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Teamwork seda may 2018

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Presentation on student teamwork to SEDA Conference, May 2018 by Chris Dearnley and Peter Hartley

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Teamwork seda may 2018

  1. 1. TBL, PBL, EBL, SCALE-UP, Buzz, Virtual or what? What are the ‘best’ teamwork recipes to support our students’ professional development and enhance their learning experience? Prof Peter Hartley profpeter1@me.com Dr Chris Dearnley cadearnley@icloud.com 1
  2. 2. Chris Dearnley Now into my 3rd career:  Career 1: Registered nurse and midwife  Career 2: Academic in Health Studies with special interest in transformative learning – from lecturer to Associate Dean for Learning & Teaching and National Teaching Fellow.  Career 3: Consultant in HE inc. Project Implementation & Evaluation, External Examining, QA processes, business and executive coaching 2
  3. 3. Peter Hartley Now into my 3rd career:  Career 1: lecturer. Academic in Communication Studies – from lecturer to department head to Professor of Communication..  Career 2: educational developer. National Teaching Fellow. Professor of Education Development.  Career 3: educational consultant. Visiting Professor at Edge Hill. External examiner and writer. Working/ed on: project evaluation, learning spaces, assessment strategies etc. 3rd edition, in development with Sue Beckingham Planned for 2019 https://www.routle dge.com/products/ 9781138854710 http://www.routle dge.com/books/de tails/97804156402 82/ https://he.p algrave.com /page/detail /Learning- Developme nt-in- Higher- Education/? K=9780230 241480 3 Chapter with Ruth Whitfield in:
  4. 4. This session  Why worry?  What do we do with our students to improve their teamwork?  Different examples and approaches.  What could/should we do with our students to improve their teamwork? 4
  5. 5. Why worry?  teamwork as a “fundamental skill” which is often lacking according to employers, e.g.  https://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/skills-and-competencies/300764-teamwork-its-high-on-the- graduate-recruiters-wishlist  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-29454002  The importance of teamwork emphasised in University careers advice for both undergraduates and postgraduates, e.g.  https://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/teamwork.htm  https://www.ed.ac.uk/careers/postgrad/phd/making-career-decisions/identifying-your-skills  So how do we help our students develop the necessary skills and understanding? 5
  6. 6. The importance of teamwork – a life-saving example 6 http://www.affinaod. com/article/can- achieve-better-team- working-organisation/
  7. 7. Over to you … the process 1. Individual reflection – write your responses on post-its. No discussion. 2. Each person puts one response on the table and explains it until you have covered all the ideas. 7 Notes (not on original slide): This process is the first 2 stages of the Nominal Group Technique: see slides 28 and 29.
  8. 8. Over to you … the questions 1. How do course/programme teams in your institutions incorporate student teamwork across the course? 2. What is the ‘ideal mix’ of student teamwork/groupwork which offers your students the best basis for their future professional careers? 3. What do your students expect from their courses in terms of teamwork, and how do you manage these expectations? 8 Notes (not on original slide): The answers from conference delegates can be found in the Google Doc at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fm- pjADNgUazAKGUKXVnalu9R1VHUzWVA1EcRdGdsBI/edit?usp=sharing
  9. 9. Different educational approaches re teamwork Who sets/controls the problem or task? Who manages the group process? Examples 1 Tutor Tutor TBL Scale-Up 2 Tutor Tutor and group PBL EBL 3 Client (may be real or simulated) Group, in negotiation with client ‘Consultancy’ team 4 Group Group Project group 9
  10. 10. Different educational approaches re teamwork Who sets/controls the problem or task? Who manages the group process? Examples 1 Tutor Tutor TBL Scale-Up 2 Tutor Tutor and group PBL EBL 3 Client (may be real or simulated) Group, in negotiation with client ‘Consultancy’ team 4 Group Group Project group 10 A KEY QUESTION: shouldn’t students experience all these variants in preparation for their professional careers?
  11. 11. 11NB All of these methods are variable so can move along the scales.
  12. 12. Example 1: Team-based learning (Bradford) http://www.bradford.ac.uk/life- sciences/pharmacy/team-based- learning/ 12
  13. 13. Team-based Learning: essential features https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/team-based-learning/ 13
  14. 14. Team-based Learning: examples of application in the UK  Used TBL as the basic learning and teaching rationale in revised Pharmacy Programme.  Have hosted national conference on TBL.  See the work of Simon Tweddell and colleagues, e.g. http://slideplayer.com/slide/5842712/  Applied TBL to learning and teaching in medical education.  Putting readiness tests online.  See the work of Dr Shibab E Khigali and colleagues :http://www.researchgate.net/publication/266030802 _Team- Based_Learning_in_a_UK_Medical_School_Using_ Mobile_Friendly_Technology_to_Support_the_In- class_Individual_Readiness_Assurance_Test University of Bradford University of Dundee 14
  15. 15. Team-based learning at Anglia: dedicated spaces 15
  16. 16. Outcomes at Bradford  “The benefits of TBL were perceived to be enhanced student engagement, peer learning, increased faculty enjoyment of teaching, and student development of transferable skills. Challenges included increased initial workload, writing effective application exercises, and facilitating learner-centred classes.” (Tweddell et al, 2016)  “One of the principles of our curriculum design was moving from a ’supported learner’ to an 'autonomous learner’ and gradually removing the 'scaffolding’ along the way… We believe very strongly that TBL helps our students how to learn to work with other people. , e.g. by talking through differences of opinion and coming to a collaborative decision is a valuable skill to learn that will benefit them in the workplace. We are explicit about this with our students.” (Tweddell, personal email) 16
  17. 17. TBL at Huddersfield: outcomes and evaluation  Stage 1: systematic review of the evidence for implementing TBL within nursing and midwifery education  4 themes emerged: Student Engagement, Student Satisfaction, Attainment and Practice Development and Transformational Teaching and Learning  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.09.012  Stage 2: university funding to implement TBL across the inter-professional learning curriculum at levels 4 & 5 (N=800 students) 17
  18. 18. Experiences and Outcomes  Experience reflected the literature  Staff workshops and student consultants aided the change process - advocates v saboteurs  The classrooms buzzed with energy during many of the activities – especially the scratch cards http://learntbl.ca/if-at-immediate-feedback-assessment-technique/  The module final results were excellent  Technology for recording data proved challenging and careful consideration for real time recording of results is required – especially when dealing with large numbers 18
  19. 19. Going forwards  Formal evaluation is ongoing:  To measure student attainment on the selected TBL modules against the cohort from the previous, non-TBL academic year  To use the validated TBL Student Assessment Instrument (TBL-SAI) (Mennenga, 2012) to evaluate student preparation for class and contribution to the team  To use the TBL-SAI to assess student Preference for Lecture or TBL; this subscale assesses student ability to recall material and student attention level in lecture and team-based learning  To use the TBL-SAI to assess Student Satisfaction with TBL  To adapt the TBL-SAI (by adding 2 additional questions) to assess the impact of TBL on IPE; this subscale will assess students preparedness for inter-professional working in practice 19
  20. 20. SCALING UP (HEFCE project) http://www4.ntu.ac.uk/apps/news/192812- 15/NTU_and_partners_lead_the_way_in_demonstrating_innovative_teaching_methods.aspx 20
  21. 21. Example 2: Cybersecurity PBL (article in press - Beaumont and Hartley, 2018)  Messy real-world problem scenario – students do not have the knowledge to solve at the outset.  Student teams (4–5) identify learning issues and a strategy to solve or manage the problem.  Individual research/learning & teach others.  Team evaluates the new knowledge and apply it to solve/manage the problem.  Students reflect on the solution and process.  Tutor act as facilitator to challenge and guide the learning process. 21
  22. 22. 22 Consulting model What PBL normally includes What you will be doing at each stage in the specific CSKE scenario Understanding organizational history and context Scenario analysis Socio-technical organizational analysis. Clarification of ambiguities Individual and team review of scenario text and video resources. Team discussion. Clarification of ambiguities with tutor/facilitator. Determining the problem to be resolved Analysis: Identify key issues Simulated consultation with stakeholders (e.g. role-play and/or online interaction). Reviewing technology/ processes in use. Identifying learning goals. Facilitator Guidance. Team review of scenario: identifying key issues. Identifying learning goals. Team publish action list & summary in forum. Identifying/ learning necessary knowledge Individual research & learning to resolve knowledge gaps. Summarising & reflection. Teams share learning. Individual research & learning Individually summary of learning and how it applies to the scenario. Team sharing learning/ teach each other. Identifying alternative solutions Determining and agreeing evaluation criteria and process. Identifying technical possibilities, considering acceptance issues and organizational fit. Facilitator Guidance. Determining evaluation criteria through team discussion. Team identification of options for the pentest. Facilitator Guidance. Choosing optimal solution Deciding on best technical, organizational and social outcomes. Proposing solution with justification Team decision and justification. Presentation to tutor in role of main stakeholders. Planning the implementation Applying planning and scheduling techniques. Proposing plan and deadlines. Review Scenario text and resources. Produce Report/ Flyer/ video. Produce plan/schedule. Implementation Building the solution (if appropriate). Deploying the solution (if appropriate). Not applicable to this scenario Final evaluation Formal evaluation methods re project success. Personal reflection and evaluation. Team evaluation of performance and project success. Individual reflection on personal learning & development. CSKE PBL approach was used to develop students’ consultancy skills and also as the model for the online scenarios which are now used to teach cybersecurity. Full details of the CSKE project and the online scenarios at https://www.cybered ge.uk/cske/index.php
  23. 23. Example 3: PBL in Health 23  Midwifery at the University of Bradford has long been delivered by a completely PBL curriculum  Problems are a vehicle for the development of clinical problem solving skills - this is recognised and valued by clinical staff.  Very high number of 1st and 2.1s  Not great NSS – student expectations?
  24. 24. Example 4: Approaches to team-building  Roles and group structures, e.g. Belbin  Progressive group exercises  Different problem-solving and decision- making techniques, e.g. Nominal Group 24
  25. 25. Belbin’s Team Roles 25 A typical summary of Belbin’s approach with links to his major books. See at: https://www.ifm.en g.cam.ac.uk/researc h/dmg/tools-and- techniques/belbins- team-roles/
  26. 26. Application of Belbin in HE 26 https://www.researchgate.net/public ation/239794695_Construction_of_S tudent_Groups_Using_Belbin_Suppo rting_Group_Work_in_Environmenta l_Management
  27. 27. ‘Structured experiences’ (see the work of Pfeiffer and Jones*) 27http://home.snu.edu/~jsmith/library/body/v21.pdf * A list of their handbooks can be found at: http://www.worldcat.org/title/handb ook-of-structured-experiences-for- human-relations- training/oclc/605321420/editions?re ferer=di&editionsView=true&fq=
  28. 28. A structured group process: Nominal Group Technique 28 https://www.ncbi.nl m.nih.gov/pmc/articl es/PMC4909789/ 4 Steps in NGT: • Silent generation • Round robin • Clarification • Voting/ranking
  29. 29. 29 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14703297.2015.1058721
  30. 30. Another interesting variant: Ketso 30http://www.ketso.com
  31. 31. Open discussion: How do/can we put this all together?  What should students know about team dynamics?  How can we improve their teamwork skills?  Which approaches to teamwork provide the best opportunities for learning gain in both subject discipline and group process?  How can course/programme teams decide which approach to student groups/teams is the most productive? 31
  32. 32. And finally: Some practical suggestions  Develop a course/programme strategy.  Incorporate group experiences/techniques and student reflection across the course/programme.  Planned development in terms of both task and process – e.g. moving from structured to open approaches. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Further references and sources  Dearnley, C.A, Rhodes, C.A., Roberts, P., Williams P., Prenton, S. (2018) Team-based learning in nursing and midwifery higher education; a systematic review of the evidence for change. Nurse Education Today Volume 60, Jan 2018, 75-83 https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1VuXD_5xMpk7Sl  Tweddell, S., Clark. D., and Nelson, M. (2016) Team-based learning in pharmacy: The faculty experience. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. Volume 8, Issue 1, January– February, Pages 7-17 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2015.09.008 34

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