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alternate fuel seminar report

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report on alternate fuel

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alternate fuel seminar report

  1. 1. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 1 Alternate Fuels 2016 ALTERNATE FUELS ABSTRACT  “Necessity is the mother of invention. Energy crisis is the cry of future.”  The historical and the present-day civilization are closely interwoven with energy and in future, our existence will be more dependent upon energy. The conventional sources of energy, the single most important pre-requisite for power generation, are depleting fast. The world is heading towards a global energy crisis mostly due to running out of these energy sources; decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels is recommended.  The reason motivating the development of alternate fuels for the ic engine is the concern over the emission problem of gasoline and diesel engines.  Another reason for alternate fuels development is the fact that a large percentage of crude oil must be imported from other countries which control the larger oil field  Now most of the alternate fuels are very costly (ex; methanol &natural gases) since the quantity used is very less but many of these fuels will cost much less if the amount of their usage get to the same order of magnitude as gasoline  Problem with alternate fuels is the lack of distribution points where the fuel is distribution for public.
  2. 2. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 2 Alternate Fuels 2016 INTRODUCTION In this century, it is believed that crude oil and petroleum products will become Very scarce and costly. Day-to-day, fuel economy of engines is getting improved and will continue to improve. However, enormous increase in number of vehicle has started dictating the demand of fuel. Gasoline and diesel will become scarce and most costly in the near future. With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, Alternate fuel technology will become more common in the coming decades. Another reason motivating the development of alternate fuel for engines is the concern over emission problem of gasoline and diesel engines. Combined with other air-polluting systems, the large number of automobiles is a major contributor to the air quality problem of the world. Quite a lot of improvements have been made in reducing emissions from automobile engines. If a 30% improvement made over a period of years, it is to be noted that during the same time the number of automobiles in the world increased by 40%, thereby nullifying the improvement. Lot of efforts has gone into for achieving the net improvement in cleaning up automobile exhaust. However, more improvements are needs to bring down the ever-increasing air pollution due to automobile population. A third reason for alternate fuel development is the fact that larger percentage of crude oil must be imported from other countries which control the larger oil field. As of now many alternate fuels have been used in limited quantities in automobiles. Quite often, fleet vehicles have been used for testing (e.g. taxies, delivery vans, and utility company trucks). The engines used for alternate fuel are modified engines which wear originally designed for gasoline fuelling. Some diesel engines have started appearing on the market. They use Methanol or natural gas and a small amount of diesel fuel that is injected at proper time to ignite both fuels. Mostly alternate fuels are very costly at present since the quantity used is very less. Many of these fuels will cost much less if the amount of their usage gets to the same order of magnitude as gasoline. The cost of manufacturing, distribution, and marketing would be less.
  3. 3. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 3 Why to choose alternate fuel? 1. Conventional fuels are going to run out One day, our sources for traditional fuels including petroleum would be depleted. Owing to the fact that these fuels are typically not renewable, a lot of people are worried that a day would come when the demand for these fuels would be more than the supply, triggering a considerable world crisis. Non-environmentalists also concur with the opinion that the majority of oil fields (situated in the Middle East) in the world are associated with problems – both political and economic. Determining a new method or solution with respect to finding different countries to create new fuels would reduce the unrest and conflict resulting from the world’s dependence on fuel supply from the Middle East. 2. To reduce pollution The use of alternative fuels considerably decreases harmful exhaust emissions (such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and sulfur dioxide) as well as ozone-producing emissions. 3. To protect against global warming According to a commonly accepted scientific theory, burning fossil fuels was causing temperatures to rise in the earth’s atmosphere (global warming). Though global warming continues to be just a theory, a lot of people across the globe are of the belief that discovering sources of cleaner burning fuel is an essential step towards enhancing the quality of our environment. 4. To save money Alternative fuels can be less expensive to use not just in terms of the fuel itself but also in terms of a longer service life. This in turn means savings for the long term. 5. Can reuse waste Biofuels bioproducts, and biopower provide modern and fresh relevance to the old belief that trash for one person is a treasure for another. That’s good news considering that Americans produce in excess of236 million tons of waste each year.
  5. 5. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 5 ETHANOL- Among the various options, Ethanol, an alcohol seems to be a most promising option for countries like India because of its availability from agriculture products. Alcohol can be used in diesel engines in following ways. One method is injection of ethanol with inlet air using carburetion or electronic injection system and other is emulsion of diesel and ethanol. And also enable a reduction in exhaust NOX, smoke and particulate matter. WHY TO ADOPT ETHANOL AS ALTERNATE FUEL- Many alternate fuels are being considered for automotive vehicles and ETHANOL of the best alternate fuels. Ethanol has been used as automobile fuel for many years in various countries of the world. Brazil is probably the leading user that is about 5 million vehicles’ operated on fuel that were 93% ethanol .Ethanol is produced from molasses, which is a by- product of sugarcane. Ethanol can be produced in large quantities at low cost from these molasses Its high oxygen content improves the combustion characteristics It also reduces the harmful emissions from IC engines such as sulphur-di- oxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate emissions. USE OF ETHANOL IN I.C ENGINES The various techniques by which the ethanol can be used as a fuel for compression ignition engines are_ 1. Blend formation 2. Fumigation 3. Dual injection 4. Spark ignition 5. Ignition improvers 6. Surface ignition
  6. 6. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 6 BLEND FORMATION: The easiest method by which ethanol could be used is in the form of diesel ethanol blend. But ethanol has limited solubility in diesel; hence ethanol/dieselsolutions are restricted to small percentages (typically 20%). This problem of limited solubility has been overcome by emulsions, which have the capability of accommodation larger displacement of diesel up to 40% by volume. But the major drawbacks of emulsions are the cost of emulsifiers and poor low temperatures physical properties. DUAL INJECTION: Dual injection is a method by which nearly 90%Displacement of diesel by ethanol is possible. The drawback of this method includes the complexity and expense of a second injection system and a second fuel tank and system. SPARK IGNITION: Spark ignition of neat ethanol in diesel engines provides a way of displacing 100% of diesel. A spark plug and the associated ignition system components must be added to the engine. Space must be available for spark plugs in the cylinder head and its also important for sparkplugs in the cylinder head and itÆs also important for proper plug cooling. IGNITION IMPROVERS: Another method of using neat ethanol is to increase their cetane numbers sufficiently with ignition improving additives to ensure that compression ignition will occur. This method saves the expense and complexity of engine components changes, but adds fuel costs. SURFACE IGNITION: This is another method of using ethanol 100% ethanol in diesel engines. Surface ignition occurs when the temperature of the air-fuel mixture adjacent to a hot surface exceeds its self-ignition limit.
  7. 7. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 7 FUMIGATION: Fumigation is a method by which ethanol is introduced in to engine by carbureting or vaporizing the ethanol into the intake stream. This method requires addition of a carburetor or vaporizer along with a separate fuel tank, lines and controls. But with the emergence of electronic injection techniques the fumigation technique has been made possible by using an injector in the intake manifold. METHANOL- Also known as wood alcohol, methanol is a convenient liquid fuel that is made from a number of differentfeedstockresources - natural gas and coal as well as renewable resources like forest thinning or agricultural waste and even directly from CO2 captured from power plant and factory emissions. Methanol is a basic building block for hundreds of essential chemical commodities that touch our daily lives including building materials, plastic packaging, paints and coatings, even windshield washing fluid. Methanol is also a transportation fuel, a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell technologies, and an efficient fuel for electric power generation. With the chemical structure CH3OH, methanol is the simplest alcohol, with the lowest carbon content and highest hydrogen content of any liquid fuel. METHANOL FUEL AND THE ENVIRONMENT:- i. Ten or more years ago, a typical methanol manufacturing plant would emit about 0.9 - 1.0 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide for every tone of methanol produced. In addition to the environmental concerns, large CO2 emissions represent operational inefficiencies in a methanol plant, since the carbon emitted as CO2 is not available for making methanol molecules. In fact, excess CO2 from other industrial facilities can also be captured and consumed to increase methanol production. Through the implementation of efficiency improvements and through replacing of older facilities with newer plants that use more efficient technologies, over the last decade methanol plants have been able to significantly reduce CO2 emissions by up to 40%.
  8. 8. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 8 When burned as fuel, methanol cuts emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds that form ground-level ozone or “smog.” Methanol is much less reactive than gasoline in the atmosphere, with the only toxic component of the emissions being formaldehyde, as compared to dozens of carcinogenic components of gasoline emissions, which also contains formaldehyde. The use of heated catalytic converters has shown that methanol-fueled auto emissions meet and exceed California’s stringent Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) emission targets for formaldehyde. Methanol fuel also does not contain the toxic BTEX additives found in gasoline – benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylems. These compounds are highly carcinogenic, do not readily biodegrade in the environment, and are capable of contaminating groundwater supplies. ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF ALCHOL FUELS:- Advantages a. It can be obtained from a number of source, both natural and manufactured. b. It is a high octane fuel with anti-knock index number (octane number) of over 100. Engines using high-octane fuel run more efficiently by using higher compression ratios. Alcohols have higher flame speed. c. It produces less overall emissions compared to gasoline. d. When alcohols are burned, it forms more moles of exhaust gases, which give higher pressure and more power in the expansion stroke. e. Alcohol have low sulphur content in the fuel. Disadvantages a. Alcohol have low energy content or in other words the calorific value of the fuel is almost half of the gasoline fuel b. Alcohol have poor ignition characteristics in general c. Alcohols have almost invisible flames, which is considered dangerous when handling fuel. d. Many people find strong order of alcohol very offensive.
  9. 9. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 9 e. There is a possibility of vapor lock in fuel delivery system. VEGETABLE OIL AS ALTERNATE FUEL:- Vegetable oil is considered as one of the alternative fuel for diesel engines However, the viscosity of vegetable oil is higher compared to diesel. Therefore it must be lowered to allow for proper atomization in engines designed to burn dieselfuel. Otherwise, incomplete combustionand carbon build up will ultimately damage the engine. Some literatures classify vegetable oil as Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) and straight vegetable oil (SVO) or Pure Plant Oil (PPO) to distinguish it from biodiesel. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in WVO have a detrimental effect on metals. Copper and its alloy, such as brass, are affected by WVO. Tin, lead, iron, and steel are affected too. The main form of SVO/PPO used in various countries is rapeseed oil which has a freezing point of -10°C. Use of Sunflower oil, which gels at around -12°C, is currently being investigated as a means of improving cold weather starting. BIODIESEL:- Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil or animal fat based diesel engine fuel consisting of long chain alkali ester. Biodiesel is typically produced by chemically reacting lipids with an alcohol. More efficiently we can say that biodiesel is an alternate fuel which is eco- friendly, highly oxidized, sulpher-free, nontoxic. FEED STOCK FOR BIODIESEL:-  Rapeseed (Germany)  Sunflower oil  Soybean Oil (USA & brazil)  Palm oil(Malaysia)
  10. 10. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 10  Linseed, olive oil (spain)  Used oil  Cottonseed oil WHY BIODIESEL?  SUSTAINABILITY  POLLUTION THREAT  REDUCTION OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS  REGIONAL DEVLOPMENT  SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND AGRICULTURE. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESEL:-  Environment friendly  Clean burning  Renewable fuel  NO engine modification  Biodegradable and non-toxic  Easy to Handle and store. Production:- Biodieselis commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock.
  11. 11. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 11 Fatty acid alkyl ester prepared from any oil or fat.. BIODIESEL-WHY LOWER EMISSIONS?  Biodiesel has high cetane  In built Oxygen Content  Burns fully  Has no-sulphur  No aromatic  Complete CO2 cycle Road Block for Biodiesel Industry….  Feedstock Scarcity  Food vs. Fuel controversy  Pricing of biodiesel is not attractive to anybody
  12. 12. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 12 BIODIESEL-INDIAN SCENARIO:-  Presently importing about tones of edible oil to take care the edible oil application- ͂͂͂͂͂͂͂͂͂ 65% of our consumption is being imported.  Clean oil are not available for biodiesel production in india  It is very difficult for India to get the required feedstock for biodiesel production in the present scenario. Gaseous Fuel:- Gaseous fuels are best suited for Ic engines since physical delay is almost zero. However, as fuel displaced equal amount of air the engines may have poor volumetric efficiency. There are quite few gaseous fuels that can be used as alternate fuels. Hydrogen:- A number of automobile manufacturer have built with prototype or modified engines which operates on hydrogen fuel.. Advantages of using Hydrogen:-  Low emission. Essentially no CO or HC in the exhaust and there is no carbon in the fuel  Fuel availability. There are a number of ways of making hydrogen, including electrolysis of water  Fuel leakage to environment is not a pollutant.  High energy content per volume when stored as liquid. Disadvantages of using hydrogen fuel:-  Difficult to refuel and the possibility of detonation.  Fuel cost would be very high at present day technology and availability
  13. 13. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 13  High NOx emission because of high flame temperature.  Requirement of heavy, bulky fuel storage both in vehicle and at the service station. Hydrogen can be used in SI engines by three Methods: i. By manifold induction ii. By direct introduction of hydrogen into the cylinder iii. By supplementing gasoline. Since, hydrogen is highly reactive fuel it requires great care in handling. Flash black arresters have to be provided between the engine and the storage Tank to prevent flash back from going to the tank NATURAL GAS:- Natural gas is found in various localities in oil and gas bearing sand strata located at various depth below the earth surface. The gas usually considerable pressure and flows out naturally from the oil well. Natural gas obtained from oil wells is called casing head gas. It is usually treated for the recovery of gasoline. Natural gas is mixture of components, consisting mainly of methane (60% to 90%) with the small amount of other hydrocarbon fuel components. The composition varies considerably from place to place and time to time. ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL GAS:-- 1) Octane number is around 110, which makes it a very good SI engine fuel. 2) Low engine emission. 3) Fuel is fairly abundant. DISADVANTAGES OF NATURAL GAS:- 1. Low energy density resulting in low engine performance. 2. Low engine volumetric efficiency because it is a gaseous fuel. 3. Inconsistent fuel properties
  14. 14. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 14 4. Refueling is a slow process. Compressed natural gas:- Petroleum and natural gas obtained by process of drilling wells. As already known crude oil petroleum is composed of hydrocarbons. It contains small amount of water, sulphur and other impurities. Petroleum when mixed with natural gas produces a highly volatile liquid. This liquid is known as natural gasoline. The natural gas can be compressed and then it is called compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG is used in automobile vehicle just like LPG. The CNG fuel feed system is just like the CNG fuel feed system. Emission levels and comparison between CNG-driven vehicle and petrol driven vehicle pollutants Emissionnorms Petrol with catalytic converter CNG with catalytic converter CO(g/Km) 5.60 0.92 0.05 HC(g/km) - 0.36 0.24 NOx(g/Km) 1.92 0.25 0.93 LIQUEFIED PETROLIUM GAS (LPG):- Propane and butane are obtained from oil and gas wells. They are also the product of the petroleum refining process. For automobile engines, two types of LPG are used. One is propane and other is butane. Sometimes, a mixture of propane and butane is used as liquid petroleum gas in automobile engines.LPG gases are compressed and cooled to form liquid. This liquid is kept in pressure tank which are sealed. Now they are used widely in buses, car and trucks.
  15. 15. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 15 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LPG:- ADVANTAGES:- 1) LPG contains less carbon than petrol. LPG powered vehicle produces 50% less carbon monoxide per kilometer, so the emission is much reduced by the use of LPG. 2) LPG mix with air at all temperature 3) Since the fuel is in the form of vapour, there is no crankcase dilution. 4) LPG has high antiknock characteristics. 5) Running on LPG translates into a cost saving of about 50%. 6) The engine may have 50% more longer life. DISADVANTAGES:- 1) A special fuel feed system is required for liquid petroleum gas 2) The vehicle weight is increased due to the heavy pressure cylinder for storing of LPG 3) A good cooling system is quite necessary. 4) Running on LPG could lead to five percent reduction in valve life. OTHER POSSIBLE FUELS:- BIOGAS:- Biogas is another alternate fuel tried in diesels.Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter. Potential raw materials available on a large scale are cow dung, municipal wastes, etc… The main advantages of biogas are that it can be produce in rural areas from readily available material. Biogas consists mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Its calorific value is low but its knock resistance is more and ignition quality (cetane number) is low
  16. 16. Alternate Fuels 2016 Page 16 BENZOL:- Benzol is a coal tar distillate that consist of about 70% benzene (𝐶6 𝐻6), 20% Toluene and 10%xylene and trace amounts of sulphur burning compounds. It has high antiknock characteristic. It has a freezing point of 6ºC. This eliminates it as a fuel in cold climates. Its specific gravity is 0.88., specific heat 0.4 DIETHYL ETHER:- It is a very volatile fuel. It is use with other fuels to increase the volatility of the blend. ACETONE:- Acetone is more volatile than methanol. This may be used as fuel without blending with other volatile fuels. Its antiknock quality is higher than that of butanol. Hence, it is a desirable fuel to blend with butanol.