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Competitive challenges and HR1. Going global2. Embracing new technology3. Managing change and organisation culture4. Developing human capital5. Responding to the market6. Containing costs Downsizing Outsourcing and employee leasing Enhancing productivity
Other challenges faced Demographic and Employee concerns Demographic changes Diversity of backgrounds Age distributions Gender distribution Rising level of education Cultural changes Concern for employee rights Changing attitude towards work Balancing work and family
Functions of HRMANAGERIAL OPERATIVEFUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS Planning Staffing Development Organising Compensation Directing Motivation Controlling Maintenance Integration
Operative functions of HRSTAFFING Job analysis, HRP, Recruitment, Selection, Placement, Induction, Internal Mobility Competency profiling, Training andDEVELOPMENT development, Performance & potential management, Career management, 360 degree feedback Job design, Work scheduling, JobCOMPENSATION evaluation, Compensation& MOTIVATION administration, Incentives and benefits
Operative functions of HR (contd.) Health, Safety, Welfare,MAINTENANCE Social security Employment relations, Grievance,INTEGRATION Discipline, Trade unions, Participation, Collective bargaining
Scope of HRM Labour or Personnel aspect – Recruitment, Selection, Transfer, Promotion etc. Welfare aspect – Housing, Lunch room, Health and Safety, Transport, education etc. Industrial relation aspect – Union Management relations, Negotiation, Grievance handling etc.
HRM Environment - External Technology Professionalism Economic HRM Social & cultural Political & legal Union
HRM Policies Policy – is predetermined course of action established to guide the performance of work towards accepted objectives. Importance -:(1) Clear Thinking(2)Uniformity & Consistency of Admin.(3)Sence of Security(4)Control
Types of HR Policies Originated policies – Made by top Management. Appealed policies – Made on request to handle certain situation, or if certain aspects are missing in the main policy. Imposed policies – Imposed by Govt & Legal authorities. General policies – Do not relate any issue, may represent the priority of Top Mgmt. (WPM). Specific Policy – Related to specific issues like Recruitment, Transfer, Promotion etc.
System Approach to HRM Systematic functioning as per the external environment. Org can’t change external environment but try to use it to the fullest extent. Need to fulfill various demands i.e.(4) Customer demand – Quality product, Reasonable price.(5) Employee demand – Higher wages, stable employment.(6) Govt demand – Payment of taxes, Compliance of various laws.Thus, proper management of all the activities is crucial.
HRM and Relations with other Departments Departments – Marketing, Finance, Production Relationship on the basis of – Growth & Development, Procurement, Benefits.
Human Resource Planning Meaning – Assessment of Human Resource Requirements & also the time & stages of requirement. Right person ---At Right place ---At Right time. Definition – HRP is defined as the process by which management determines how an org should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.
Objectives of HRP To ensure optimum use of existing HR. To forecast future requirement for HR. To provide control measures to ensure that necessary HR are available as and when required. To asses the surplus and shortage of HR. (Downsizing). To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and HR.
Objectives of HRP – Contd. To determine the level of Recruitment and Training. To estimate the cost of HR and Housing needs of employees. (Or HRA). To provide the basis of MDP. To meet the needs of expansion and diversification programmes.
Importance of HRP Future Personnel needs Creating highly talented personnel International Strategies Foundation of personnel function Resistance to change and move
HRP Process (contd.) HR Programming-: Once the Org’s HR Demand and Supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employee at the right time. HR Plan Implementation-: Implementation requires converting an HR plans into action. (Recruitment, Training, Succession plan etc.)
HRP Process Environment Org objectives & policiesHR Need Forecast HR Supply Forecast HR Programming HRP Implementation Control & Evaluation Surplus Shortage
HRP Process (Contd.) Environmental Scanning - :3) Economic factors4) Technological Changes5) Demographic changes6) Political and legislative issues7) Social concerns
HRP Process (Contd.) Org objectives and policies-: HR plans need to be based on org objectives, this implies that the objectives of the HR plan must be derived from Org objectives.
HRP Process (Contd.) HR Demand forecast-: The process of estimating the future quantity and quality of people required. The basis of forecast will be annual budget and long term corporate plans. Demand forecasting must consider several factors like internal (Budget constraints, employee separations, production level) and external (Competition, laws, change in technology).
HRP Process (Contd.) Demand forecasting techniques are-: Managerial judgment Ratio trend analysis Delphi technique Regression analysis HR Supply forecasting-: Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an org.
HRIS HRIS is a database system that keeps important information about employees in a central and accessible location. The information provided by HRIS can help the organisation to gain competitive advantage. (SWOT of org.)
Information categories of HRIS Basic non confidential information-: Employee name, Org name, Work location General non confidential information -: Social security number, Position related information (codes, tittles, effective date)
Info categories of HRIS (contd.) General information with salary -: Current salary, Effective date, Amount of last change, Reason for last change. Confidential information with salary -: Information of previous category, Educational data
Info categories of HRIS (contd.) Extended information with salary -: Information of previous category, Bonus information, Projected salary increase information, Performance evaluation information.
Job Analysis Job analysis is the process of collecting job related information. Such information helps in the preparation of job description and job specification. Job Analysis Job Description Job Specification
Job Analysis (contd.) Job description -: A statement containing items such as Job title, Location, Job summary, Working condition etc. Job specification -: A Statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job. Usually contains items such as Education, Experience, Training, Communication skills etc.
Purposes of Job Analysis HRP Recruitment & Selection Training & Development Remuneration Safety & Health Performance Appraisal
Process of Job Analysis Strategic Choices Gather Information Process Information Job Description Job Specification
Process (contd.) Strategic Choices –:2. Employee Involvement3. Level of Details4. When and How often5. Past oriented and Future oriented Gather Information –:8. What type of Data to Collected (machine, tools & work activities)9. Data collection methods10. Who to collect Data (Trained analyst, Supervisors, Job incumbents)
Process (contd.) Information Processing -: How collected information will be used in forming Job Description and Job Specification. Job description –: Job Specification -:
Recruitment The process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. Recruitment is a process of inviting applications from prospective employees. Recruitment is a positive process.
Sources of Recruitment Internal Sources -: Transfer , Promotions. External Sources-: Press Advertisements , Educational Institutions, Placement Agencies, Employment Exchange, Labour Contractors, Recruitment at factory Gate.
Recruitment Process Recruiting Required PersonnelSearch for Perspective Employees Internal Sources External SourcesEvaluating effectiveness of process
Recruitment Process Personnel Requisition -: Requisition for recruitment from other deptt., Contains info like no of person required, duties to be performed, desired qualification, time of appointment, info about job. Locating and developing sources of required no and type of employees. Identifying the prospective employees with required characteristics.
Process (contd.) Communicating the info about the org, the job and the terms and condition of service. Encouraging the identified candidates to apply for jobs in the org. Evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment process.
Alternatives to Recruitment Overtime Employee Leasing Temporary Employment
Selection Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organisation. Selection is a negetive process.
Selection Procedure Preliminary Interview Application blank Selection Test Employment Interview Reference Check and Background Analysis Medical Examination Final Approval Evaluation
Test and Interview Psychological tests -: Aptitude test Informal Interview Formal Interview Depth Interview Stress Interview
Induction Or Orientation Planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co – workers and the organisation. Orientation also called Induction, is designed to provide a new employee with the information he or she needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organisation.
Objectives of Induction To help new comer overcome his natural shyness and nervousness in meeting new people in the environment. To develop among the newcomers a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organisation. To develop a close and cordial relationship between newcomers and the old employees and their supervisor.
Objectives (contd.) To ensure that the newcomers do not form negative or false impression and attitude towards the organisation or the job because first impression is the last impression. To give newcomers necessary information such as leave rules, rest period, locker room etc.
Advantages of Formal Induction Helps in build up a two way channel of communication between management and workers. Proper induction facilitates informal relations and teamwork among employees. Effective induction helps to integrate the new employees into the organisation and to develop the sense of belonging.
Types of Induction Programme Formal Informal Individual collective
Contents of Induction Programme History and operation of company Products and services of company Policies and procedures of company Grievance procedure Benefit and services for employees Opportunities for training and development, promotion, transfer etc.
Placement Placement refers to the allocation of people to jobs. It includes initial assignment of new employees and promotion, transfer, or demotion of present employees.
Placement Problems Difficulty with the placement is that we tend to look at the individual but not at the job. Job in this context may be classified into three categories.4. Independent5. Sequential6. Pooled
Training & Development Training is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. (Employees)
T&D Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. (Executive) Education is theoretical learning in classroom.
T&D The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency computed as follows-:Training & Development need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance
Difference between T & Edu Training -:1. Application base,2.Job Experience,3. Specific Task,4. Narrow Perspective. Education -:1.Theoretical Orientation,2. Classroom learning,3. General Concepts,4. Broad Perspective.
Inputs in T & D Skills Education Development Ethics Attitudinal Changes Decision making and Problem solving skills
T & D as a source of Competitive Advantage T & D offer competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies, making staff stay long, minimising accidents, Scrap & damage and meeting future employees needs.
Training Program Need Assessment Deriving Instructional ObjectivesDesigning Training & Development Program Implementation of Training Program Evaluation
Training Process Need Assessment -: Diagnoses the present problems & future challenges to be met through training and development. Need Assessment Methods -: As follows Group Assessment –5. Org goals & objectives.6. Personnel skill inventories7. Exit interviews8. Customers Satisfaction data
Training process Individual Analysis -:2. Performance Appraisal3. Interviews4. Questionnaires5. Attitude Surveys. Issues in need assessment -:8. Org Support9. Org Analysis10. Task and KSA analysis11. Person Analysis
Training Process Deriving an instructional objectives -: It help to know the inputs for the training program and as well as for the measures of success that would help assess effectiveness of the training program. Designing training & development program -:1. Who are the trainees?2. Who are the trainers?3. Methods & techniques?4. Level of training?5. Learning principles?6. Where to conduct the program?
Training process Implementation of training program Evaluation
Types of training On the job -:2. Orientation Training3. Job instruction4. Apprentice training5. Internship6. Job rotation7. Coaching
Types of training Off the job -:2. Vestibule3. Lecture4. Role playing5. Simulation6. Laboratory training