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“All people are unique that’s
why we are all the same.”
CULTURE refers to the "traditions,
rituals, beliefs, and values that are
shared amongst a group of people."
Each person is a part of
at least one culture.
CULTURAL PLURALISM is a situation
where there are different ethnic or social
groups that exist in the society
and tried to develop
their own culture.
(Merriam-webster dictionary, n.d.)
Multiculturalism refers to sharing of
Embedded within the concept of multicultural education is
a belief that all students, regardless of their race,
ethnicity, culture, and other characteristics such as social
class or disability, should experience equal educational
opportunities. Although no single recipe can accommodate
facets of multicultural education,
there are certain common ingredients.
THE FIRST INGREDIENT FOR A
SUCCESSFUL DIVERSE PROGRAM IS THE
CLASSROOM TEACHER'S KNOWLEDGE
OF DIVERSE CULTURES.
THE SECOND INGREDIENT IS THE TEACHER
MUST HAVE TO SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENT
A CULTURALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOM
ENVIRONMENT THAT HAS AN ATTITUDE OF
ACCEPTANCE AND RESPECT FOR
Helping children to compare, contrast, and learn
about other cultures without making judgments
about them requires this attitude of acceptance
The third critical ingredient for a teacher's success in
implementing a culturally diverse classroom is the
ability to add a multicultural perspective into
curriculum planning and classroom management
Remember that providing the children with a
multicultural program helps boost self-esteem and
teaches them about acceptance and diversity. A
multicultural program will help children understand and
work well with others as they grow and mature.
The curriculum plays a paramount role in
influencing the attitudes of the students. As
educators, we must make certain that the
curriculum respects the dignity of all people.
A culturally pluralistic curriculum must be consistent with
the goals of our culturally diverse society. Such curriculum
should be characterized by mutual understanding and
respect, equal worthiness of all cultural groups, and
recognition of important contributions to society
which each of these groups has made.
Promoting diversity in the classroom is vital to making
students feel included in the group instead of
alienated. It also helps students learn about and respect
their peers' cultures and backgrounds. As an educator, you
can foster a positive classroom environment built on
Sharing of Differences
Encouraging members of the class to share
something special about themselves or their
culture can promote diversity.
You can also incorporate different age-appropriate
activities such as a study of different
types of food or music from different cultures or
an investigation of the different types of hair
each student has.
Creating a Diverse
As an educator, you can promote diversity
through the decorations you choose
for the classroom.
TIPS TO CONSIDER IN
Get to know your students.
Be patient and understanding.
Be aware of phrasing questions that can
put these students on the spot.
Consider inviting significant family or community
persons to work with underachieving students.
Familiarize yourself with studies that offer the ethnic
students’ personal views of the academic environment.
THANK YOU FOR
ANJANETH D. BALINGIT
(Definitions, concepts and origins.)
I. What is Culture?
Culture is “all those things that people
have learned to do, believe, value,
enjoy in their history, the ideals,
beliefs, skills, tools, customs and
institutions into which each member
of society is born.”
Americanization constituted a Nativist movement
dedicated to erasing the original cultures, and
especially the languages, of the twenty-seven million
New Immigrants (that is, the Italians and Eastern
Europeans) who entered the United States from 1880
Theodore Roosevelt declared, “we have room for but
one language here…. We intend to see that the
crucible turns our people out as Americans, and not
as dwellers in a polyglot boardinghouse.”
Cultural Pluralism is a term used when smaller
groups within a larger society are accepted by the
wider culture provided they are consistent with the
laws and values of the wider society.
Often the acceptance of a culture may require that
the new or minority culture remove some aspects of
their culture which is incompatible with the laws or
values of the dominant culture.
The idea of cultural pluralism has its roots in the
transcendentalism supported by the transcendentalist
Transcendentalism is an American literary, political,
and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth
The transcendentalists operated with the sense that a
new era was at hand. They were critics of their
contemporary society for its unthinking conformity.
Cultural Pluralism was developed and improved by
cultural pluralists namely, William James,Horace
Kallen, Randolph Bourne, Louis Adamic, and
He advocated that the United States become a
“democracy of nationalities, cooperating voluntarily
and autonomously in the enterprise of self-realization
[utilizing] a common language… English.”
A young German-born Jewish
Devotion to Zionism
Like Kallen, Bourne asserted that the foreign
cultures could remain distinct but cooperative to the
American nation, and should not be melted down or
run together into some homogeneous Americanism.
Why, he asked, should anyone propose that the
immigrant cultures be replaced by “tasteless, colorless
The thrust of Adamic’s approach to cultural
pluralism is captured by his insistence that “in the
past there has been entirely too much giving up, too
much melting away and shattering of the various
cultural values of the new groups. Americanized
foreigner became a cultural zero paying lip service to
the U.S., which satisfied the Americanizers.”
“a true assimilation means absorption of the
foreign groups without destruction of their
fundamental characteristics and without the
obliteration of an understandable pride in the fine
things that come to them from the past history of
their races and nations….”
Multiculturalism is a social and political movement
and position that holds differences between
individuals and groups to be a potential source of
strength and renewal rather than of strife.
It values the diverse perspectives people develop and
maintain through varieties of experiences and
background stemming from racial, ethnic, gender,
sexual orientation and class differences in society.
The doctrine underlying this position is cultural
relativism the denial that any culture can be said to
be better or worse than any other.
Educators need a definition of multiculturalism that
offers the possibility for schools to become places
where students and teachers can become boarder
crossers engaged in critical and ethical reflection
about what it means to bring a wider variety of
cultures into dealing with each other.
Canadian Mosaic was a book by John Murray
Gibbon, published in 1938. Gibbon's book, the full
title of which was Canadian Mosaic: The Making of a
Northern Nation, heralded a new way of thinking
about immigrants that was to shape Canadian
immigration policy in the latter part of the Twentieth
The idea of a mosaic of cultures forming a nation was
adopted by Canadian sociologist John Porter in his
study of social class, entitled: Vertical Mosaic: An
Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada. The
mosaic theme became a part of Canadian
multiculturalism policy in the 1970s, which
PLURALISM VS. MULTICULTURALISM
DOMINANCE -with dominant culture -without dominant
CONCEPT TRANS-NATIONALISM SALAD BOWL
PUBLIC SPHERE -Individuals are treated
in a common public
-is not culturally neutral.
-is an arena for cultural
-No group should
dominate in a way that
excludes other cultural
CULTURAL DIVERSITY Different cultures are
allowed in a separate
cultural sphere, but
society has no obligation
to acknowledge or
Different cultures are
are considered part of
collectivities that provide
meaning to their lives.
-seeks ways to support
EDUCATIONAL GOALS 1) Mitigate social
inequality by ensuring
that merit is rewarded.
1) Cultural pride is
-to overcome the
disjuncture between a
child’s culture and school
culture that excludes a
child from participating
in the larger society.
2) Individuals are given
3) Children have the right
to develop their talents,
interests and schools
students by providing
-To correct hegemony of
2) Cultural respect
should be fostered.
3) Different cultural
historical experiences are
provided to the children.
Cultural Pluralism Multiculturalism
ADVANTAGES 1) It leads the
into adding a
significant aspect of
their culture to the
2) There is national
3) There is more stable
1) It leads to cultural
2) Adds a variety in the
life of all citizens.
3) It bridges the chasm of
Cultural Pluralism Multiculturalism
DISADVANTAGES 1) The dominant
culture is more
prominent than the
2) It usually leads to
dissolution of other
3) The only aspect
accepted in the
minority culture is
the culture that is
compatible to the
1) It brings anxiety to
stability of national
2) It creates national
3) It leads to questionable
Cultural Relativism is a philosophy that believes that
when it comes to matters of right and wrong and
other values of a moral nature that there are no
absolutes or any fixed truths, but rather that all is
Cultural Relativist view themselves as tolerant; they
see other cultures not as wrong but as different.
Pluralism in school setting
What is Multicultural
BANKS (1995) – define multicultural
education as a field of study and an
emerging discipline whose major aim is
to create equal educational
opportunities from diverse racial,
ethnic, social class, and culture.
JAMES BANKS (2001) – the primary
goal of multicultural education is to
transform the school so that male and
female students, exceptional students, and
students from diverse cultural, social-class,
racial and ethnic groups experience an
equal opportunity to learn.
4 APPROACHES IN
ACCOMPLISHING MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
1.CONTRIBUTIONS APPROACH –
The ethnic heroes and holidays are
included in the curriculum.
Philippine Constitution Article XIV-Education,
Science Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
Section 3. (1) All educational institutions shall
include the study of the Constitution as part of
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster
love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation
of the role of national heroes in the historical development
of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship,
strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral
character and personal discipline, encourage critical and
creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological
knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency
In this approach content,
concepts, themes, and
perspectives are added to the
curriculum without changing its
Courses and curricula are
changed so students' thinking is
stretched to view contributions,
events, issues, and course concepts
from the perspective of members
of targeted groups.
Multicultural teaching is excellence
in teaching. It is not so much a
dialogue of whether we can get there
or not, but rather a willingness to learn
more about ourselves as instructors,
our students, what we teach, and how
we teach it so that we can provide the
highest form of education possible for
DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
There are 5 dimensions of multicultural education according to Banks
CONTENT INTEGRATION – it deals with the extent to which
teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and
groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations, and issues within
their subject area or disciplines.
KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS – it describes how
teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how
the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline
influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it.
Students also learn how to build knowledge themselves in this
PERJUDICE REDUCTION – it describes lessons and
activities used by teachers to help students to develop
positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and
EQUITY PEDAGOGY – it exists when teachers modify
their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic
achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and
social class groups.
EMPOWERING SCHOOL CULTURE AND SOCIAL
STRUCTURE – this dimension is created when the
culture and organization of the school are transformed in
ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and
gender groups to experience equality and equal status.
THE GROWTH OF STUDENT
Sociologists define subculture as cultural patterns
that set apart some segment of a society’s population.
Subcultures can be based on age, ethnicity, residence,
sexual preference, occupation, and many factors.
Sometimes , the special cultural traits of a
particular group are too numerous and too
interwoven to be called specialties.
FUNCTIONS OF SUBCULTURES
Subcultures perform specific functions such as:
PERMITTING SPECIALIZED ACTIVITY - because subcultures
(particularly occupational subcultures) carry the knowledge
necessary to perform specialized tasks, they are essential to the
division of labor which is essential in any society which is
becoming larger and more complex.
IDENTITY IN MASS SOCIETY – subcultures also provide a
source of identity in mass society, thus preventing feelings of
isolation and anomie.
CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND CHANGE – another
important function of subcultures is to serve as a source of
adaptation to society. Often a subculture is the mechanism
through which cultural diffusion occurs.