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Cosmetics Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Antiperspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings and Hair removers

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Cosmetics Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Antiperspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings and Hair removers

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AS PER PCI SYLLABUS OF SECOND YEAR DIPLOMA IN PHARMACY (D. PHARMACY). PHARMACEUTICS II
(Dispensing Pharmacy) 811Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Antiperspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings and Hair removers

AS PER PCI SYLLABUS OF SECOND YEAR DIPLOMA IN PHARMACY (D. PHARMACY). PHARMACEUTICS II
(Dispensing Pharmacy) 811Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Antiperspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings and Hair removers

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Cosmetics Dental and cosmetic preparations: Introduction to Dentifrices, facial cosmetics, Deodorants. Antiperspirants, shampoo, Hair dressings and Hair removers

  1. 1. Cosmatics Mr. Pankaj Kusum Ramdas Khuspe
  2. 2. Definition  articles  intended to be  rubbed, poured,  sprinkled or sprayed or  introduced into or otherwise  applied to the human body or  any part thereof for  cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.
  3. 3. Definition “The articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed or introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance. ”
  4. 4. Definition  articles  intended to be  applied to the human body or  any part of body for  cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.
  5. 5. Definition “The articles intended to be applied to the human body or any part of body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance. ” E,g.: Lipstick etc
  6. 6. Functions of Cosmetics • Maintain body health and hygiene • Avoid premature ageing of skin. • Give a sense of well being. • Improve overall looks and personality.
  7. 7. Classification of Cosmetics • According to their use. • According to their functions. • According to their physical nature.
  8. 8. According to their Use• For skin : e.g. Creams, Lotions, Powders, Deodorants, Antiperspirants, etc. • For nails : e.g. Nail polish, Nail polish removers, etc. • For oral cavity : e.g., Dentifrices and Mouth washes, etc. • For eye : e.g., Eye creams, eye lashes, eye liner, etc. • For hair : e.g. shampoo, hair remover, hair dyes, hair tonics & hair sprays, etc.
  9. 9. According to their Functions 1. Curative functions : e.g., antiperspirants and hair preparations. 2. Protective functions: e.g., face powder. 3. Corrective functions: e.g., face powders. 4. Decorative functions: e.g., lipsticks, nail polishes and eye lashes.
  10. 10. According to their Physical Nature 1. Aerosols 2. Cakes 3. Emulsions 4. Oils 5. Pastes 6. Powders 7. Solutions 8. Soaps 9. Sticks
  11. 11. Dentifrices Uses • Cleansing of tooth. • Polishing of the tooth root. • Removal of strains from the tooth. • Reduce incidence of tooth decay. • Reduction of mouth odor.
  12. 12. Qualities of a Good Dentifrice • It should be economical. • It should be non-toxic. • It should be properly sweetened and flavored. • It should give fresh and clean sensation. • It should be efficient in removing food substances, plaque and other foreign particles. • It should clean the teeth.
  13. 13. Formulation of dentifrices Ingredients Weight % Humectants(for paste) 60 – 20 Water(not for powders) 0 – 50 Binders 0 – 12 Abrasive 18 – 50 Flavor 0.5 – 2.0 Sweetener 0.2 – 1.0 Surfactant 0.5 – 2.0 Fluoride 0.2 – 1.2
  14. 14. Facial Cosmetics  Used for cleansing, refreshing and nourishing effects.  Available in the form of solid, liquid and semi-solid.  The various types of facial cosmetics are available in the market to preserve the health and suppleness of the facial skin.  Prevent premature ageing of skin and improve the overall looks and personality.
  15. 15. Facial Cosmetics 1. Face powders 2. Compact face powder 3. Rouges 4. Cold creams 5. Cleansing creams 6. Vanishing creams 7. Foundation creams 8. Moisturizing creams 9. Eye make up Preparations  Eye shadow  Eye brow pencil  Mascara 10. Lipsticks 11. Bleaches 12. Shaving media  Lather shaving cream  Brushless shaving cream  Shaving soaps  Shaving sticks.
  16. 16. Face Powder • meant for improvement of overall attractiveness of the face. • It is applied on the face by means of a powder puff. • It provide a visual covering to skin and imparts finish to it. • There is no single ingredient which possesses all the qualities of a ideal face powder, a blend of ingredient are used. • Face powders generally contain talcum powder, kaolin, precipitated chalk, magnesium carbonate, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, starch, colour and perfumes. • Titanium dioxide acts as an opacifying agent while magnesium carbonate has absorbent properties. • Kaolin provides soothing effect to the skin.
  17. 17. Properties of Face Powder • It should be very fine and should not have any gritty particles. • It should be non-toxic. • It should be non-irritant to the skin. • It should look natural. • It should not remove from the skin immediately after its application. • It should be stable both physically and chemically. • It should have good absorbing property. • Its ingredients should be evenly distributed. • It should remove shine from the face. • It should stick to the face and should not dust off in a few minutes
  18. 18. Formulation for Face Powders FACE POWDER Talcum powder 75.0 g Kaolin 5.0 g Chalk precipitated 5.0 g Zinc oxide 10.0 g Zinc stearate 5.0 g Perfume and colour q.s
  19. 19. Compact Powder • Compact face powder is a dry powder which has been compressed to dorm a cake and is usually with a powder puff. • Suitable binding agents are added to the face powder to bind the particles of the powder, As that the cake formed will not break after compression or during use.
  20. 20. Formulation Talcum powder 50.0 g Titanium dioxide 5.0 g Kaolin 15.0 g Zinc oxide 10.0 g Calcium carbonate 15.0 g Starch 5.0 g Binder solution 5.0 ml Perfume, q.s.
  21. 21. Formulation (Binding solution) Gum tragacanth 2.0 g Glucose 5.0 g Water 93.0 ml Preservative, q.s.
  22. 22. Rouges • Rouges are the cosmetic preparations which are applied to the cheeks for enhancing the face beauty. • It also impart and stimulate the rosy freshness of the young and healthy skin. • Rouges are available in solid, liquid and cream form. Solid rouges are stable and easy to apply.
  23. 23. Formula for Dry Rouge Talcum powder 80.0 g Zinc oxide 5.0 g Zinc stearate 5.0 g Rice starch 10.0 g Perfume sufficient quantity Colour sufficient quantity
  24. 24. Cold Cream  Cold cream is an emulsion, which when applied on the skin, a cooling effect is produce due to slow evaporation of water present in the emulsion.  They are generally prepared by emulsifying of oils and water.  Vegetable oils have the tendency to become rancid, they are replaced by mineral oil which gives a more stable product.  Cold cream are o/w type emulsion but after application on the skin , sufficient water evaporates to permit phase inversion to w/o type.
  25. 25. Cleansing Cream • Cleansing creams are used to remove facial makeup. • They are also used to improve the healthy and good appearance of skin which requires frequent cleansing to remove grime, sebum and other secretions, dead cells and applied makeup. • They are basically cold creams containing a detergent for cleaning action they also contain other ingredients which help to soften , lubricate and protect the skin. • In case of o/w type of cleansing creams tweens are used along with detergent to remove dirt. Pepsin is added to make the facial skin smooth.
  26. 26. Cleansing Cream • They are of three types :---  Liquefying cleansing creams.  Emulsified creams of the o/w type.  Emulsified creams of the w/o type  These consist of simple mixtures of mineral oils or synthetic fatty materials , with the hydrocarbon waxes, paraffin wax etc.
  27. 27. Formula Isopropyl myristate 25.0 g Liquid paraffin 25.0 g White soft paraffin 30.0 g Paraffin wax 20.0 g
  28. 28. Emulsified creams (o/w) type • FORMULA Bees wax 12.0 g Liquid paraffin 53.0 g Bentonite 0.7 g Borax 0.7 g Water 33.2 ml Isopropyl alcohol 0.4 ml
  29. 29. Emulsified creams (w/o) type Formula Liquid paraffin 50.0 g Paraffin wax 5.0 g Bentone 0.7 g Water 43.9 ml Isopropyl alcohol 0.4 ml
  30. 30. Vanishing creams • These are oil in water type emulsion which when applied to the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it. Hence, they are called vanishing cream . • These creams can quickly washed off with water due to a presence of o/w emulsifier. • Vanishing creams are prepared by emulsification of stearic acid and water by means of alkalies such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, borax, triethanolamine etc. • The main ingredient in vanishing cream is stearic acid which gives a pearly white shinning appearance to the cream, which on application gives a thin white film of free stearic acid.
  31. 31. Formula Stearic acid 18 g Glycerin 3 g Lanolin 2 g Triethanolamine 1 g Water 80 ml Preservative 1 g Perfume sufficient quantity
  32. 32. Foundation Cream • These are designed to be applied to the face after cleansing to provide a smooth emollient base for application of facial makeup. • They also act as a skin protective to prevent the damage caused by environmental factors like sun or wind. They are often designated as beauty milk. • Foundation creams are mostly o/w type emulsion whereas w/o preparations are available for dry skin.
  33. 33. Qualities of Foundation Cream 1. It should provide a non-greasy and non-occlusive film on the face. 2. It should remain stable. 3. It should not damage the skin. 4. It should improve the adhesion of face powder for longer period of time.
  34. 34. Formula for Foundation cream Stearic acid 18 g Potassium hydroxide 0.52 g Sodium hydroxide 0.18 g Cetyl alcohol 0.50 ml Glycerin 18 g Water 62.2 ml Preservative and perfume q. s
  35. 35. Moisturizing Creams • These creams are designed to be left on the skin for several hours. • These creams are applied at night their application during daytime is not very useful. • The occlusive layer of these creams slow the rate of transepidermal water loss, thus having a moisturizing effect. • It also help to make the skin surface smooth by its lubrication action.
  36. 36. Use of Moisturizing creams  They maintain the moisture content and prevent the dry condition of the skin.  They protect the skin against the growth of bacteria.  They keep the skin fresh and natural.  They helps to preserve the skin very soft.  These are also used on the skin before makeup.  These creams contain mineral oil, vegetable oil, lipophilic substances, humectant and water.
  37. 37. Eye Makeup Preparations • Eye shadow. • Eye brow pencil. • Mascara.
  38. 38. Eye Shadow • These are the preparations, meant to produce an attractive moist looking background of color to the eyes. • The eye shadow is applied to the eye lids. • Eye shadow are available in large number of shades but blue, green, grey, gold and silver shades are very common
  39. 39. Eye Shadow • These are available in following forms:-- • Eye shadow creams : These are prepared by mixing selected color in the wax bases or with petroleum. • Eye shadow stick : These are prepared from high proportion of waxes e.g., carnuba wax. • Pressed powder eye shadow : These are compact rouge with different color system. • Liquid eye shadow: These are the liquid suspension or liquid dispersion of pigment.
  40. 40. Eye Brow Pencil • Eyebrow pencils are hard crayons which are used for darkening the eyebrows. • These are available in brown or black color and are generally manufactured by pencil manufacturers. • The brown eyebrow pencil contains black iron oxide. • The eyebrow pencils contain high proportion of waxes to make them hard, so that they can be moulded as a thin stick and sharpened to a point.
  41. 41. Mascara • Mascara is a black pigmented preparation for application to the eye lashes or eye brows to beautify the eyes. • It is used to darken the eyelashes and to increase their apparent length. • It is applied with a brush. Mascara is available in three forms in the market.  Cake mascara: It is prepared by mixing color e.g., lamp black with melted waxy material.  Cream mascara: It is prepared by mixing the pigment into a vanishing cream base.  Liquid mascara: It is a alcoholic solution of a resin in which carbon black is suspended.
  42. 42. Ideal Mascara Properties  It should not cause irritation to the eye.  It should be non-toxic.  It should be applied easily, evenly and smoothly.  It should not the eye lashes to stick together.
  43. 43. Lipsticks • Lipsticks are the more widely used cosmetic item by the women to give attractive colour and appearance to the lips . • Lipsticks can change the apparent facial characteristics of the women . • These are usually manufactured as molded sticks and consist of coloring pigments dissolved or dispersed in a fatty base containing wax .
  44. 44. Qualities Of An Ideal Lipsticks  It should be non irritant .  It should be non toxic .  It should be stable both physically and chemically .  It should not dry on storage .  It should be free from gritty particles .  It should maintain the lip colour for longer period after its application .  It should be easily applicable and removable after its application .  It should not break during use .  It should maintain its firmness till it is fully used up .  It should give shiny and smooth appearance .  It should be free from sweating .
  45. 45. Formulation of Lipsticks • BASES: Mineral oils fatty material. • COLOUR: water soluble eosin. e.g. fluorescein • PERFUM: floral fruity and light spicy fragrance. • ANTIOXIDANT: BHA, BHT, propyl gallate. • Formula: Carnauba wax 1.0 g Bees wax 15.0g Lanolin 5.0g Cetyl alcohol 5.0g Caster oil 65.0g Colour and perfumes q.s.
  46. 46. Bleaches • These are the agent which lighten the skin colour used for make up. • The lightening of the skin colour may be by reducing pigmentation, decolourise the melanin present or prevent new melanin from being formed. • They also protect the skin against ultraviolet radiation . The bleaches contain sun screening agent which prevents re- oxidation by ultraviolet light . • There are few natural skin lightening materials, such as cucumber juice, lemon juice, butter milk, crushed strawberries and fresh horse radish which are commonly used as bleaching agent.
  47. 47. Bleaches • Bleaches preparations contain skin lightening agents which are of following types :  Opaque covering agent : e.g. titanium dioxide, zinc oxide , talk , kaolin .  Oxidizing agent : e.g. hydrogen peroxide , sodium hydrochloride solution .  Mercury compounds : e.g. red mercuric oxide, mercurous oxide .  Hydroxyl quinolin.  Catechol and its derivatives.  Others : 2- mercaptoethalamine .
  48. 48. Shaving media • Shaving media are used to remove unsightly hair, particularly from men’s faces. • Few women also use them to remove hair from legs, under the arm and other conspicuous places with or without the help of a razor.
  49. 49. Shaving media • Shaving media are of three types:-  Pre-shave products: e.g., beard softeners and pre-electric shaving lotion  Shaving products: e.g., brushless shaving crams, lather shaving creams and shaving soaps  After-shave products: after-shave lotion to refresh the skin after shave.
  50. 50. Lather shaving cream • Qualities:  It should be non-toxic, non-irritating.  It should be smooth, soft and entirely free from lumps.  It should produce a rich lather.  It should have good wetting properties.  It should produce a rich lather, composed of small bubbles that do not dry on the face so rapidly.  It should retain a satisfactory consistency according to temperature.  It should be non-corrosive to the razor blade and easily rinsed from the razor and face.
  51. 51. Antiperspirants and Deodorants  Substance used to overcome the bad odour from body is known as Antiperspirants and Deodorants.  Bad odour come from body due to bacterial decomposition and from perspiration.  The sweat gland secrete perspiration which varies from person to person in some cases, it produce bad odour and in other case it produce coloured sweat.  These are also help in reduction of sweat.  Antiperspirants contain substance having astringent action.
  52. 52. Antiperspirants and Deodorants Qualities of ideal antiperspirant. 1. Non toxic. 2. Non-irritant. 3. pH should between 4 to 4.5. 4. Should have no effect on fibrics. 5. Should sufficient astringent properties.
  53. 53. Antiperspirants and Deodorants Formulation:  Salt of various metals, such as aluminium iron, chromium, lead, mercury and zinc have astringent action.  The salt of aluminium and zinc are very commonly used as astringent. Liquid perspirants: Aluminium chlorohydrate -------- 20 g. Propylene glycol -------------------- 5.0 ml Hexachlorophene ------------------0.2 g Perfume ----------------------------- q.s. Water ---------------- add upto --- 100 ml
  54. 54. Shampoo  These are the solution or suspension containing surface active agent which are used to remove dirt, grease, and debris from the hair, scalp and other part of the body without affecting the natural gloss of hair.  Shampoo help to keep hair fragrance, lustrous, soft and manageable.  Types of shampoo: Medicated, clear, gel, soap, cream, baby, aerosol, powder.
  55. 55. Shampoo Qualities of an ideal shampoo: 1. It should be capable of removing dirt, grease from hair. 2. It should be non toxic. 3. It should be non-irritant. 4. It should provide sufficient fragrance to the hair. 5. Effective in small amount. 6. It should be easily removed. 7. It should produce sufficient foam. 8. It should reduce fulfiness and smoothens the hair.
  56. 56. Shampoo Formulation: 1. Conditioning agent:  These are used in lubricating the hair and improve the texture of the hair.  It reduces the fluffiness and smoothen the hair shaft. Ex. Lanolin, glycerin, and propylene glycol. 2. Thickening agent:  These increase viscosity and provide desired consistency. Ex. Polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, sodium alginate. 3. Solubilizing agent:  These are used to dissolve poorly soluble substance so as to get clear shampoo. Ex. Ethyl alcohol, glycerol, propylene glycol & mono ethyl ether.
  57. 57. Shampoo 4. Opacifing agent:  To make shampoo opaque.  Ex. Glycol, glyceryl stearate, cetyl alcohol. 5. Preservative:  To prevent the microbial growth.  Ex. Methyl paraben, propyl paraben etc.
  58. 58. Shampoo Ex. Liquid shampoo Coconut oil ---------------14 g. Olive oil ------------------- 3 g. Castor oil ------------------ 3 g. Potassium hydroxide ----- 5 g. Glycerin -------------------- 2 g. Ethyl alcohol -------------- 4 ml. Preservative ---------------- q.s. Water ----------------------- 100 ml.
  59. 59. Hair Dressing  Hair dressing are applied to dry hair in order to provide extra gloss.  The main purpose of hair dressing is to apply a thin film of oil to keep the hair in order to give a natural looking gloss without any appearance of oiliness. Qualities of a good hair dressing: 1. It should be non-toxic. 2. It should be good grooming action. 3. It should provide lustre. 4. It should provide anti-dandruff action. 5. It should provide some degree of hair conditioning.
  60. 60. Hair dressing Different preparations: 1. Hair conditioning: Reduce fluffiness and smoothens the hair. 2. Hair tonic: Applied for curing baldness. 3. Brilliantines: To impart lustre to the hair and also to keep the hair in place. 4. Hair waving and hair straightening preparation:
  61. 61. Hair dyes  Hair dyes are used to change the natural colour of the hair.  The grey or white hair which has changed with age are converted into black colour with the help of hair dyes in order to restore youthful appearance.  These work temporarily, semi-permanent, permanent.
  62. 62. Hair dyes These are classified as 1. Vegetable dyes: e.g. heena and chamomile. 2. Metallic dyes: e.g. Lead acetate with ppt sulpher, bismuth citrate, silver nitrate, copper chloride. 3. Synthetic organic dyes: e.g. para-toluylene- diamine, para aminodiphenylamine, para- phenylenediamine.
  63. 63. Hair dyes Qualities of a ideal hair dye: 1. It should possess no synthetic toxic effect. 2. It should be non irritant. 3. It should be non-injurious to hair. 4. It should be stable. 5. It should not change colour when exposed to air. Formulation: Heena (powder) ---------------------- 73 g. Pyrogallol ------------------------------ 15 g. Copper sulphate (powder) ----------- 12 g.
  64. 64. Depilatories • These are the agents which removes the unwanted hair from the body. • Methods of removal of unwanted hair:  Epilation.  Depilation.  Electrolysis.
  65. 65. Epilation • Epilation means the uprooting of intact hair mechanically by plucking or embedding in adherent material, such as, wax, rosin etc. • It is painful process and may cause skin damage. • The chances of infection of skin is increased. • The formulation of epilatory generally contain resin, beeswax along with mineral oil or vegetable oil, cooling agent, local anesthetic and an antibacterial agent.
  66. 66. Depilation • When the hair are removed by chemical methods without injury to the skin, it is known as depilation. • The chemicals most commonly used for this purpose are sulphides of barium, calcium and strontium. • Calcium tioglycerol and calcium thioglycollate are also used. • Out of these chemicals, calcium sulphide is the most popular depilating agent because it has excellent depilating properties without serious effects.
  67. 67. Depilation Qualities of an ideal depilatory agent • It should be non-toxic and non-irritant to the skin. • It should be odorless but pleasantly perfumed. • It should be elegant. • It should not leave any stains on the cloth. • It should be capable of removing the hairs within 2-5 minutes. • It should be easy to apply. • It should be economical. • It should be stable during storage.
  68. 68. Electrolysis • The method involves the inserting needle into the hair follicle and hair root is completely destroyed by means of weak D.C. current. • The hair is removed permanently. • The method is very expensive and time consuming.
  69. 69. Antidandruff Preparations • It is defined as any preparation which clears the scalp from adherent materials and regulates the amount of residual scalp and hair oils to retain healthy condition of the scalp is known as antidandruff preparation. • The major causes of dandruff are:-  Dysfunction of the scalp or other organs.  Microbial attack.  Combination of the above two causes.
  70. 70. Formulation (a) Selenium disulphide 2.5 g Inert stabilizer 5.0 g Surfactant 17.5 g Water 75.0 ml (b) β naphthol 1 g Tincture of quillaia 50 ml Glycerin 2 ml Alcohol 47 ml Perfume q.s.

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