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DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE
SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY &
[Formerly-Allahabad Agricultural Institute]
ALLAHABAD- 211007, U.P., INDIA
RAKESH KR. MEENA
DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
NATURE OF DAMAGE
REASONS FOR BROWN PLANT HOPPER OUTBREAK
Rice is the major staple crop for about half of the worlds
India rank second in the production of rice after china.
Upto 60% yield loss is common in susceptible rice cultivars
attacks by Brown plant hopper (BPH).
Brown plant hopper (Nilapervata lugens) are among the
most important pest of rice (Oryza sative L).
Both nymphs and adults of plant hopper also transmits
viruses such as rice ragged stunt virus (RGSV).
Thus, increased level of plant hopper occasionally accompany
substantial losses of rice crop through viruses diseases.
Losses from the insect and the disease have occurred in India
estimate at US $ 20 millions. The estimate losses due to the BPH
and the grassy stunt diseases total more than US$ 300 millions.
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Arthropoda
Class : Insecta
Order : Hemiptera
Family : Delphacidae
Genus : Nilapervata
Species : lugen
BPH is monophagous, feeding only on rice (Oriza sativa L.).
However, in no-choice conditions, BPH will feed on finger millet,
sugarcane, maize, Echinochloa,Cyperus,sorghum, and wheat.
BPH is the most economically important plant hopper in Asia. It
occurs throughout India, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia,
In India it is mainly found in Uttar Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu
The eggs are crescent-shaped and on average 0.99 mm long
Newly laid eggs are whitish and they turn darker when about to
The female can lay from 100 to 500 eggs depending on the stage
of growth of the rice plant
The eggs stage is about 7 to 11 Days.
There are 5 nymphal instars that all feed on the host
plant’s phloem sap until the adult stage.
The nymphs have a triangular head with a narrow
The body is creamy white with a pale brown tinge.
Mature nymphs are about 2.99mm long.
The adult female measures from 4.2 to
4.5 mm and the male 3.80 to 4.12 mm.
The adults range in colour from
brownish black to yellowish brown.
There is a distinct white band on the
mesonotum with dark brown on the
long-winged adults have normal front
and hind wings, whereas shortwinged
forms have stunted hind wings.
The wings are also normally shorter in
males than in females.
In south India Maximum population between October and
February, depending on the climate conditions, the incidence of
brown plant hopper is sever on kharrif crop.
Brachypters lay 300-350 eggs.
Incubation period-4-8 days
Nymphal period 2-3 week with 5 instar
Adult longevity 10-20 days
June – october 18-24 days
November – january 38-44 days
February – April 18-35
Nature and Symptoms of Damage
Nymph and adult congregate at the base of plants, above water level, and suck
In severe infestation the leaves first turn yellow, and later brown and finally the
affected plants dry and die.
The first sign of damage is the sudden slumping of crop in patches in field.
The crop in these affected patches dries up giving a scorched appearance called
Conidia of Alterneria brassicae
Crop loss is usually considerable and complete destruction of
crop occurs in severe cases.
Brown plant hopper also transmit viruses such as rice ragged
stunt virus (RRSV) and rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)
Reason for Brown plant hopper Outbreak
Continuous cultivation of susceptible varieties.
Widespread migration of winged macropteras forms to
endemic and new areas.
Continue uses of same group of insecticides (nionicotinoid) to
Use of high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers.
ETL for Brown plant hopper 5 to 10 insect/hill.
Adopt planting with formation of alleys of 25 cm at intervals of 2mt
to provide good aeration and sunlight.
Avoid dense planting
Excess application of N fertilizer may be avoided.
In vegetative phase of the crop growth periodical drying and wetting
may be followed for short period to create disturbance in micro
climatic climate conditions favorable to pest development.
Grow resistance varieties like Chaitanya, Krishnaveni, Chandan,
Triguna, Deepthi, Nandi, Vijeta, Pratitha, Vajram etc.
In developing resistant varieties bio type development has
complicated the effectiveness source resistant in one region may
be susceptible in an other region. The susceptibility of IR 26, the
first brown plant hopper, resistance variety released by IRRI in
India singnaled the evolution of bio types among hopper
1. Green mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus
2. Carabid beetle Ophionea
Both the shiny black larvae and
reddish-brown adults search the
rice canopy for prey
Consumes 3-5 hoppers per day
Lady beetle Harmonia
• Larvae are black with dark yellow
spots and have body horns
dorsally and laterally
• Active during the day in the upper
half of rice canopy
• Larvae are more voracious than
• Consume 5-10 prey a day
Application of these chemical insecticides were effective against
brown plant hopper in rice
Monocrotophos 36% SL 1.3ml/lit of water
Chlopyrifos 20 EC 2.5ml/lit of water
Carbaryl 50WP 2.0gm/lit of water
The Brown plant hopper (Nilapervata lugens) is a
Effective control is not possible without the knowledge
of this pests biology and life cycle.
Integrated pest control measure including cultural
practices (date of sowing, avoid high use of N fertilizer),
use of resistance variety(Chaitanya, Krishnaveni,
Chandan), Biological control (Predators )and valid use
of chemical insecticides (Monocrotophos ,
Chlopyrifos ,Carbaryl ) are effective in increasing the
production of rice and reducing the pest infestation.
CABI. 2007. Crop Protection Compendium. Commonwealth
Agricultural Bureau, International. http://www.cabicompendium.org/.
HIRAO, J. 1976. Recent trend in the occurrence of the brown
planthopper [in Japanese]. Kongetsu-No-Noyaku 20(5):40–43.
Khus G.S., (1999).”green revolution preparin for the 21st
century” Genome42(4): 646-55
Mathur Y.K. and Upadhyay K.D., (2012) Agricultural Entomology
Rama publishing house, P144.
Phatak M.D. khan Z.R. (1994), Insect Pest of Rice.Manila
(Phillipines) IRRI, P89