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AN U S H I J AI N
R O L L N O . : 1 2
PAP E R I
M S c I
ESSENTIAL FATTY
ACIDS
INTRODUCTION
Fatty Acid is “a carboxylic acid consisting of a
hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group,
especially ...
INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF FATTY ACID :
A. Saturated fatty acids: No
C-C double bonds.
B. Unsaturated fatty acids: C-
C double ...
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
• Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that cannot be
synthesized within the human body, and theref...
FUNCTION OF ESSENTIAL
FATTY ACIDS
• Formation of healthy cell membranes
• Proper development and functioning of the brain ...
ω-3 and ω-6 FATTY ACIDS
• The food sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are fish and
shellfish, flaxseed (linseed) and flaxs...
ω-6 FATTY ACID STRUCTURE
SYNTHESIS OF ω-6 FATTY ACID
• Linoleic Acid is the precursor of all the omega-6 fatty
acids.
• It is converted in gamma-li...
LINOLEIC ACID (18:2)
Δ6-desaturase
GAMMA-LINOLEIC ACID (GLA) (18:3)
Elongase
DIHOMOGAMMA-LINOLEIC ACID (20:3)
Δ5-desaturas...
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ω-6
The clinical significance of omega fatty acids lies primarily in the
role they play in inflam...
BENEFITS OF ω-6 FATTY ACIDS
ω-6 fatty acids with ↑ GLA content may help to :-
• Relieve the discomforts of PMS, endometrio...
THANK
YOU
Essential fatty acids (omega-6 fatty acid synthesis)
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Essential fatty acids (omega-6 fatty acid synthesis)

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Synthesis of Omega-6 fatty acids and its clinical significance.

Publicado en: Ciencias
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Essential fatty acids (omega-6 fatty acid synthesis)

  1. 1. AN U S H I J AI N R O L L N O . : 1 2 PAP E R I M S c I ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Fatty Acid is “a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oil”. NOMENCLATURE : • Fatty acids are straight chain hydrocarbons possessing a COOH group at one end. • The carbon next to the COOH group is known as “α”, the next carbon “β”, and the last position is labelled as a "ω”
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TYPES OF FATTY ACID : A. Saturated fatty acids: No C-C double bonds. B. Unsaturated fatty acids: C- C double bonds. i. Monounsaturated fatty acids: Only one C-C double bond. ii. Polyunsaturated fatty acids: Two or more C-C double bonds.
  4. 4. ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS • Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that cannot be synthesized within the human body, and therefore must be obtained from the diet. • There are two families of essential fatty acids: omega-3 (n−3) and omega-6 (n−6) fatty acids. As these fatty acids are not saturated with hydrogen (H) atoms (and contain more than one double bond between the atoms) they are called ' Polyunsaturated Fatty acids ' (PUFAs). • Most PUFAs are of plant and fatty fish origin.
  5. 5. FUNCTION OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS • Formation of healthy cell membranes • Proper development and functioning of the brain and nervous system • Production of hormone-like substances called eicosanoids  Thromboxanes  Leukotrienes  Prostaglandins • Responsible for regulating blood pressure, blood viscosity, vasoconstriction, immune and Inflammatory responses.
  6. 6. ω-3 and ω-6 FATTY ACIDS • The food sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are fish and shellfish, flaxseed (linseed) and flaxseed oil, hemp seed, olive oil, soya oil, canola (rapeseed) oil, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, leafy vegetables, and walnuts. • In all ω-6 fatty acids (FA) , the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid and in all ω-3 FA, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid. • Example : Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Linoleic acid (LA).
  7. 7. ω-6 FATTY ACID STRUCTURE
  8. 8. SYNTHESIS OF ω-6 FATTY ACID • Linoleic Acid is the precursor of all the omega-6 fatty acids. • It is converted in gamma-linoleic acid in the reaction catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase; then it is elongated to form dihomogamma-linolenic acid, which in turn is desaturated in the reaction catalyzed by Δ5-desaturase to form arachidonic acid which is elongated to form docosatetraeonic acid (adrenic acid).
  9. 9. LINOLEIC ACID (18:2) Δ6-desaturase GAMMA-LINOLEIC ACID (GLA) (18:3) Elongase DIHOMOGAMMA-LINOLEIC ACID (20:3) Δ5-desaturase ARACHIDONIC ACID (20:4) Elongase DOCOSATETRAEONIC ACID (22:4) SYNTHESIS OF ω-6 FATTY ACID
  10. 10. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ω-6 The clinical significance of omega fatty acids lies primarily in the role they play in inflammatory events in the body. • The most important omega-6 PUFA is arachidonic acid. When cells are stimulated by a variety of external stimuli, arachidonic acid is released from cell membranes through the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). • The released arachidonate then serves as the precursor for the synthesis of the biologically active eicosanoids, the prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), and leukotrienes (LTs). • The arachidonate-derived eicosanoids function in diverse biological phenomena such as platelet and leukocyte activation, signaling of pain, induction of bronchoconstriction, and regulation of gastric secretions.
  11. 11. BENEFITS OF ω-6 FATTY ACIDS ω-6 fatty acids with ↑ GLA content may help to :- • Relieve the discomforts of PMS, endometriosis, and fibrocystic breasts. • Reduce the symptoms of eczema and psoriasis. • Clear up acne and rosacea. • Prevent and improve diabetic neuropathy.
  12. 12. THANK YOU

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