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DIRECTED RESEARCH Ray Mancini | Prof. Tom Klinkowstein | Tuesday, 6 pmTuesday, July 19, 2011
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? Most modern speech therapies have ﬂaws, and no single technique works for everyone suﬀering from disﬂuency. Can design thinking possibly form the foundation for a new method of therapy?Tuesday, July 19, 2011
HYPOTHESIS This thesis presents the hypothesis that design methodology may oﬀer a partial solution to overarching ﬂaws in modern day speech therapies. In contrast to current stuttering approaches, which often set unrealistic expectations of perfection or focus on only one area for improvement, design thinking examines a problem from all sides and promotes experimentation. A concept like the “T-shaped Designer”, emphasizing strong skill set in conjunction with larger knowledge base, could oﬀer a robust approach currently not being utilized in the speech therapy ﬁeld. Such research and comparison could bring interdisciplinary insight into understanding and circumventing the limited verbal communication of stutterers.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
FLAW / DESIGN COMPARISONS FLAW Expectation of perfection. DESIGN Mistakes are aesthetically desirable. FLAW Narrow treatment focus. DESIGN Look at all aspects of a problem (context, history, environment) to achieve a successful solution. FLAW No streamlining/ﬁltering of spoken content. DESIGN Simplify a larger message to its focused essence. FLAW Many “one-size-ﬁts-all” approaches. DESIGN Every problem needs a unique approach. FLAW Limitations will never allow “normal” communication. DESIGN Limitations force us to be creative and explore diﬀerent techniques to communicate eﬀectively.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
INTERDISCIPLINARY INNOVATION ADRIAN HILL ARTIST, ART THERAPIST, EDUCATOR (1895-1977) Discovered the therapeutic beneﬁts of drawing and painting while recovering from tuberculosis Coined the term ‘art therapy’ Said the value of art therapy lay in ‘completely engrossing the mind (as well as the ﬁngers) Suggested artistic work to his fellow inpatients, who were documented in 1945 in a book, under the title, “Art Versus Illness”Tuesday, July 19, 2011
WIDENING ONE’S KNOWLEDGE BASE TIM BROWN CEO AND PRESIDENT OF IDEO Spoke of “T-shaped People, individuals with a deep skill set in their chosen ﬁeld, plus a broader range of interdisciplinary and social skills. Able to explore insights from many diﬀerent perspectives and recognize patterns of behavior.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
CONTINUOUS EXPERIMENTATION MALCOLM FRASER PHILANTHROPIST, BUSINESSMAN, STUTTERER (1903 - 1994) Founded the Stuttering Foundation of America using $10 million of his own money Authored “Self-Therapy for the Stutterer”, providing guidance for stutterers to help themselves without conventional therapy.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
OUTLINE MY STORY PROBLEM / HYPOTHESIS SPEECH DISFLUENCY • Overview • Types of Available Therapies • Therapy Shortcomings / Flaws DESIGN METHODOLOGY • Overview • Evolution of design methodologies through history • Speciﬁc design thinkers • Speciﬁc design methodologiesTuesday, July 19, 2011
VALORIZED DESIGNER #1 “The valorized designer should see design for its major potential contribution to making the quality of life richer and more sustainable.” My thesis has the potential to alter in the lives of many stutterers, including myself. The ﬁnal output may be a new and unique addition to the ﬁelds of design AND speech therapy.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
VALORIZED DESIGNER #2 “It is important that (designers) see how the ideas they are studying are changing: where the ideas have come from, how they have changed, and how they may develop.” By studying historical and contemporary design methodologies and speech therapies, I can arrive at a well-informed solution for my thesis.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
VALORIZED DESIGNER #3 “The valorized designer will be able to evaluate design as an integral and integrated part of a particular society.” My thesis may potentially show how design thinking can aid a very large group of people aﬄicted with a severe limitation. This places design in direct relation to a stuttering community that may not yet be aware of design’s potential to add signiﬁcantly to their conversation.Tuesday, July 19, 2011
RESEARCH SOURCES SPEECH THERAPY • National Stuttering Association (NSA) • Stuttering Foundation of America • British Stammering Association (BSA) • Various Therapists • Speciﬁc therapy cases • My own current experiences and the experiences of others INNOVATORS IN DESIGN THINKING • IDEO - Tim Brown, David Kelley • Roger Martin DESIGN THEORIES / APPROACHES 1. T-shaped Designers 2. Transition Theory 3. Analytic vs. Intuitive Thinking 4. Other interdisciplinary applications of design thinkingTuesday, July 19, 2011
ADJACENT APPLICATIONS Besides Speech Therapy, the hypothesis and research presented here could possibly be applied to other physical or mental disabilitiesTuesday, July 19, 2011