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Antibiotics

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PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTY II, Antibiotics-Benzyl Penicillin*, Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*, Benzathine Penicillin Ampicillin*, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin , Erythromycin , Tetracycline, Cephalexin, Cephaloridine , Cephalothin, Griseofulvin , Chloramphenicol.
Pharmaceutical official formulations of drugs and their popular brand names

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTY II, Antibiotics-Benzyl Penicillin*, Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*, Benzathine Penicillin Ampicillin*, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin , Erythromycin , Tetracycline, Cephalexin, Cephaloridine , Cephalothin, Griseofulvin , Chloramphenicol.
Pharmaceutical official formulations of drugs and their popular brand names

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Antibiotics

  1. 1. Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe M. Pharmacy ANTIBIOTICS
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Upon Completion of the chapter Student will; a. Understand the definition and classification of Antibiotics. b. Rewrite the structure of Benzyl Penicillin*, Ampicillin* and Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*. c. Able to rewrite the properties and used of Antibiotics. d. Examine various official preparation in market. e. Select the product as per brand names.
  3. 3. SYLLABUS Benzyl Penicillin*, Ampicillin*, Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*, Benzathine Penicillin, Cloxacillin, Carbenicillin, Gentamicin, ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Neomycin , Erythromycin , Tetracycline, Cephalexin, Cephaloridine , Cephalothin, Griseofulvin , Chloramphenicol.
  4. 4. QUESTION BANK Give structures and chemical(IUPAC) name & uses of Benzyl Penicillin*, or Ampicillin*, or Phenoxy methyl Penicillin*. (3M) Classify antibiotics? (3M) 1. Give structure, properties, stability, storage and uses of (3M) a. Erythromycin b. Griseofulvin , c. Chloramphenicol d. Tetracycline, e. Cephalexin ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  5. 5. Definition chemical substances produced by certain species of microorganisms during their growth on suitable culture media and having the property of inhibiting the growth of or destroying other microorganisms in high dilutions or low concentration. i.e. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by certain species of microorganisms during their growth on suitable culture media and having the property of inhibiting the growth of or destroying other microorganisms in high dilutions or low concentration. E.g.: Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol etc©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  6. 6. Classification depending on the basis of chemical structure I. β-Lactam antibiotics: E.g.: Benzyl Penicillin, Phenoxymethyl penicillin, Cephaloridine, cephalothin II. Non-β-Lactam antibiotics: 1. Tetracyclines: E.g.: chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline. 2. Aminoglycoside antibiotics : E.g.: Streptomycin, neomycin. 3. Macrolide antibiotics : E.g.: Erythromicin 4. Ansamycins : E.g.: Rifamycin 5. Polyene macrolide antibiotics: E.g.: Nystatin, Hamycin 6. Anthracycline antibiotics : E.g.: actinomycin, daunorubicin 7. Peptide antibiotics: E.g.: Bacitracin. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  7. 7. Classification depending upon spectrum of antimicrobial activity a) Narrow spectrum antibiotics : high degree of specificity, i.e., they are selectively effective either on gram positive bacteria or gram negative bacteria or certain fungi or yeast, are called narrow spectrum antibiotics, E.g.: benzyl penicillin. b) Broad spectrum antibiotics : effective on a large number of pathogens, not only gram positive and gram negative bacteria, but also affect intracellular organisms like viruses and rickettsiae, are called broad spectrum antibiotics.©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  8. 8. Classification depending upon biosynthesis (a) Antibiotics derived from amino acids : (i) From single amino acid - E.g.: chloramphenicol (ii) From two amino acids - E.g.: benzyl penicillin. (iii) From many amino acids (i.e. polypeptide antibiotics) E.g.: bacitracin. (b) Antibiotics derived from sugars : E.g.: streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin. (c) Antibiotics derived from acetates and propanoate units. :: E.g.: tetracycline, erythromycin. (d) Miscellaneous : E.g.: griseofulvin, rifampicin. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  9. 9. BENZYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN G) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 6-( 2-phenylacetamido) penicillanic acid 2- phenylacetamido penicillanic acid
  10. 10. BENZYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN G) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is faint characteristic odor 3. It is very soluble in water. 4. It is insoluble in organic solvents. 5. It is hygroscopic in nature Storage: It should be stored in well closed airtight container at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  11. 11. BENZYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN G) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as anti microbial agent. 2. It is used in the treatment of following diseases: 1) Respiratory tract infection 2) Urinary tract infection 3) Gonorrhea 4) Meningitis 5) Enteric infection 6) Septicemia. Official preparation: #Benzyl penicillin I.P, B.P, U.S.P #Benzyl penicillin eye drop I.P #Benzyl penicillin injection I.P #Benzyl penicillin eye ointment I.P #Benzyl penicillin sodium injection I.P Brand name: Cyrstapen, Pentids, PAM
  12. 12. AMPHICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 6-(Amino-phenyl acetamido) penicillanic acid. Amino-phenyl acetamido penicillanic acid
  13. 13. AMPHICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It occurs as white crystalline powder. 2. It is odourless and 3. It has a bitter taste. 4. It is sparingly soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol. 5. Its sodium salt is freely soluble in water. 6. It is unstable above 25°C. Storage: It is stored in tightly closed containers, in a cool place or at a temperature not exceeding 25°C.
  14. 14. AMPHICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. Ampicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. 2. It is used to treat Respiratory Tract Infections. 3. It is used to treat Bacterial Meningitis. 4. It is used to treat Septicaemia and Endocarditis. 5. It is used to treat Urinary Tract Infections. Official preparation: # Ampicillin I.P, B.P. U.S.P # Ampicillin capsules I.P, B.P. # Ampicillin tablets I.P, B.P. #Ampicillin injection I.P, B.P. # Ampicillin oral suspension I.P, B.P. #Ampicillin sterile solution I.P, B.P. Brand names :
  15. 15. PHENOXY METHYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN V) ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe 6-(2-phenoxy acetamido) penicillanic acid. 6-(2-phenoxy acetamido) penicillanic acid
  16. 16. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white, finely crystalline powder, 2. It is odourless and 3. It has slightly bitter taste. 4. It is very slightly soluble in water but 5. It is freely soluble in alcohol. Storage: It should be stored in well closed light resistant container at cool place away from direct sunlight. PHENOXY METHYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN V)
  17. 17. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: It is used in the treatment of following diseases: 1. Respiratory tract infection 4. Meningitis 2. Urinary tract infection 5. Enteric infection 3. Gonorrhea 6. Septicemia Official preparation:  Phenoxy methyl penicillin I.P, B.P. U.S.P  Phenoxy methyl penicillin capsules I.P, B.P.  Phenoxy methyl penicillin tablets I.P, B.P.  Phenoxy methyl penicillin capsules oral suspension. I.P, PHENOXY METHYL PENICILLIN (PENICILLIN V)
  18. 18. BENZATHINE PENICILLIN Benzathine penicillin G or Benzathine penicillin or Benzathine benzyl penicillin ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder, 2. It is odourless and 3. It is hygroscopic. 4. It is very slightly soluble in water. 5. It is also affected by moisture and light. Storage: It is stored in well closed airtight light-resistant containers at a temperature not exceeding 25°C.
  19. 19. BENZATHINE PENICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used to treat many types of severe infections caused by bacteria, including 1. strep infections, 2. pneumonia, and 3. scarlet fever. Official preparation: # Benzathine penicillin I.P, B.P. #Benzathine penicillin tablets I.P, B.P. #Benzathine penicillin oral suspensions I.P, B.P. #Benzathine penicillin sterile suspensions I.P, B.P. #Benzathine penicillin fortified injection I.P, B.P. Brand name: Penidure, Longacillin.
  20. 20. CLOXACILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. Its is white crystalline powder. 2. It is odourless. 3. It has intensely bitter taste 4. It is hygroscopic powder. 5. It is freely soluble in water, 6. It is very slightly soluble in chloroform. 7. It is unstable above 25°C and is affected by moisture. Storage: It is stored in tightly closed containers in a cool place or at a temperature not exceeding 25°C.
  21. 21. CLOXACILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is an antibacterial agent. 2. It is used to treat staphylococcal infections which are resistant to benzyl penicillin. 3. It is used to treat the following infections (i). Respiratory tract infections (ii) Urinary tract infections (iii) Otitis media (iv) Speticaemia (v) Endocarditis (vi) Meningitis (vii) Bone and joint infections. Official preparation: #Cloxacillin I.P, B.P. U.S.P #Cloxacillin tablets I.P, B.P. #Cloxacillin capsules I.P, B.P. #Cloxacillin injection I.P, B.P. #Cloxacillin suspension I.P, B.P. Brand name:  Cloxa - A, Cloxin
  22. 22. CARBENICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white or almost white, powder. 2. It is odourless and 3. It has a bitter taste. 4. It is freely soluble in water and 5. It is practically insoluble in ether and chloroform. 6. It is hygroscopic in nature 7. It is affected by moisture. Storage: It should be stored in tightly-closed light-resistant containers at a temperature not exceeding 5°C
  23. 23. CARBENICILLIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses:  It is an antibacterial agent  It is used parenterally to treat : (i) respiratory tract infections due to pseudomonas spp. (ii) urinary tract infections (iii) septicaemia. Official preparation: Carbenicillin I.P, B.P. U.S.P Carbenicillin injection I.P, Brand name:  Carbapen, carbelin
  24. 24. GENTAMICIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. 2. It is a mixture of gentamicin Ci, gentamicin Cz and gentamicin Cia. 3. Its sulphate is white to cream coloured powder. 4. It is soluble in water and 5. It is practically insoluble in chloroform. Storage: It should be store well in closed air tight containers and in a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  25. 25. GENTAMICIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic. 2. It is also used for prophylaxis and treatment of endocarditis. 3. It has been used for prophylaxis of surgical infection. 4. It is given in conjunction with other antibiotics to delay the development of resistance. 5. It is used to treat; (i) Septicaemia including neonatal sepsis. (ii) Other severe systemic infections due to sensitive gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Official preparation: # Gentamicin I.P, B.P. # Gentamicin injection I.P, B.P. #Gentamicin cream I.P, B.P. #Gentamicin ointment I.P, B.P. # Gentamicin eye drop I.P, B.P.
  26. 26. NEOMYCIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is a white or yellowish white powder. 2. It is hygroscopic. 3. It is freely soluble in water. 4. It is very slightly soluble in alcohol. Storage: It should be stored in well closed container at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  27. 27. NEOMYCIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic and used to treat; (i) Staphylococcal infections of skin and eye. (ii) G.I. tract infection on oral administration. 2. In conjunction with other antibiotics, it is used to prevent infection in neutropenic patients. 3. It is used for the patient suffering from hepatic coma to suppress ammonia forming bacteria in G.I. tract. Official preparation: #Neomycin I.P, B.P. U.S.P #Neomycin cream I.P, B.P. #Hydrocortisone and neomycin cream I.P, B.P. #Hydrocortisone and neomycin ear drop I.P, B.P. #Neomycin eye drop I.P, B.P. #Neomycin eye ointment I.P, B.P.
  28. 28. ERYTHROMYCIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It occurs as white or yellowish white crystals or crystalline powder. 2. It is odourless. 3. It has a bitter taste. 4. It is hygroscopic. 5. It is very slightly soluble in water. 6. It is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 7. It is affected by light, moisture. Storage: It should be stored in well closed air tight light resistant container at cool place away from direct sunlight at a temperature below 30°C.
  29. 29. ERYTHROMYCIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is mainly used to treat infections of patients who are allergic to penicillin e.g. in veneral diseases like gonorrhoea and syphilis. 2. It is a drug of choice to treat pneumonia, urethritis, pelvic inflammation. 3. It is used to treat amoebic dysentery. 4. It is also used to treat wounds and burn infections, infected eczema, acne vulgaris. Official preparation: # Erythromycin I.P, B.P. U.S.P # Erythromycin tablets I.P, B.P. # Erythromycin injection I.P, B.P. #Erythromycin soluble powder I.P, B.P. #Erythromycin estolate capsules. I.P, B.P. Brand name: Erythrocin, Althrocin
  30. 30. TETRACYCLINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is a yellow crystalline powder. 2. It is odourless. 3. It has a bitter taste. 4. It is very slightly soluble in water, soluble in dilute acid. 5. It is soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxides. 6. It is laevorotatory. Storage: It should be stored in tightly-closed light-resistant containers at a temperature at cool place away from direct sunlight.
  31. 31. TETRACYCLINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It has wide spectrum of activity and is used to treat (i) Chronic bronchitis (ii) Urinary tract infections (iii) Syphilis, gonorrhoea, rat-bite fever, in penicillin hypersensitive patients & (iv) Acne vulgaris. 2. In conjunction with streptomycin, it is used to treat plague. 3. In combination with fluid and electrolyte replenishers, it is used to treat cholera. 4. In conjunction with quinine, it is used in management of malaria (resistant to chloroquine). 5. In combination with amoebicide, it is used to treat amoebic dysentery. 6. Topically, it is used to treat chlamydial infection of eye.
  32. 32. TETRACYCLINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Official preparation: (i) Tetracycline I.P, B.P. U.S.P (ii) Tetracycline capsules I.P, B.P. U.S.P (iii) Tetracycline tablets I.P, B.P. (iv) Tetracycline injection I.P, B.P. (v) Tetracycline eye ointment I.P, B.P. (vi) Tetracycline and procaline injection I.P (vii) Tetracycline intravenous infusion. I.P Brand names : Achromycin, Enterocycline, Cadicycline.
  33. 33. CEPHALEXIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white or cream coloured crystalline powder. 2. It has characteristic odour. 3. It is sparingly soluble in water, 4. It is very slightly soluble in alcohol and in chloroform. 5. It is affected by light. Storage: It should be stored in well closed light-resistant containers at a temperature not exceeding 30°C.
  34. 34. CEPHALEXIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: It is used to treat the following infections due to susceptible organisms: (i) Respiratory tract infections (ii) Skin and soft tissue infections (iii) Otitis media (iv) Genito-urinary infections (v) Bone and joint infections (vi) Dental infections. Official preparation: # Cephalexin I.P, B.P. U.S.P #Cephalexin capsules I.P, B.P. #Cephalexin tablets I.P, B.P. #Cephalexin mixture I.P, B.P.
  35. 35. CEPHALORIDINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It occurs as a white crystalline powder. 2. It has a slight odour of pyridine. 3. It has bitter taste. 4. It is freely soluble in water, 5. It is very slightly soluble in chloroform. 6. It is discoloured in presence of light. Storage: It should be stored in light-resistant containers at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  36. 36. CEPHALORIDINE ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity. 2. It is used to treat : (i) Urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, (ii) Infections of skin and soft tissue, (iii) Bone and joint infections. Official preparation: #Cephaloridine I.P, B.P. U.S.P #Cephaloridine injection I.P, B.P. Brand name: Cephalodine, Cefadine
  37. 37. CEPHALOTHIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It is white crystalline powder. 2. It is odourless. 3. It is freely soluble in water, 4. It is practically insoluble in chloroform. Storage: It should be stored in light-resistant containers at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  38. 38. CEPHALOTHIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity. 2. It is used to treat : (i) Urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, (ii) Infections of skin and soft tissue, (iii) Bone and joint infections. Official preparation: # Cephalothin I.P, B.P. U.S.P # Cephalothin injection I.P, B.P. Brand names : Keflin, Seffin
  39. 39. GRISEOFULVIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It occurs as white or pale cream coloured powder. 2. It is tasteless. 3. It is odourless. 4. It is very slightly soluble in water. 5. It is soluble in acetone. 6. It is freely soluble in tetrachloro ethane. Storage: It should be stored in well closed container at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  40. 40. GRISEOFULVIN ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is used as antifungal agent. 2. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by ringworms, trichophyton spp., epidermophyton spp. and microsporum spp. Official preparation: (1) Griseofulvin I.P, B.P. U.S.P (2) Griseofulvin tablets I.P, B.P. (3) Griseofulvin capsules I.P, B.P. (4) Griseofulvin oral suspension. I.P, B.P. Brand name: Grisovin, Bifulvini, Fungivin
  41. 41. CHLORAMPHENICOL ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Properties: 1. It occurs as a white or greyish white or yellowish white crystalline powder or crystals or needles or elongated plates. 2. It is odourless. 3. It has very bitter taste. 4. It is slightly soluble in water and 5. It is freely soluble in alcohol and propylene glycol. Storage: It should be stored in well closed light-resistant containers at a cool place away from direct sunlight.
  42. 42. CHLORAMPHENICOL ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Uses: 1. It is a broad spectrum antibiotic and is used to treat (i) typhoid and paratyphoid fever (ii) meningitis, urinary tract infections (iii)rickettsial infections (iv) infection of eye and ear (v) meliodiosis (pseudomonas pseudomalla infection) (vi) superficial infections of skin (like impetigo) (vii) septicaemia (brain abscesses)
  43. 43. CHLORAMPHENICOL ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Official preparation: (i) Chloramphenicol I.P, B.P. U.S.P (ii) Chloramphenicol capsules I.P, B.P. (iii) Chloramphenicol ear drops I.P, B.P. (iv) Chloramphenical eye ointment I.P, B.P. (v) Chloramphenicol injection I.P, B.P. (vi) Chloramphenicol palmitate suspension (chloramphenicol mixture) I.P, B.P. Brand name:  Chlorostrep, Enterostrep, Enteromycin, O-mycin
  44. 44. ©Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe Any question??? Thank you…

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