Qutb-Ud-din Aibak Shams-Ud-din Iltutmish The Qutub Minar was initially authorised by Qutb-Ud-din Aibak, the originator of the Delhi Sultanate. He was unable to construct the monument beyond 1st level, even then the minaret was known after him. In the year 1230, He also added 3 more levels to the formation who was the successor of Qutb- Ud-din. Then in the year 1368, the topmost level also faced a lot of damage because of some defects in the lighting of the structure. Firoz Shah Tughlaq & Sher Shah Suri Firoz Shah Tughlaq rebuilt the entire level with a bit of modification - he added 2 more floors to the formation which were the 5th and the final level. Sher Shah Suri did the construction of the entrance of the monument.
  18. CONCEPT AND IDEA ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY He decided to restructure the monument in the year 1828. An addition of a pillared cupola to sit on the 5th floor contributed to the 6th floor of the memorial. The 6th and the final level was demolished by Henry Hardinge (Governor-General of the country) and was then placed adjacent to the minar. After a period of 300 years, in the year 1803, the monument again faced some damages in the structure due to the earthquake Robert Smith The 6th and the final level was demolished by him and were then placed adjacent to the minar. a major from the British Indian Army Tragic event in 1981 That took the lives of 47 people leading to the restriction of entry to the monument. The incident occurred after a power failure, rendering it dark. Rumours abounded that the tower was falling. Forty-five people. mostly schoolchildren, died when panicked sightseers stamped down the narrow staircase of the Qutub Minar Henry Hardinge
  19. KEY ELEMENTS & EXPERIENCE ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The golden ratio and its significance in architecture The golden ratio is a mathematical concept that has fascinated architects and artists for centuries. It is a ratio of approximately 1:1.618, and it appears in nature, art, and architecture. The golden ratio has been used in architecture since ancient times and is believed to create a sense of harmony and balance in a building's design. How the golden ratio affects the brain Studies have shown that the golden ratio can have a profound effect on the brain. This activation releases dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. The activation of the reward center leads to a sense of pleasure and satisfaction, which can enhance our experience of the structure. Additionally, the golden ratio has been found to create a sense of balance and symmetry, which can reduce stress and anxiety.
  20. KEY ELEMENTS & EXPERIENCE ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Neuroscientific principles behind Qutub Minar's design For example, the tower's height is proportional to its base diameter, which creates a sense of balance and symmetry. The tower's intricate carvings and calligraphy also create a sense of visual complexity, which can stimulate the brain and enhance our experience of the structure. Additionally, the tower's spiral staircase creates a sense of anticipation and discovery as we climb to the top. The Qutub Minar's design incorporates several neuroscientific principles that enhance our experience of the structure. The impact of Qutub Minar's design on visitors The tower and begin to climb the staircase, they experience a range of emotions and sensations, from excitement to anticipation. The top of the tower, they are rewarded with a breathtaking view of Delhi, which can enhance the sense of pleasure and satisfying experience. The Qutub Minar's design has a profound impact on visitors. Many people report feeling a sense of awe and wonder when they first see the tower.
  21. National Library of Kolkata The National Library of Kolkata is the largest library in India by volume and India's library of public records. It is administered by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. It is located in Belvedere Estate in Alipore, Kolkata. It is the largest in India, with a collection in excess of 2.2 million books. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY
  22. HISTORY & BACKGROUND ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY National Library was traditionally the house of the 'Lieutenant Governor of Bengal'. The building that accommodates National Library was initially constructed as a royal house. Its design is based on Italian architectural style. The present National Library is regarded as a symbol of imperial power in India. It was created on a majestic scale with high curved entryway, extensive grasslands and decorative galleries. Ranges of flowers and extensive stretches of green lushes. The park of National Library is undeniably exceptional and one of the most significant features of the park is that some of Rabindranath Tagore's writings were based on the background area. National Library also comprises magnificent greeneries - The building of national Library is a beautiful house designed with distinctive English architectural style of 19th century. The grand rooms of the library are based on woody floors and typically used for the purpose of studying. The building of the library has wide regal stairs with arched supports.
  23. HISTORY & BACKGROUND ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY Dark History & Its Significance Belvedere House was the former palace of the Viceroy of India and later the Governor of Bengal. Located on Belvedere Road, the majestic house was built across 30 acres by Mir Jafar, the nawab of Bengal, in the 1760s. He later presented the house to Warren Hastings, the first governor-general of India. The Duel - The rivalry between Warner Hasting and Philip Francis started because of their affairs with Marian Von Imhoff. Because of this Hasting was furious and challenged Francis to a duel. Then, one December night, pistols loaded, they faced each other on the western grounds of what was then known as ‘Hastings House’. Hastings appears to have been quicker on the draw and Francis slumped to the ground, shot in the neck. The governor-general even arranged for a palki (palanquin) to take the injured Francis to hospital. Apparently, when the palanquin bearers reached the banks of the old Ganga (Adi Ganga) on that full-moon night, they found the tide was high. It’s possible that Francis bled to death inside the palanquin.
  24. The Secret Vault - ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY In 2010, archaeologists discovered a hidden chamber with no visible entrance, within the 250-year-old National Library building in Kolkata. It was discovered during restoration work undertaken by the Archaeological Survey of India. “Only a walled-up arch could be seen from the outside. It was speculated that a tunnel led from this heritage building to Fort William, about 3 km away,” says Sanjay Maiti, assistant library and information officer (preservation). When no such tunnel was found, there was speculation that it was a secret chamber, a torture chamber; perhaps it was a secret treasure vault put there by the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Jafar. Who built the original structure as a mansion named Belvedere Estate, in the late 1700s. As it turned out, the “mystery room” had a very dull backstory. It was a mud-filled block, possibly added by architects to strengthen the building and its foundation in later years, when one of its extensions was being built.
  25. Hooghly Riverfront he Hooghly weaves through the Indian state of West Bengal from the Ganges, its parent river, to the sea. At just 460 kilometres (approximately 286 miles), its length is modest in comparison with great Asian rivers like the Yangtze in China or the Ganges itself. Nevertheless, throughout history, the Hooghly has been a waterway of tremendous sacred and secular significance. Ghats on the eastern bank of River Bhagirathi-Hooghly form significant punctuations throughout the Kolkata riverfront and had been a symbolic expression of people's response to the river from time to time. ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY River Bridges The GHATS punctuate the river edge all along this stretch Study area
  26. HISTORY & BACKGROUND ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY The study area along both banks of River Hooghly in KMA has a unique character owing to its evolutionary history over centuries. The area developed as an industrial and trading hub in the late 16th century, as numerous settlements, or colonies, were built by various European Imperial powers along the banks of River Hooghly, namely, Chandannagar (French Colony);m Serampore (Danish); Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) (British). Thus, historically, the Hooghly Riverfront has been shaped by a palette of socio-economic influences driven by a multitude of political strategies; resulting in a cultural milieu nestled along the water edge. Since then, this region has been the seat of urbanization. This continued post-independence with the delineation of the Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Organization (CMPO), the present-day Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA); and the planned growth of this urban agglomeration. In this context, the riverfront may be seen as a lifeline of this region at a macro level. At the micro-level, the riverfront is at times the only urban-level public recreational area for these densely packed habitations. BANDEL GHAT 1 CHINSURAH GHAT 2 CHANDANNAGAR GHAT 3 River ghats MULLICK GHAT 4
  27. HISTORY & BACKGROUND ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN BODY AND PSYCHOLOGY BANDEL GHAT JUBILEE BRIDGE HOOGHLY GHAT TO BANDEL JUNCTION BANDEL CHURCH AEIRAL VIEW The urban area of Bandel in Chinsurah Mogra blocks was established by Portuguese settlers. It lies in the Chinsurah Sub-division of Hooghly District. It is one of the major railway junctions in Eastern Railway and is 40 km from Howrah. In 1660, the Portuguese built a church and monastery in Bandel. The area covered by this survey is around “Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem”, meaning “Our Lady of the Good Journey” (the church) BANDEL GHAT Chinsurah lies on the banks of the Hooghly River and is a part of KMDA. In 1865 Hooghly and Chinsurah were merged to form the municipality of Hooghly- Chinsurah. The area has district headquarters and houses of the district court building. The area included in this survey is the Imambara area of Chinsurah, which makes an important tourist attraction and point of historical importanc JUBILEE BRIDGE JAGANNATH GHAT CHINSURAH GHAT MAYURPANKHI GHAT
  28. HISTORY & BACKGROUND SACRED HEART CHURCH RANI GHAT Chandannagar is one of the three municipal corporations of KMDA and is located around 35 km north of Kolkata. The riverfront is comparatively much developed by the french settlements in the surrounding area and has many tourist attraction points like Chandannagar Strand, Patal Bari, Sacred Heart Church, etc. The area under this survey was the Chandannagar riverfront/strand area, which is an active public recreational plaza. CHANDANNAGAR GHAT HOWRAH BRIDGE FLOWER MARKET MULLICK GHAT Located right under the southeast end of the Howrah bridge, the market runs along the riverside. It’s built as a small pavilion rather than any elaborate Doric pillared frontage. This is a major bathing ghat and also where the devotees come to do ‘puja’ or to offer prayers at the local shrines of Lord Shiva and of Lord Krishna. The ghat is a daily life water supply for thousands of people. The unconventional and treading the offbeat path. MULLICK GHAT
  29. DYING GHATS A classical monument with a drum-shaped crown on top originally known as Sovaram Bysack’s Ghat.. Jagannath Ghat: Due to the shift in Ganga’s course towards the West, the river had left behind a land now known as Strand Road. The present-day Nimtala ghat is the third ghat with the same name and stands at the conjuncture of the Nimatullah Mosque and Anandamoyee Kali Temple. Most people believe that the ghat has derived its name from the mosque built by Mohammed Ramzan Ali for one of his ancestors named Niyamatullah. However, it is also believed that all these places get their names from a Neem tree that stood there towering over Anandamoyee Kali Temple, under which Charnock had sought shelter when he set foot on Bengal. Way before the Howrah Bridge we know today was built in 1943, the two shores were connected by a pontoon bridge which is considered its first incarnation.