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Types of innovation decisions, consequences of innovation-decisions

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Types of innovation decisions, consequences of innovation-decisions

  1. 1. “Types of Innovation-decisions, Consequences of Innovation- Decisions, Decision-making Process” SUBMITTED BY Rameshwar sahu M. Sc. (Ag) Previous Year Dept. of Agril. Extension 1 SUBMITTED TO DR. M.L. SHARMA (Professor & Head) Dept. of Agril. Extension
  2. 2. Types of Innovation-Decisions  Operational innovation-decision: These are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by an individual independent of the decisions of the other members of the system.  Collective innovation-decisions: These are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by consensus among the members of a system.  Authority innovation-decisions: These are choices to adopt or reject an innovation that are made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, status, or technical experience. 2
  3. 3. Consequences of Innovation Decisions Consequences are the changes that occur to an individual or to a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.  Desirable vs. Undesirable consequences: Depending on whether the effects of an innovation in a social system are functional or dysfunctional.  Direct vs. Indirect consequences: Depending upon whether the changes to an individual or to a social system occur in immediate response to an innovation or a as a second-order result of the direct consequences of an innovation.  Anticipated vs. Unanticipated consequences: Depending on whether the changes are recognized and intended by the members of a social system or not. 3
  4. 4. Decision Making  Decision making is a process comprising a sequence of stages with a distinct type of activity occurring during each stage. Steps involving Decision-making  Observing the problem,  Making analysis of it,  Deciding the available courses of action,  Taking one course, and Accepting the consequences of the decision. 4
  5. 5. 5 KNOWLEDGE PERSUASION DECISION IMPLEMENTATION CONFIRMATION Prior condition 1. Previous Practice 2. Felt needs/ problems 3. Innovativeless 4. Norms of Social system Characterisitics of Decision-making Unit 1. Socio-economic characteristics 2. Personality variables 3. Communivation behaviour Perceived characteristics of the innovation 1. Relative advantages 2. Compatibility 3. Complexity 4. Trialability 5. Observability Adoption Rejection Continued adoption Later adoption Discontinuance Continued Rejection Innovation Decision Process Communication Channels
  6. 6. Innovation Decision Process  It is the mental process through which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation to forming an attitude towards the innovation to a decision to adopt implementation of new idea and confirmation of his decision.  Knowledge- It occurs when an individual is exposed to the innovation and gain some understanding on how it functions. It is of three types like  Awareness knowledge: Questions such as, what is an innovation, advantage of using innovation are included.  How to knowledge: Consists of information necessary to use innovation. How to use it correctly.  Principles knowledge: Involve functioning of the innovation, i.e., the theoretical aspect. 6
  7. 7.  Persuasion In this phase an individual forms a favourable/ unfavourable attitude towards an innovation which eventually may lead to adoption/rejection corresponding to his attitude.  Decision Stage An individual engages in activities that lead to choice to adopt/reject innovation. It includes Adoption and Rejection of an innovation  Implementation Stage It occurs when an individual puts an innovation into use. It involves the overt behavior change.  Confirmation The individual seeks the reinforcement of the innovation decision already made. 7
  8. 8. 8 Perceived Attributes of Innovation 1. Relative advantage: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes. Ex- if a new technology or practice gives more yield or income’ or saves time, labour and cost; or has less risk than the existing one; it has more relative advantage. 2. Compatibility: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values. Ex- When a new crop variety suits the agro-climatic condition of the farmer, it indicates situational compatibility. Ex- When a breed of livestock advocated to the farmer is in agreement with their beliefs and values, it is cultural compatibility. 3. Complexity: is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use. Ex- For example, many of the high yielding technologies like HYV crops, crossbred cattle, composite fish culture etc., are quite complex.
  9. 9. 4. Trialability: is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Ex- Adoption of new seeds and fertilizers are more, compared to new farm machinery, simply because seeds and fertilizers may be purchased in small units and tried, whereas, purchase of farm machinery, requires large investment and can not be tried in parts. 5. Observability: is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. The visible impact of an innovation facilitates its diffusion in the social system. For example, application of balanced fertilizer in crop plants has almost always been recommended to the farmers. 9
  10. 10. Factors Influencing Decision Making I. SOCIAL FACTORS (i) Social values (ii) Local Leadership (iii) Social contacts a) Nature of Social contacts b) Extent of Social contacts c) Social distances II. PERSONAL FACTORS (1) Age (2) Education (3) Psychological characteristics: (4) Values and attitudes (cultural characteristics) 10 III. SITUATIONAL FACTORS (1) Nature of the practice A) Complexity B) Cost C) Net returns (2) Farm income (3) Size of Farm (4) Tenure status
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