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Jdbc
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Jdbc day-1

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From novice to professional JDBC. discusses the following :JDBC, java.sql, Connection, Statement, PreparedStatement, CallableStatement, ResultSet, SavePoint, TFM, roles of driver, using jdbc:odbc bridge, Using stored procedures in Java, Failure Management, rollback, SQL Injection

From novice to professional JDBC. discusses the following :JDBC, java.sql, Connection, Statement, PreparedStatement, CallableStatement, ResultSet, SavePoint, TFM, roles of driver, using jdbc:odbc bridge, Using stored procedures in Java, Failure Management, rollback, SQL Injection

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Jdbc day-1

  1. 1. JDBC: What & Why? As we all know, Java is platform independent, there must be some means to have some ready-to- hand way, specifically some API to handle Database activities that can interface between your Java Code and an RDBMS and perform the desired SQL. This is known as Java DataBase Connectivity (JDBC). JDBC-version 2.x defines 2 packages, java.sql and javax.sql that provide the basement of a JDBC API Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 1
  2. 2. JDBC Drivers & Types • As JDBC plays the role to interface between the RDBMS and Java Code, from the Database’s part, there must be some vendor specific utilities that will cooperate with JDBC. These are known as JDBC Drivers, having 4 Types, Type-1 to Type-4. We, however, must avoid theoretical discussion about them but shall deal with Type-1, also known as JDBC-ODBC Bridge, and Type-4, also known as Pure Java Driver. So, on to the next slide… Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 2
  3. 3. Primary Steps to code JDBC with ODBC Bridge Driver • STEP-1: Load the Driver Class, coded as • Class.forName(“sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver”); • This statement loads the said class in memory, thus allowing your code to succeed. • STEP-2: Obtain a Database Connection represented by java.sql.Connection interface, to be obtained through code as • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection(“jdbc:odbc:ibm”); • Here “jdbc:odbc:ibm” is the connection String, where ibm is set up through Control Panel as follows… Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 3
  4. 4. STEP-1: Ctrl Panel>Admin Tools>Data Sources (ODBC) Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 4
  5. 5. STEP-2: Go to System DSN tab and then click on Add Button Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 5
  6. 6. STEP-3: Select the Driver and Click Finish Button • Select the required Driver that you need Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 6
  7. 7. STEP-4: Type the Data Source Name (DSN) • and browse the Database (here IBM.mdb) and click OK Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 7
  8. 8. Final Step: Now click OK, • and ibm will appear under System DSN TAB Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 8
  9. 9. Creating A Table in an MS-Access (.mdb) Database: First import java.sql.* to access the JDBC API • static void createTable(String strTableName) throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • Statement st=conn.createStatement(); • st.executeUpdate("create table "+strTableName+"(name varchar(30),id varchar(20),marks INTEGER)"); • st.close(); • conn.close(); • System.out.println("Table "+strTableName+" created successfully!"); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 9
  10. 10. How to insert a Row • static void insertRow(String strId,String strName,int marks) throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • PreparedStatement ps=conn.prepareStatement("insert into StudentTable (id,name,marks) values(?,?,?)"); • ps.setString(1,strId); • ps.setString(2,strName); • ps.setInt(3,marks); • ps.executeUpdate(); • System.out.println(ps.getResultSet()); • ps.close(); • conn.close(); • System.out.println("Row inserted successfully!"); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 10
  11. 11. How to fetch All Rows of a Table static void selectAllRowsOtherMethod() throws Exception{ Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); Statement st=conn.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=st.executeQuery("select * from StudentTable"); while(rs.next()){ System.out.println(rs.getString("id")+"t"+rs.getString("name") +"t"+rs.getInt("marks")); } st.close(); conn.close(); } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 11
  12. 12. Another Approach • static void selectAllRows() throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • Statement st=conn.createStatement(); • st.execute("select * from StudentTable"); • ResultSet rs=st.getResultSet(); • while(rs.next()){ • System.out.println(rs.getString("id") +"t"+rs.getString("name")+"t"+rs.getInt("marks")); • } • st.close(); • conn.close(); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 12
  13. 13. How to fetch a single row • static void selectAStudent(String strId) throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • PreparedStatement ps=conn.prepareStatement("select * from StudentTable where id=?"); • ps.setString(1,strId); • ResultSet rs=ps.executeQuery(); • if(rs.next()){ System.out.println(rs.getString("name")+"t"+rs.getString("id") +"t"+rs.getInt("marks")); • }else{ System.out.println(strId+" Not found!"); • } • ps.close(); • conn.close(); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 13
  14. 14. Update Rows • static void updateAStudent(String strId,int intNewMarks) throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • PreparedStatement ps=conn.prepareStatement("update StudentTable set marks=? where id=?"); • ps.setInt(1,intNewMarks); • ps.setString(2,strId); • int intStatus=ps.executeUpdate(); • System.out.println(intStatus+" Row(s) updated"); • ps.close(); • conn.close(); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 14
  15. 15. Update Rows : Another Approach • static void updateARowOtherMethod(int intNewMarks,String strNewName) throws Exception{ • Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver"); • Connection conn=DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:ibm"); • Statement st=conn.createStatement(ResultSet.TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITI VE,ResultSet.CONCUR_UPDATABLE); • ResultSet rs=st.executeQuery("select marks,name from StudentTable order by id"); • rs.absolute(2); • rs.updateInt(1,intNewMarks); • rs.updateString(2,strNewName); • rs.updateRow(); • st.close(); • conn.close(); • System.out.println("Updated successfully"); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 15
  16. 16. Finally Calling these methods • public static void main(String[]args) throws Exception{ • createTable("StudentTable"); insertRow("it/00/57","Soham Sengupta",940); • insertRow("it/00/01","Manas Ghosh",620); • insertRow("it/00/2","Tanay Das",657); • insertRow("it/00/63","Abhisek Biswas",721); • selectAllRowsOtherMethod(); • selectAStudent("it/00/02"); • updateAStudent("it/00/1",755); • updateARowOtherMethod(102,"Tanoy Dash"); • } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 16
  17. 17. Some important features • After establishing a Connection, we have to create a Statement or PreparedStatement object that would execute the desired SQL. • There are 3 methods: execute(), executeUpdate() and executeQuery(). The first 2 return int indicating the number of rows updated/ otherwise, whereas the last one returns a java.sql.ResultSet that holds the data. At first it points to the BOC so we have to call next() method that returns false when no data is available else true. Also, next() causes the cursor to advance one step. Some special ResultSets may fetch data in either direction. Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 17
  18. 18. Executing SQL through JDBC • SQL, though may differ from an RDBMS to another, always involves 4 basic operations known as CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete). • Basically there are 2 categories of options; first, Write operation involving create, insert, update, delete etc… and second, READ operation. We perform these through Statement and/or PreparedStatement. • The next slide depicts how basic SQL can be executed through these objects. Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 18
  19. 19. A Simple Insert Command • Assuming a table, StudentTable comprising 3 fields: id varchar(30), name varchar(40) and marks INTEGER, we may insert the data set (‘it/00/57’, ‘Soham’, 940) with the command: • Insert into StudentTable (id,name,marks) values(‘it/00/57’, ‘Soham’, 940); • If we represent the above by a Java String object and the column values being termed by variables strName, strId and intMarks, then, the SQL becomes, in code, • String strSQL=“insert into StudentTable (id,name,marks) values(‘”+ strId+”’,’”+strName+”’,”+intMarks+”)”; • Here, + operator concatenates the SQL with column values replaced by corresponding variables. We, however, must be aware to close an open parenthesis and/or a single-quote( ‘ ). This is to be executed with a java.sql.Statement object. • But this is a nasty coding, and should be avoided with PreparedStatement decsribed in the next slide Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 19
  20. 20. How PreparedStatement Betters Clumsiness in code • After loading the driver class, and obtaining the Connection object (say, conn), we should code as : • PreparedStatement ps=conn.prepareStatement(“insert into StudentTable (id,name,marks) values(?,?,?)”); • ps.setString(1,strId); • ps.setString(2,strName); • ps.setInt(3,intMarks); • ps.executeUpdate(); • What we should keep in mind is, index the setters correctly, for example, ps.setString(1,strId) as I’m inserting the column id at 1, name at 2 and marks at 3. • Thus, PreparedStatement can be used for other SQL commands, too, like select commands et al. Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 20
  21. 21. Transaction Failure Management (TFM) • The Software market extensively uses RDBMS and it’s quite obvious those built on Java Technology would involve JDBC. Also, what goes without saying is, these Software packages involve highly delicate Transactions like Banking etc. and hence must conform to the maximum level of TFM, else the entire ACID paradigms would be violated causing much a chaos. JDBC API provides with built-in TFM at coding level. You must be aware that if any thing goes wrong in a JDBC transaction, checked Exception like java.sql.SQLException and others are thrown. So, we put the entire ATOMIC Transaction code under a try-catch Exception handling scanner. Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 21
  22. 22. TFM Coding Style Connection conn; try{ Class.forName(“sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver”); conn=DriverManager.getConnection(“jdbc:odbc:dsn”); conn.setAutoCommit(false); // don’t coomit until entire done … … conn.commit(); // now, no Exception, thank God, now commit it }catch(Throwable t){ conn.rollback(); // This makes the system to roll back on //Exception } Monday, October 13, 2014sohamsengupta@yahoo.com 22

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