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Add motivator At 40 sec stop Slow motion bullet through various objects orhttp://www.splodetv.com/video/high-speed-footage-compilation
Terminal Ballistics Anatomy and the Kinetic Energy Theory ExplainedI. INTRODUCTION (5 mins) A. Opening Statement: (show movie 2-3 min)I am very passionate about this subject. When I was deployed to IRAQ at the very beginning of the war we had a lot of obstacle to overcome. I had 4 brand new privates that didn’t know much. They just arrived to the unit straight out of AIT. We only had one field exercise and it was not JRTC. So in the company exercise they did well considering that they were still green but willing to learn, try hard and taking all the information in. I have work at LA country hospital and was no stranger to multiple bullet injures and other emergencies patients. So knew what to expect as far as emergency patients and gunshot injuries. Seeing the effects of trauma to both adults and children.I am going to show a small clip of ballistics and it will show the effects of ballistics and kinetic energy at work. (clip 1:45) B. Objectives: TLO: Given a scenario indentify the terminal ballistics anatomy and the kinetic energy theory of medium to high velocity ammunition IAW Terminal Ballistics: A Text and Atlas of Gunshot Wounds and Gottfried Leibniz and Johann Bernoulli kinetic theory ELO: Describe the ballistic make up of medium to high velocity ammunitionState the theory of Kinetic Energy and FormulaDescribe distribution of Kinetic EnergyDescribe future innovations of disruption of Kinetic energy.
C. Class Procedure and Lesson Tie-in: Today’s lecture and video will help you to prepare for the combat medical portion of your studies. This is the first in an on going in a series of Terminal Ballistics Anatomy and the Kinetic Energy Theory which is to improve your management of combat gunshot injuries
bullet impact (slowmotion) extreme cool
Bullet design is important in wounding potential.The Hague Convention of 1899 (and subsequently the Geneva Convention) forbade the use of expanding, deformable bullets in wartime. Therefore, military bullets have full metal jackets around the lead core.Full metal jacket (or FMJ) is a bullet consisting of a soft core encased in a shell of harder metal. This shell can extend around all of the bullet, or often just the front and sides with the rear left as exposed lead. The jacket allows for higher muzzle velocities than bare lead without depositing significant amounts of metal in the bore. It also prevents damage to bores from steel or armor-piercing core materials. The appearance of FMJ ammunition is highly distinctive when compared to hollow-point or soft pointbullets.Hollowpoint: A hollow point is a bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its tip, generally intended to cause the bullet to expand upon entering a target in order to decrease penetration and disrupt more tissue as it travels through the target. As a side effect, hollow-point bullets can offer improved accuracy by shifting the center of gravity of the bullet rearwards.The term hollow-cavity bullet is used to describe a hollow point where the hollow is unusually large, sometimes dominating the volume of the bullet, and causes extreme expansion or fragmentation on impact.Despite the ban on military use, hollow-point bullets are one of the most common types of civilian and policeammunition, due largely to the reduced risk of bystanders being hit by over-penetrating or ricocheted bullets, and the increased speed of incapacitation.A wadcutter is a special-purpose bullet specially designed for shooting paper targets. They are often used in handgun and airgun competitions. A wadcutter has a flat or nearly flat front that cuts a very clean hole through the paper target, making it easier to score and ideally reducing errors in scoring the target to the favor of the shooter. Because the flat nosed bullet is not well suited for feeding out of a magazine, wadcutters are normally used only in revolvers or in specially-designed semi-automatic pistols.
Generally, a bullet fired from a rifle will carry more energy than a bullet fired from a handgun. This is because the stronger firing chamber of a rifle is able to withstand the increased explosive power of a larger quantity of powder that would likely rupture the barrel of the handgun. Detonation of the powder in a rifle or handgun supplies the thrust to propel the bullet down the barrel.
Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object, particle, or even myself. Moving across the classroom is diplaying kinetic energy. So any object in motion is using kinetic energy: a person walking, a thrown baseball, a crumb falling from a table, and a charged particle in an electric field are all examples of kinetic energy at work. There are many forms of kinetic energy Vibration ( shaking very fast)Rotational (means moving in circles)Translational (the energy due to motion from one location to another means moving)
As this slide show, it is showing the temporary cavity. The small “tunnel” is the permanent cavity. The “shockwaves” that go through the body is the shock waves. Hence the reasons why someone can get shot in upper the leg and have a ruptured liver or kidney. Solid organs will rupture whereas hollow organs will collapse.
Examples of gun shot through ballistic gel
The mathematics of wound ballistics, in reference to yaw of unstable projectiles, has been described. The model works well for non-deformable bullets. Experimental methods to demonstrate tissue damage have utilized materials with characteristics similar to human soft tissues and skin. Pigskin has been employed to provide an external layer to blocks of compounds such as ordnance gelatin or ballistic soap. Firing of bullets into these materials at various ranges is followed by direct visual inspection (cutting the block) or radiographic analysis (CT imaging) to determine the sizes and appearances of the cavity produced.
Cavitations – A "permanent" cavity is caused by the path of the bullet itself, whereas a "temporary" cavity is formed by continued forward acceleration of the medium (air or tissue) in the wake of the bullet, causing the wound cavity to be stretched outward. I will show some examples of this in the next few slides.
Shock waves - Air at the front and sides of a very fast moving bullet can become compressed. The explosive relaxation of the compression generates a damaging shock wave that can be several hundred atmospheres in pressure. Fluid-filled organs such as the bladder, heart, and bowel can be burst by the pressure.
Any elongated bullet when fired from a barrel with a smooth bore, it would tumble end over end.YAW-Causes a bullet to turn sideways or tumble in flight. This behavior is decreased when the object spins as it moves forward . The barrel of a rifle or gun contains grooves that cause the bullet to spin. More damage results from a bullet that is tumbling rather than moving in a tight spiral.If any elongated bullet were fired from a barrel with a smooth bore, it would tumble end over end. Under optimum conditions of bullet design and manufacture associated with the appropriate twist of rifling, the bullet: follows its trajectory and penetrates the air with least retardation. The sole purpose of rifling is to give adequate rotation to the bullet to keep it stable in flight. The twist or pitch of rifling required depends on the sectional density of the bullet (weight divided by the square of the diameter). Long bullets require a faster spin than short ones.
Bullets do not typically follow a straight line to the target. Rotational forces are in effect that keep the bullet off a straight axis of flight. A bullet will travel straight till it hits an object and therefore tumble in the body. A short, high velocity bullet begins to yaw more severely and rotate upon entering tissue. This causes more tissue to be displaced, increases drag, and imparts more of the KE to the target. Even a bullet with a low KE can impart significant tissue damage if it can be designed to give up all of the KE into the target, and the target is at short range (as with handguns). Despite yaw, an intact bullet that comes to rest in tissue generally has its long axis aligned along the path of the bullet track, though its final position may be either nose forward or base forward. Because it tumbled in the body.
An example of an jacket bullet after impact (SHOW VIDEO bullet impact (slowmotion) extreme cool)
Military Grade Ballistics Fragmented RoundSee how the round expands in the body and tumbled. It also fragments. It begins to rip and tear the body apart hence it can take off body parts and cause devastating damage.
(MEANS Stellate -Arranged or shaped like a star; radiating from a center.)The round fragments upon impact at this high yaw angle (essentially travelling sideways), these bullets break on contact and the marked fragmentation, acting in synergy with the temporary cavity stretch, causes a large stellate wound with the loss of considerable tissue.(SLIDE 22) Military Grade Ballistics The round fragments upon impact at this high yaw angle (essentially travelling sideways), these bullets break on contact and the marked fragmentation, acting in synergy with the temporary cavity stretch, causes a large stellate wound with the loss of considerable tissue .
Discussion. This next set of slides is not about stopping time but Future Disruption of Kinetic energy.
This is a copy of the patent. It is still in the production phase.
SUMMARY (5 mins) A. Review of Main Points: I went over how to indentify the terminal ballistics. The anatomy of bullets and they were fired and the shape of themI went over the kinetic energy theory and how it applies to terminal ballisticsThe injuries that can be caused by medium to high velocity ammunitionThe Future InnovationsWhat is going on more researchDisruption of Kinetic EnergyBallistic Vest B. Closing Statement: I hope that I made understanding how a 17th century theory was easily explained in how Kinetics works. Especially when it comes to ballistics. There is a lot of research in how to disrepute kinetic energy. We cannot stop kinetic energy but disrupt it. By doing that we can save soldiers lives and better prepare for patients.