B.Sc. Agri II LPM U 1 Introduction To Livestock Production
Introduction to Livestock Production
Course : B.Sc. Agriculture
Sub: Livestock production and Management
Scope of Livestock in Indian Economy Livestock Census,
Trends in Livestock Production
Livestock production performance has been more impressive
than that of food grain production. Milk, egg, meat, and fish showed
impressive growth rates of 5to10%.The minimum targeted growth rate
for attaining self sufficiency in milk, fish, meat and egg by 2001 AD are
5.54, 6.25, and 5.54 % per annum respectively.
Livestock represents the only way in which the natural
vegetation that covers large parts of India can be converted in to
products that can be used by man. It provides drought power and
manure to the crop enterprise and this in turn provides feed and fodder.
The value of out put from the livestock sector was Rupees 79684 crores
in 1994-95 which was 9.3% the Total (GDP).
Fortunately India is blessed with a tremendous livestock
wealth. It has the largest population of cattle and buffalo in the world
and its breeds are admired for heat tolerance and inherent resistance to
diseases and ability to thrive under different climatic condition.
The cattle population of India is very large. According 1991
census the cattle population was estimated at 467.9 million this
comprised of 203.1 million catties, 83.1 million buffaloes 50.7million
sheep, 115.3 million goats and 12.1 million pigs. The others were
estimated at 3.6 million. The poultry population constituted a 400
India ranks first with the average milk production of 78 million
tons per annum. This has been the achievement of 70 million dairy
farmers and also through the striated efforts of the animal husbandry
practices, cattle cross breeding projects and cooperative dairy farming. It
is worthwhile to mention that the per capita availability of milk to the
lacto vegetarian Indians is estimated at 214 grams per day. It has been the
only source of sufficient energy, minerals, vitamins and animal proteins.
A 60% of the total milk production enters in. to the market in the
form of dahi, butter, ghee, khoa and shrikhand. Besides this the
conventional dairy products including milk powder, Ice cream and cheese
are also manufactured. During last 20 years the supply f milk has been
possible in sufficient quantities through the pasteurization plants and
Animal draught power
The bullock pair may be regarded as the backbone of Indian
Agriculture. Though the animal draught power does not relate with human
nutrition directly. Indirectly it contributes in the production of food grains;
the renowned draught animals (cattle and buffaloes) include Khillar, Amrit
mahal, Hallikar, Red kandhari, Ongole, Malvi, Rathi, Nagore, Neman,
Hariyana, Gir, and Deoni.
There are about 86 million draft animals, which comprise of 76
million bullocks. 8 million buffaloes, 1 million camels and donkeys. The
horsepower obtained from 1 bullock is equivalent 0.75 H.P.
Mechanization in Agriculture has been to the tune of 20% only. Whereas
80% of the agriculture/farm operations are done by bullock drawn
.implements. It is estimated that 40,000 mega watts, of Energy (Traction
power) is made available through the use of draft animals and the value of
this has been estimated Rs. 5000/- crores.
Flesh foods are rich in protein and are good sources of
vitamin B12 which is absent in plant food. India's meat production is
hardly 2% (4.08 million tons) of the global meat production 209.31
million tons in 1995. Out of total meat produce in India 54% is from
mutton and chevon, 26% from beef 13% from chicken and 7% from
pork. Even though 70% of India’s populations consume meat the per
capita availability of meat is less than 5 kg per year.
As compared to worlds average of 14 kg per year
Broiler production in India is recent one rearing poultry for meat
purposes started only in seventies, but the growth is significant
Broiler production which was only 4 million in 1971 increased to
around 215 million in 1991.
The poultry industry has achieved a spectacular growth during
last thirty years. The 24'billion eggs produced in 1991 represented 13
fold increase compared to 1951.
With the annual production of 27 billion eggs (1995-96) India
stands fifth in world. The government has promoted the poultry
development through intensive poultry development project (IPDP)
launched in third five years plan, (1969-74). Improved breeds like RIR,
WLH and Australia. The per capita availability of eggs in India is only
30 per annum as against the ICMR recommendation of 180 per year.
Fish is a cheap source of animal protein and a good source of calcium.
The fish production of India has risen to 4.95 million tons in 1995-96.
The per capita availability of fish in 1996 was 5.4 kg whereas the ICMR
recommendation for total meat including fish is 10.95 kg per annum.
Farm yard manure for organic farming:
A minimum of 10-20 kg dung is obtained on an average from every cow
or buffalo. This is an excellent source of F.Y.M. or compost manure. This
is badly needed to improve the inherent soil fertility, and to have the
extended manorial effect on the crops parts. Dung cakes are utilized as a
source of fuel in rural parts of India. It is estimated that 640 million tons
of cow dung is being utilized to meet the house hold fuel requirements.
Besides the cow dung, goat extreta, and poultry dropping can also be
better utilized for organic manure.
As a result of various dairy development programmers the
country is having presently 233 processing plants and 46 milk products
factories. The cooperative public sector plants and organized private
plants have an estimated handling capacity of 8.65 million liters per day
(MLPD). Various cattle improvement project have been-started in 600
The country has now 122 intensive cattle development
programmes (ICDP) 140 cattle breeding farms, 40 Exotic cattle farms
and 48 frozen semen banks in operation. These activities has resulted in
enhancing the milk production by 494.11% in the past three decades
although increase in breedable cows and buffaloes 22-23% during the
Through a net work of over 4200C milk producers
cooperative organized under the operation floot. Programme, a
National milch grid has been successfully established. This grid
covers besides the four-metropolitan cities. Nearly 200 cities and
The fallen and slaughtered cattle and buffaloes also
contribute hides and skins, bones and hooves etc. The hides and
skins, from cattle and buffalo are estimated at 0.82 million tons
Animal Husbandry & Dairying may be regarded as a source to create the
employment in rural areas all round the year. Indian Agriculture is mainly
dependent on monsoon and hence agriculture field faces certain bottlenecks to
provide employment during such periods. On an average Agriculture sector may
provide 200 days employment to the rural persons. This means they have to find
alternate source of employment for income during the rest of the year.
Dairy farming, sheep and goat rearing, poultry production, pig farming
rabbit rearing are the alternate sources of mix farming. It may be possible to
generate the employment for the farmers as well as land less laborers who can do
this job themselves, or it may be possible to employ young and the old family
persons as a side business. Many of the operations in Animal Husbandry and
Poultry Farming can be done by the rural women. It is estimated that on an
average 35 million human years/annum employment generation has been
potential through this sector.
Species Female Male
1 Cattle Cow Bull Calf Calving 16-20
Buffalo Buffalo Bull Calf Calving 16-20
3 Goat Doc Buck Kid Kidding 12-15
4 Sheep Ewe Ram Lamb Lambing 12-15
5 Swine Sow Bore Litter Furrowing 8- 10
6 Horse Mare Stallion Foal Whelping 18-22
7 Ass Jennet Jack Foal Whelping 14-18
8 Fowl Hen Cock Chick Hatching 3 - 4
9 Duck Duck Drake
Hatching 4 - 5
General information of livestock
BREEDS OF CATTLE
Indigenous Breeds are classified under three groups based on utility /
Milch breeds / Milk breeds
Dual Purpose breeds
Milch Breeds / Milk Breeds
The cows of these breeds are high milk yields and the male animals are slow or
poor work animals. The examples of Indian milch breeds are shahiwal, Red
Sindhi, Gir and Deoni The milk production of milk breeds is on the average more
than 1600 kg per lactation.
Dual Purpose Breeds
The cows in these breeds are average milk yielder and male animals are very
useful for work. Their milk production per lactation is 500 kg to 150 kg. The
example of this group is Ongole, Hariana, Kankrej, Tharparker, Krishna valley,
Rathi and Goalo Mewathi.
The male animals are good for work and Cows are poor milk yielder are their
milk yield as an average is less than 500 kg per lactation. They are usually white
in color. A pair of bullocks can haul 1000 kg. Net with an iron typed cart on a
good road at walking speed of 5 to 7 km per hour and cover a distance of 30 - 40
km per day. Twice as much weight can be pulled on pneumatic rubber tube carts.
The example of this group Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar.
Exotic breed – Milch – Jersey, Holstein Friesian
•Hailing from the Kohistan, Sindh province in present
Pakistan, this breed is one of the most distinctive cattle
breeds of india.
•Mainly available in Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa.
•Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi
averages over 1700 kg of milk after suckling their
calves but under optimum conditions there have been
milk yields of over 3400 kg per lactation.
•Originally Belonging to the Montgomery
district of Present Pakistan
•Mainly found in Punjab, Haryana, U.P, Delhi,
Bihar and M.P.
•Milk yield – Under village condition :1350 kg
•Milk yield – Under commercial farms: 2100 kg
•Age at first calving -32-36 months
•Calving interval – 15 month
•Mainly found in Gir forest areas of South
•Gir Cows are good Milk – yielder
•Milk yield – Under village condition : 900 kg
•Milk yield – Under commercial farms: 1600
Milch and Draught breeds
•Mainly found in Karnal, Hisar and Gurgaon
district of Haryana, Delhi and Western M.P
Milk yield –1140 -4500 kgs
•Bullocks are powerful for road transport
and rapid ploughing
•Mainly found in Jodhpur, Kutch and
•Milk yield – Under village condition :1660
•Milk yield – Under commercial farms:
•Mainly found in Gujarat
•Milk yield – Under village condition :1300 kg
•Milk yield– Under commercial farms : 3600 kg
•Age at first calving -36 to 42 months
•Calving interval – 15 to 16 months
•Bullocks are fast, active and strong. Good for
plough and cart purpose
•This breed, in its native area, is also known by other names of Kanganad and Kongu
though the name Kangayam is well-known. These cattle are bred in the southern
and southeastern area of the Erode district of Tamilnadu in India.
•Mainly found in Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, Karur and Dindigul districts of Tamil
•Best suited for ploughing and transport. Withstands hardy conditions.
•Mainly found in Karnataka.
•Best suitable for ploughing and
•Mainly found in Tumkur, Hassan and
Mysore districts of Karnataka
•Bullocks are strong, well spirited, quick
and steady in the field as well as on road
Origin: This breed was developed from the island of jersey in the English channel off the coast of
•The Jersey is one of the oldest dairy breeds, having been reported by authorities as being purebred for
nearly six centuries
•The color in Jerseys may vary from a very light gray or mouse color to a very dark fawn or a shade that
is almost black. Both the bulls and females are
•commonly darker about the hips and about the head and shoulders than on the body.
•Age at first calving : 26-30 months
•Intercalving – 13-14 months
•Milk yield – 5000-8000 kg
•Dairy milk yield is found to be 20 liter whereas cross bred jersey, cow gives 8-10 liter per day.
•In India this breed has acclimatized well especially in the hot and humid areas
Origin: This breed is originated in Holland.
•Holsteins are large, stylish animals with color patterns of black and white or red and white.
•Holstein heifers can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds. It is
desirable to have Holstein females calve for the first time between 24 and 27 months of age.
•Milk yield - 7200-9000 kg.
•This is by far the best diary breed among exotic cattle regarding milk yield. On an average
it gives 25 liter of milk per day, whereas a cross breed H.F. cow gives 10 - 15 liter per day.
•It can perform well in coastal and delta areas.
BREEDS OF BUFFALO
Indigenous Buffalo breeds
•Most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Sind of Haryana,
Nabha and Patiala districts of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state.
•Otherwise called as Delhi, Kundi and Kali.
•The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities
•Tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
•Most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
•Butter fat content is 7.83%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500 to 2500 kgs per
•Also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.
•Also known as Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator and Nadiadi.
•The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat.
•Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey.
•The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
•The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the
•The milk yield ranges from 1000 to 1300 kgs per lactation.
•The peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12per cent).
•The breeding tract of this breed is Gir forests, Kutch and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat.
•This is the heaviest Indian breed of buffalo.
•The horns are heavy, inclined to droop at each side of the neck and then turning up at
point (drooping horns).
•The udder is well developed with funnel shaped teats.
•The average milk yield is 1000 to 1200 kgs per lactation.
•The bullocks are heavy and used for ploughing and carting.
•These animals are mostly maintained by traditional breeders called Maldharis, who are
•Home tract of this breed is Agra and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district
of Madhya Pradesh.
•Medium sized buffalo.
•The body is usually light or copper coloured is a peculiarity of this breed. Eye lids are
generally copper or light brown colour.
•Two white lines ‘Chevron’ are present at the lower side of the neck similar to that of Surti
•The average milk yield is 800 to 1000 kgs per lactation.
•The bullocks are good draught animal with high heat tolerance.
•The fat content of milk varies from 6 to 12.5 per cent. This breed is an efficient converter
of coarse feed into butterfat and is known for its high butter fat content.
5. Nili Ravi
•originated around the river Ravi.
•This breed is found in Sutlej valley in Ferozpur district of Punjab and in the Sahiwal
(Pakistan) of undivided India.
•The peculiarity of the breed is the wall eyes.
•Head is small, elongated, bulging at top and depressed between eyes.
•Horns are very small and tightly coiled.
•Bullocks are good for heavy trotting work.
•The milk yield is 1500-1850 kgs per lactation.
•Mehsana is a dairy breed of buffalo found in Mehsana, Sabarkanda and Banaskanta
districts in Gujarat and adjoining Maharashtra state.
•The breed is evolved out of crossbreeding between the Surti and the Murrah.
•Body is longer than Murrah but limbs are lighter.
•The horns are less curved than in Murrah and are irregular.
•Bullocks are good for heavy work.
•The milk yield is 1200-1500 kgs per lactation.
•This breed is also called as Elitchpuri or Barari.
•The breeding tract of this breed is Nagpur, Akola and Amrawati districts of Maharashtra.
•These are black coloured animal with white patches on face, legs and tail. The horns are
long, flat and curved, bending backward on each side of the back. (Swaord shaped horns).
•The bullocks can be used for heavy work.
•The milk yield ranges from 700 to 1200 kgs per lactation.
•This buffalo is named after an ancient tribe, Toda of Nilgiris Hills of south India and it is a
•The predominate coat colours are fawn and ash-grey.
•Thick hair coat is found all over the body.
•They are gregarious in nature.
•The body is long and deep and the chest is deep. The legs are short and strong.
•The horns are set wide apart curving inward, outward and forward forming a characteristic
•The average milk yield is 500 kgs per lactation with high fat content of 8%
BREEDS OF SHEEP
Indian sheep breeds
• It is distributed in Salem, Erode, Karur, Namakkal, and fewer parts
of Dharmapuri districts of Tamilnadu.
•It is a meat purpose breed.
•It has medium sized body with pale purplish skin color.
•There are no horns for both the sexes.
•Tail is smaller and slender.
• Adult male average body weight 36kg.
• Adult female average body weight 22kg.
2. Chennai red
•This is distributed in Chennai, Kancheepuram,
Villupuram, Thiruvannamalai districts of
•It is meat purpose breed.
•Majority are purple in color.
•Certain animals have colored stripes on their
•Adult male average body weight 36kg.
•Adult females average body weight 24 kg.
3. Ramanadhapuram white
•This is distributed in Ramanadhapuram, Sivagangai,
and Virudhunagar districts of Tamilnadu.
•It is meat purpose breed.
•It has medium sized body.
•Majority of them are white in color.
•Certain goats hold black colored stripes all over their
•Adult males have their bent horns, whereas females
with absence of horns.
•Legs are smaller and slender.
•Adult male average body weight 31kg.
•Adult female average body weight 23kg.
•This is distributed in Ramanadhapuram, Sivagangai and Thirunelveli districts of
•It is meat purpose breed.
•It has medium sized body.
•It is found in black red skin color.
•Black colored bands are found on the skin in the regions of head, stomach and legs.
•Tail is smaller and slender.
•Adult male goats are found with stronger coiled horns.
•Majority of the goats are found with wattle, under the jaw/throat.
•Adult male average body weight 29kg.
•Adult female average body weight 22kg.
•It is distributed in Vembur, melakarandhai, keezha karandhai, nagalapuram regions,
Tuticorin and Virudhunagar districts of Tamilnadu.
•It is meat purpose breed.
•These are taller breeds.
•They have white color skin with red color spots over their body.
•Ears are drooped out.
•Tail is smaller and slender.
•Adult males are found with horns and absence of horns in case of females.
•Adult males average body weight 35kgs.
•Adult females average body weight 28kgs.
•These are distributed in Neelagiri district of Tamilnadu.
•It is wool purpose breed.
•They are medium weighed animal.
•Majority are found in white colors.
•Certain goats are found with purple spots on their body and face.
•Ears are broad and drooped out.
•Females are without horns.
•Adult male average body weight 31kg.
•Adult female average body weight 31kg.
7. Trichy black
•These are distributed in Trichy, Perambalur, Dharmapuri and Salem districts of
•It is wool purpose breed.
•These are smaller breeds.
•Black coloured all over the body.
•Adult males are found with horns and females without horns.
•Ears are smaller, facing forward and downwards.
•Adult male average body weight 26kg.
•Adult female average body weight 19kg
•It is distributed in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu.
•It is wool purpose breed.
•Medium weighed animal.
•Found in white colors, with black or purple colored bands, seen over the regions of head
•30% of adult females are free of horns.
•Adult male average body weight 25kg.
•Adult female average body weight 20kg.
•Deccani breed is an admixture of the woolly types of Rajasthan and the hairy types of
Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
•It is found in Bombay-Deccan region and parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh States.
•The sheep is small and hardy, and well adapted to poor pastoral conditions.
•It possesses a coloured fleece, black and gray colours being more dominant.
•The average annual yield of wool being 4.54 kg per sheep.
•The wool is of a low grade and is a mixture of hair and fine fibres, mostly consumed for the
manufacture of rough blankets (Kambals).
•The flocks are maintained chiefly for mutton.
•It is distributed in Nellore, Prakasam and Ongole districts of Andhra Pradesh.
•They are tall animals with little hair except at brisket, withers and breech.
•Rams are homed ewes are polled.
•Long and drooping ears;
•Majority of animals carry wattles.
•Males have average body weight of 36 kg and female have 28 kg.
•Nellore is the tallest breed of sheep in India, resembling goats in appearance.
•It has a long face and long ears with the body densely covered with short hair.
•The majority of the flocks are of fawn or deep red fawn colour.
•It is distributed in Mandya district of Karnataka.
•Relatively small animals colour white - sometimes face is light brown which may extend
up to neck.
•Compact body with typical reversed "U" shaped conformation from the rear.
•Ears long, leafy and drooping.
•Both sexes polled.
•Coat extremely coarse and hairy adult male weighs 35 kg and female weighs 23 kg.
•Best mutton type conformation among the Indian breeds.
Exotic sheep breeds
•This is native of U.K and are polled and horned.
•Face, ears and legs white in colour and free from wool.
•Wool yields 2.75 to 3.25 kg produce mutton of superior quality.
•Rams weight 80-110 kg and ewes weigh - 50 to 80 kg.
•It is a hardy breed and capable of performing well under most conditions.
•It is native of U.K. and is large animals with black face, ears and legs.
•Head and ears entirely free from wool.
•Both rams and ewes are polled though rams sometimes have scurs.
•Its average wool yield 2-3 kg.
•Mature Rams weigh 100-135 kg and ewes from 70-100 kg.
• Ewes are very prolific and excellent milkers.
•Suffolks imported to India have performed poorly than Dorsets.
•The most popular fine wool breed of the world, originated in Spain.
•It is a white faced sheep with white feet.
•Rams have horns whereas the ewes are hornless.
•Most of the head and legs are covered by wool.
•The animal is extremely hardy being able to survive under adverse weather and
poor grazing conditions.
•The ewes live and yield longer than any other breed.
•It was developed in France.
•This breed has a large head with white hair around the nose and ears.
•Rams have horns and ewes are hornless.
•Rams weigh as much as 125 kg and ewes up to a maximum of 90 kg.
•It produces an excellent fine-wool fleece.
•The fleece is heavy, close, compact, covering most of the body including face
•Is a medium wool breed, primarily developed in Scotland.
•The breed is small with erect ears, a clean white face and white legs, covered
with short white hair.
•The nose, lips and feet are black.
•Rams weigh on an average upto 80 kg and ewes up to 55kg.
•This breed is one of the oldest English breeds and has greatly contributed to the
development of many other breeds of sheep.
•It is a small sheep excellent for mutton production.
•Body is low-set, compact, wide and deep with legs wide apart. Head is broad;
face is light brown coloured.
•Rams weigh about 80 kg and ewes 55kg at maturity.
BREEDS OF GOATIndian Goat breeds
•Jamunapari breeds are found mainly in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
•Its coat colour is white with tan or black markings at neck and ears
•They are beard in both sexes; havetuft of long hairs in the buttocks.
•It is largest and most elegant of the long-legged goats of India.
•It has pronounced Roman nose having a tuft of hair which results in parrot mouth appearance.
•Their horns are short and flat and horizontally twisting backward.
•An adult male ranges from 90 to 100 cms in height, whereas a female goat ranges from 70 to 80
cms in height.
•It is, tall and leggy with convex face line and large folded pendulous ears.
•Generally found in white colors.
•Their ears are large and drooped downwards.
•An adult female weighs between 45kgs to 60kgs, whereas an adult male ranges between 65kgs to
•It is are found mainly in the state of Punjab
•These breeds are grown mainly for the purpose of milk and meat.
•Generally smaller than the breed of Jamunapari.
•Coat Colour is predominantly black;or brown with white spots of distering size
•Males usually possess beard.
•Average birth weight - 3 kg.
•An adult female goat ranges between 40kgs to 50kgs, whereas an adult male ranges
between 50kgs to 70kgs.
•Age at first kidding - 20-22 months.
•Average lactation yield - 150 kg.
•They are having the ability to give, one kg to two kgs of milk per day.
• Maximum yield being 591.5 kg in a lactation period of 177 days.
•This is short haired and erect-horned goat popular in urban areas of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh,
Gurgaon, Karnal, Panipat and Rohtak in Haryana state.
•Barbari breeds are grown mainly for milk and meat purpose.
•The color of this breed is white with light brown patches.
•An adult female goat weighs between 25kgs to 35kgs, whereas an adult male goat ranges
between 35kgs to 45kgs.
•They are having the ability to give one kg to 1.5kgs of milk per day.
•This breed have better reproductive capabilities.
•They will give, 2 to 3 kids in parturition.
• They are usually stall-fed and are reported to yield 0.90-1.25 kg of milk(fat content 5%) a
day in a lactation period of 108 days
• They are prolific breeder and kid twice in 12-15 months.
•Tellicherry breed is also called as malabari breed.
•It is found mostly in the state of Kerala.
•It is grown mostly for the purpose of meat.
•Generally seen in white, purple and black colors.
•An adult female ranges in weight from 30 to 40kgs, whereas an adult male ranges
between 40 to 50kgs.
•They can yield one kg to two kgs of milk per day.
•These types of breeds have better reproductive capabilities.
•They can give two to three kids in a parturition.
•Coat colour is brown, white, and admixture of colours in typical patches; hair coarse and
•Compact and medium sized body.
•Tail twisted and carries coarse pointed hair.
• Horns are small and pointed, curved upward and backward.
•Average body weight of buck is 50 and doe is 23 kg.
•Average birth weight is 2.0 kg.
•Kidding is once a year, twins are common.
•Average age at first kidding is 19 months.
•Average lactation yield - 71 kg.
•Average lactation length - 175 days
•Coat colour is predominantly black; white, brown and spotted occur.
•Long and short-haired type, based on presence or absence of long hair on the thighs and
•Tall and large size body and legs.
•Average birth weight 2.4 kg.
•Kidding is once a year.
•Average age at first kidding 19-20 months.
•It has good quality meat.
•Good yielders produce up to 3.5 kg a day.
• Average milk yield 170-180 kg per lactation.
7. Kanni aadu
•These are the tallest goat breeds found in Thirunelveli and Ramanadhapuram districts of
•Black or white spots in the black background are the characteristics colors of this breed.
•They are usually grown for meat purpose.
•The adult females of this breed ranges from 25kgs to 30kgs and the adult males ranges
from 35kgs to 40kgs in body weight.
•They are having ability to give birth to 2 to 3 kids.
•They grow well in the draught regions.
8. Kodi aadu
•These breeds are taller and found with different colors, but predominantly black
•They usually give birth to one or two kids.
•They are usually grown for the purpose of guiding the goat flocks, which goes for
•These types of breeds are mostly found in the districts of Sivagangai, Ramanadhapuram,
and Tuticorin districts of Tamilnadu.
Breeds of Swine
1. Large white Yorkshire
•Most extensively used exotic breed in India
•Body colour is solid white with occasional black – pigmented spots
•Erect ears, snout of medium lengths and dished face
•Excellent breed for the purpose of cross breeding
•Mature boar 300-400 k.g
•Mature sow 230-320 kg
•White with black skin spot
•Long body, large drooping ears and long snout
•Prolific breeding and efficient in utilizing feed
•Carcass quality equal to Yorkshire
•Excellent breed for crossbreeding
•Mature boars weigh 270-360 kg
•Mature sow weighs 200-320 kg
3. Middle white Yorkshire
•Used in some areas in India
•Grows rapidly gives good dressing percentage
•Not so prolific as large white Yorkshire
•Males 250-340 kg
•Females 180-270 kg
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