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DESIGN PROJECT
DESIGN OF HALF – SHAFT AND REAR
 WHEEL HUB ASSEMBLY OF A RACE CAR
Faculty co-ordinator:   Prof. Gokul Kumar

Design projec...
INTRODUCTION
Project Objective
• It was required to design a hub assembly and
  half–shafts for the Formula 1 car of mass about
  640 k...
Red Bull RB7 Formula 1 Car




RB7 F1 is the official car from World Champions Red Bull for the 2011 season of
Formula 1. ...
Half - Shafts

• A half - shaft is an axle on a front wheel
  drive vehicle connecting the transmission to
  the driven wh...
Design Consideration
Half shafts are designed as
 – a hollow metal tube to reduce weight.
 – CV joint at either end, allow...
Wheel-Hub
• A hub assembly contains the wheel bearing,
  and the hub to mount the wheel to vehicle.
• It is located betwee...
Design Consideration
• The bolt pattern is determined by the number
  of bolts on the wheel hub.
• Selection of material s...
LITERATURE
  REVIEW
DESIGN CRITERIA AND DURABILITY
    APPROVAL OF WHEEL HUB
SAE international,USA        11-16-1998       technical paper
   ...
FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF WHEEL HUB
   FABRICATED FROM PRESSURE DIE
       ALUMINIUM ASSEMBLY
theoretical and applied fracture ...
Finite element modeling of dynamic impact and
 cornering fatigue of cast aluminum and forged
            magnesium road wh...
PRELIMINARY
PRODUCT DESIGN
Prototype CAD Model
     Half - Shaft




         Isometric View
Parameters for Half-shaft
•   L    –     Length of shaft
•   Do   –     Outer diameter of shaft
•   Di   –     Internal di...
Wheel Hub
Parameters of Wheel Hub
• n     -   Number of Bolts
• b     -   Bolt Circle Diameter or
            Pitch Circle Diameter
...
THEORETICAL
  DESIGN
Half - Shaft
GIVEN :
•   Maximum Torque of engine at 14000 rpm =              280 N-m
•   Gear ratio for 1st gear         ...
Calculation of Torque at half-shafts:
Shock torque = factor of safety x first gear ratio x final drive x maximum engine to...
T     = (π/16) x τ x (do)3 x [ 1 – (di / do)4]

                    We have, k = di / do = 5

         So, 2758.665 = (3.1...
Wheel-Hub Assembly
Tires and rims selection:

The tires selected were of 13” diameter. The diameter was selected as
such t...
Brake Force Calculation
• Brake force is required to estimate the load on the
  wheel hub.

• As almost all the design par...
Brake Calculation             :-


Velocity of Vehicle                           =         vo
Frictional force will be act...
Acceleration of the vehicle:-

vo2      = u2 + 2ad

Where a is the acceleration of the vehicle

a       = vo2/2d
a       =...
Torque on the tire:-

Tr        =         F1 * rtire
Rim is taken to be 13”
rtire     =         20.43 * 0.0254/2       =  ...
SOFTWARE
ANALYSIS
Wheel Hub Assembly
• In design stage, we estimated all the forces acting on hub and disc

• The wheel hub was modeled in C...
Finite Element Analysis
No external force              External force applied




        Factor of Safety = 2
Safe Design
DETAILED PRODUCT
     DESIGN
Half - Shaft
Material = ion nitride titanium alloy
                Yield stress          = 1.241 x 109 Pascal
            ...
Wheel hub
Tyre dia.                 = 13”
No. of bolts              =4
Pitch circle dia.         = 100mm.
Spoke hole dia ....
conclusion
• Wheel Hub has been designed for a formula 1 car of mass about 640 kg,
  maximum speed of 300 km/hr and averag...
GANTT CHART(Design Project)

                  "DESIGN OF HALF - SHAFT OF A PROTOTYPE RACE CAR"
Sl                        ...
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Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 1 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 2 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 3 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 4 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 5 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 6 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 7 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 8 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 9 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 10 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 11 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 12 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 13 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 14 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 15 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 16 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 17 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 18 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 19 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 20 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 21 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 22 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 23 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 24 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 25 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 26 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 27 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 28 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 29 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 30 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 31 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 32 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 33 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 34 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 35 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 36 Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car Slide 37
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The Half - Shaft and Wheel Hub of Formula One racing car was designed taking into consideration one of the popular model of Redbull racing car. The various dimension of shaft and hub were altered to attain maximum factor of safety.

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Design of half shaft and wheel hub assembly for racing car

  1. 1. DESIGN PROJECT
  2. 2. DESIGN OF HALF – SHAFT AND REAR WHEEL HUB ASSEMBLY OF A RACE CAR Faculty co-ordinator: Prof. Gokul Kumar Design project guide: Prof. B . K Jha Manvendra Singh Inaniya(08BME126) 9047288146 Ravi Shekhar (08BME181) 9566810725
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Project Objective • It was required to design a hub assembly and half–shafts for the Formula 1 car of mass about 640 kg, maximum speed of 300 km/hr and average speed of 150km/hr. • The assembly must give stability during rotation of the wheels. The weight and the dimension of the hub must be as small as possible because of the unsprung weight which further reduces the rotational mass. The half-shafts should not fail under stress.
  5. 5. Red Bull RB7 Formula 1 Car RB7 F1 is the official car from World Champions Red Bull for the 2011 season of Formula 1. We have considered this vehicle as a reference for this Design Project as it is one of the fastest and most technologically matured vehicle in the racing scenario.
  6. 6. Half - Shafts • A half - shaft is an axle on a front wheel drive vehicle connecting the transmission to the driven wheels. • The rear wheel driven Formula 1 vehicle being observed for the project uses half shafts in rear, as the differential is rigidly mounted and an independent rear suspension is used.
  7. 7. Design Consideration Half shafts are designed as – a hollow metal tube to reduce weight. – CV joint at either end, allowing the driven wheels to maintain constant velocity . – Splines to transmit power between differential, CV joints, shaft and wheel hub. – the suspension travels during driving. – fatigues due to high speed rotation.
  8. 8. Wheel-Hub • A hub assembly contains the wheel bearing, and the hub to mount the wheel to vehicle. • It is located between the brake rotors and axle.
  9. 9. Design Consideration • The bolt pattern is determined by the number of bolts on the wheel hub. • Selection of material strong enough to take the weight of the car. • Wheel bearings in the hub depending on ID and OD of spindle coming out of hub. • Type of lug nuts or bolts.
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW
  11. 11. DESIGN CRITERIA AND DURABILITY APPROVAL OF WHEEL HUB SAE international,USA 11-16-1998 technical paper authors : Gerhard fischer , Vatroslov V. grubisic The author says that the design of wheel hub must be based on stress generated under customer usage through operational loads acting on wheels. Wheel hub are highly steered safety components which must not fail under the applied loading conditions. The main parameters for design of wheel hub assembly are loading conditions , manufacturing process and material behavior. The influence of these parameters are interactive so material fatigue behaviour will be changed depending upon the wheel hub design and loading conditions.
  12. 12. FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF WHEEL HUB FABRICATED FROM PRESSURE DIE ALUMINIUM ASSEMBLY theoretical and applied fracture mechanics ,vol 9 feb 1988 authors : S . Dhar The author says that a catastrophic failure of wheel hub occurred during service. The nature of crack was a corner crack. An analytical investigation was carried out using tool of linear elastic fracture mechanics to establish the cause of failure. The non – linear behavior is due to the presence of material inhomogeneties and discontinuities. An analytical estimation was carried out in order to calculate the minimum no. of cycles carried by wheel hub in service. The initiation of crack growth is complex because the heterogeneity and morphology of fracture surface. Fractographic and metallographic studies are carried out to assist the understanding of corner cracking problem.
  13. 13. Finite element modeling of dynamic impact and cornering fatigue of cast aluminum and forged magnesium road wheels. Proquest dissertation and thesis 2006 authors : Shang, Shixian (Robert) The author says that numerical investigation of wheel dynamics impact and cornering fatigue performance is essential to shorten design time , enhance mechanism performance and lower development costs. The desertion focused on two objectives: i) Finite element models of a dynamic impact test on wheel and tire assembly were developed which considered the material in homogeneity of wheels. Comparison of numerical predictions with experimental measurements of wheel impact indicated 20% reduction of initial striker kinetic energy provide an effective method for simplifying modeling. ii) numerical prediction of wheel cornering fatigue testing was considered. It proceeded in two methods, first was static stress analysis with bending direction applied to the hub. Second was dynamic stress analysis with application of a rotating bending moment applied to hub.
  14. 14. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT DESIGN
  15. 15. Prototype CAD Model Half - Shaft Isometric View
  16. 16. Parameters for Half-shaft • L – Length of shaft • Do – Outer diameter of shaft • Di – Internal diameter of shaft • T – Maximum Torque applied by differential on shaft • σ – Maximum Normal Stress on shaft • τ – Maximum Sheer Stress on shaft • J – Polar Moment of Inertia of shaft • G – Modulus of Rigidity
  17. 17. Wheel Hub
  18. 18. Parameters of Wheel Hub • n - Number of Bolts • b - Bolt Circle Diameter or Pitch Circle Diameter • d - Flange diameter is measured between opposite holes • S - Spoke hole diameter • W - Width centre to flange • P - Load capacity is the amount of weight a wheel will carry
  19. 19. THEORETICAL DESIGN
  20. 20. Half - Shaft GIVEN : • Maximum Torque of engine at 14000 rpm = 280 N-m • Gear ratio for 1st gear = 1.833 • Final Drive ratio = 2.15 Material selection: • The material chosen for the design of Half – shaft is ion nitrided titanium alloy. • The titanium and titanium alloys have unique corrosion, nonmagnetic and strength – to-weight ratio properties. • Mechanical properties of nitride titanium alloys are as follows: Yield stress = 1.24105631 × 109 Pascal Maximum Sheer Stress = 0.62052815 × 109 Pascal
  21. 21. Calculation of Torque at half-shafts: Shock torque = factor of safety x first gear ratio x final drive x maximum engine torque = 2.5 x 1.833 x 2.15 x 280 = 2758.665 N-m. Internal to external diameter ratio, k = 5 As T = 6246.765 N-m , τ = 0.62052815 × 109 Pascal , k = 5 The Axial Force acting upon the half-shafts has been countered by adding plunge to the C.V. joints at the end of the half-shafts The Gyroscopic couple acting due to rotational masses likes tyres, camshafts and crankshafts is negligible as the rims, camshafts and crankshafts are made of light weight titanium alloys which contribute insignificantly to gyroscopic couple. No bending moment is observed as no additional weight, except self-weight of half- shafts, is loaded on the half-shafts. Thus our calculations would be based upon the strength required from shaft under torsional loading only.
  22. 22. T = (π/16) x τ x (do)3 x [ 1 – (di / do)4] We have, k = di / do = 5 So, 2758.665 = (3.14/16) x 0.62x 109 x (do)3 [ 1 – (1/5)4] do3 = 22882.115 do = 28.39 mm Or, do = 29 mm. Therefore, di = 29/5 di = 5.66 mm. From the design calculation we find that the required external and internal diameter of the half – shaft as per the specified engine parameters and given conditions is 29 mm and 5.6 mm.
  23. 23. Wheel-Hub Assembly Tires and rims selection: The tires selected were of 13” diameter. The diameter was selected as such that floor of the formula car does not touch the ground. At the same time a low ride height would give an aerodynamic as well as low Center- of-gravity advantage. Number of bolts is taken 4 as it is a standard for 13” wheels. Pitch Circle Diameter(P.C.D.) is fixed at 100 mm as it is a standard for 13” wheels. Spoke Hole Diameter(S) is taken as M12 as it is a standard for 13” wheels. Material : Ti6Al4V - titanium alloy is the most widely used .
  24. 24. Brake Force Calculation • Brake force is required to estimate the load on the wheel hub. • As almost all the design parameters of a wheel hub are fixed by the size of wheel, the thickness of the wheel hub is the defining parameter. • The thickness of wheel hub is determined by maximum force acting on a wheel.
  25. 25. Brake Calculation :- Velocity of Vehicle = vo Frictional force will be acting on it = F Stopping distance = d Friction force of the road must do enough work on the car to reduce its kinetic energy to zero . To reduce the kinetic energy to zero Workfriction = µmgd = 0.5mv02 d= vo2/2µg Velocity of our vehicle = 150 km/hr Friction of road = 0.90 d = 98.31 m
  26. 26. Acceleration of the vehicle:- vo2 = u2 + 2ad Where a is the acceleration of the vehicle a = vo2/2d a = 8.8m/s Total force acting on the vehicle Ftotal = mv* a Where mv is the mass of the vehicle = 640kg Ftotal = 640 * 8.8 = 5632N Force on each wheel:- F1 = Ftotal/4 = 3953.43/4 =1408 N F1 = 1408 N
  27. 27. Torque on the tire:- Tr = F1 * rtire Rim is taken to be 13” rtire = 20.43 * 0.0254/2 = 0.2595 m Tr = 1408 * 0.2595 = 365.35 N-m Torque on disc:- Tdisc = Ffriction*reffective disc is assumed to be 200mm , therefore reffective should be 9cm we know that Tdisc = Ttire Ffriction = 25647.012 / 9 Ffriction = 2849.67N Force on the clamp:- Fclamp = Ffriction/µ = 2849.67/0.5 = 5699.34 N
  28. 28. SOFTWARE ANALYSIS
  29. 29. Wheel Hub Assembly • In design stage, we estimated all the forces acting on hub and disc • The wheel hub was modeled in CAD with given parameters • The forces were applied on model using Finite Element Analysis in ..COSMOS • The thickness of hub was varied in increments of 2 mm till a Factor ..of Safety value of 2 was attained • Thus the final design of wheel hub is complete
  30. 30. Finite Element Analysis No external force External force applied Factor of Safety = 2
  31. 31. Safe Design
  32. 32. DETAILED PRODUCT DESIGN
  33. 33. Half - Shaft Material = ion nitride titanium alloy Yield stress = 1.241 x 109 Pascal Max. Shear stress = 0.62 x 109 Pascal Engine characteristics N = 1400 rpm T = 280 N-m. First gear ratio = 2.833 Final drive ratio = 2.15 Shock torque = 2758.665 N-m. K, d0/di =5 External dia. = 29 mm. Internal dia. = 5.6 mm
  34. 34. Wheel hub Tyre dia. = 13” No. of bolts =4 Pitch circle dia. = 100mm. Spoke hole dia . = M12 Material = Ti6Al4V – titanium alloy Stopping distance = 98.31 m. Velocity of vehicle = 150 Km/hr. Acceleration of vehicle = 8.8 m/s2. Force on each wheel = 1408 N. Torque on tyre (R-13) = 388.75 N-m. Diameter of disc = 200 mm. Effective radius = 90 mm. Clamping force = 8638.86 N. Width of flange = 10 mm.
  35. 35. conclusion • Wheel Hub has been designed for a formula 1 car of mass about 640 kg, maximum speed of 300 km/hr and average speed of 150 km/hr. • The designed assembly gives stability during rotation of the wheels. • The weight and dimension of the hub is such that it reduces the rotational mass. • The design project enabled us to understand the various forces that act on a half – shaft and wheel hub, while the Formula 1 race car is in running condition. • The calculated parameters help us to design half - shaft and wheel hub such. • The design project helped to better under the uses of software in real scenario.
  36. 36. GANTT CHART(Design Project) "DESIGN OF HALF - SHAFT OF A PROTOTYPE RACE CAR" Sl Time in Weeks No. CATEGORY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Topic and guide selection A for project B Literature review Develop preliminary C product design D Theoretical Design E CAD modelling F Software analysis G Optimization of design Develop detailed product H design Final Presentation I Compilation ***Please note that the weeks mentioned above doesnot contain the CAT weeks.
  37. 37. THANK YOU
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The Half - Shaft and Wheel Hub of Formula One racing car was designed taking into consideration one of the popular model of Redbull racing car. The various dimension of shaft and hub were altered to attain maximum factor of safety.

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