1. LEADERSHIP AND POWER
A Report Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate Studies and Applied Research
College of Teacher Education Laguna State Polytechnic University
Los Baños Campus, Los Baños, Laguna
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the subject in
EM 208: Human Behavior in Organization
MANAIG, APRIL JOY C.
MAED- Science and Technology
August 23, 2019
2. LEADERSHIP TRAITS, SKILLS AND STYLES
Leaders become great by bringing out the best in people. It also takes hard
work to be a great leader. There are many challenges to be mastered. But at the
bottom of it all, as Benjamin and O’ Reilly (2011) quoted that “ Leadership is …
about what you do, how you think and who you are.”
Leadership is the process of exalting others to work hard to accomplish
Leadership is the method of influencing the activities of an individual or group
in efforts toward goal achievement in a very given scenario.
Leadership is an art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for their shared
According to Hasan (2017) write on her article on the following of traits of a
leader who successfully leads a great team:
Honesty and Integrity - it will require us to always tell the truth, to all people,
in every situation. Tracy (2013) explains that truthfulness is that the
foundation quality of the trust that's necessary.
Confidence – we need to boost our confidence to gain respect of
Inspire others – as a leader we should also create our
followers/subordinates to be a leader, that the members can be better
versions of themselves.
Commitment and Passion – we need feel the excitement and enthusiasm in
what we are doing our subordinates will feel.
3. Good Communicator – we need to be a good listener, having verbal and
non-verbal communication can help subordinates to be inspired and feel
Decision-making capabilities – as a leader, we should make wise and
better decisions at right time.
Accountability – as a leader we are accountable for the team’ s result
whether good or bad. We need to learn that we give credit where credit is due,
and take responsibility for blame when necessary.
Delegation and Empowerment – as a leader we need to allow employees to
act on their behalf while delegation is giving enough lead for them to act. As a
leader, you cannot do everything, right. We need to focus on our
responsibilities while leaving the rest of others.
Creativity and Innovation – leaders are creative visionaries who have big
ideas, and most importantly motivate people around them to turn those ideas.
leaders should always think out of the box to come up with unique ideas and
turn those ideas and goals into reality.
Empathy – we need to be open-minded and understand our subordinates’
on their hopes, dreams and problems so that we can build connection with
For this reason, I can say that leadership traits are learnable. If we will always
practice these traits consistently, you and I can be a great leader too.
Now, take a look on the Top 10 Essential leadership qualities by Jones (2019)
1. Stay positive, even in the worst situations – we need to be optimistic when
things get wrong and by creating a relaxed and happy atmosphere in the
4. workplace. We should always keep our members motivated in solving
problems in our organization.
If we are facing challenges in our organization, we need to break down
big challenges and find ways to discuss and think for possible solutions
one by one.
2. Exhibit confidence everywhere - we need to boost our self confidence so that
our members will also have the same confidence and be a role model for
them. We want our people to look up to you for inspiration. As leaders, our
members will be looking on how we behave, if we can have showed them to
work under pressure, they will also do that in the same way.
Successful leaders trust themselves and place confidence in their skills.
3. Have senses of humor – people remember people who make them smile; it
can ease a tense situation. This trait can foster an environment of
camaraderie and makes a happier meeting or workplace.
4. Embrace failures and manage setbacks – There are times that we will face
some failures and mistakes in our life. We just need to learn on dealing it. We
should always keep calm and think critically on practical ways on solving
5. Listen and Give Feedback – communication skills should be develop as a
leader whether we are using verbal and non-verbal communication with our
members. Having an open communication with other people will prevent you
from having misunderstandings with them. We should also listen to their side
and give feedback on the things you’ ve discussed.
6. Know how and when to delegate - leaders should also considers that you
have trust in your members. They also want that you appreciate their efforts
5. no matter how small or big it is, as well as you recognize them, they will
always do their very best.
7. Inspire and Grow people around - leaders knows that we need to develop
the skills of our members where in it will foster morale for them. Motivating
them is making them feel that you belong with them can also inspire that
being a leader is not only about the position we have.
8. Take responsibility and never blame others – leaders will never point their
members on their mistakes but rather accepting the failures of it, we should
never find a fault on our members because we are the one that is responsible
for their actions.
9. Make decisions based on lessons learned in the past - I do believe that
failures will serve as our stepping stone to be strong leader on challenges that
we faced in our lives. We should always think for the best and wise decisions
as a leader.
10.Lead by example and commit to do the best - leaders have their power on
every word they uttered in our commitments. We should be a role model for
our students so that they will also lead by example as a leader someday.
Leaders aren’ t always in special positions: like king or queen, prime minister,
head teachers, sports captain or a manager or boss. We don’ t have to wait until we
get older to be a leader! Being a leader isn’ t all about the glory and praise it will take
hard works efforts and dedications! We just need to listen, motivate, encourage, be
optimistic, have sense of humor, making wise decisions, lead by example and if that
is you? We can be a leader in our own ways. All of us have the chance to develop
our leadership skills and to stand out from the crowd where we belong.
6. According to Mind Tools (2019) that Kurt Lewin developed his framework in
the 1930’ s. Lewin argued that there are 3 major types of leadership:
1. Autocratic/Authoritarian leadership styles make decisions without
consulting their team member, even if their input would be useful.
2. Democratic/Participative leadership styles make final decisions, but they
include their team members in the decision-making process.
3. Laissez – faire leadership styles leaders give their team members a lot of
freedom in how they work, and how they set their deadlines. They provide
support with resources and recommendation if required, however otherwise
they don’ t become involved.
After Lewin’ s three theories, a number of styles used this example and
developed the ideas further. As cited in Martin’ s blog (2017), that 2002 Daniel
Goleman published a book Primal Leadership together with Richard Boyatzis and
Annie Mckee in which he introduced six leadership styles. According to Goleman,
the six styles weren’ t separate, but rather a puzzle the leader can use in order to
achieve the desired outcome.
1. Visionary leadership – it is all about creating a clear vision for the
organization and ensuring everyone within the organization follows it. This
type of leadership is authoritative style, as it involves clear guidance on what
needs to be done.
2. Coaching leadership – it emphasizes leadership development. The
leader’ s role is to develop subordinates in their professional approach and
help them improve their understanding of the strengths and weaknesses they
7. 3. Affiliate leadership – it brings harmony into the workplace and create an
organization based on healthy relationships. It involves conflict-resolution and
the style is effective in overcoming disagreements, turning the focus back on
4. Democratic leadership – it enhanced participation and active
communication. The leader wants to get the subordinates involved and it
seeks collaboration, instead of telling them what to do.
5. Pacesetting leadership – It requires an element of quick rewards to motivate
the subordinates and to act and make quick returns.
6. Commanding leadership - the leaders knows best and the subordinates’
role is to comply. It provides guidance and clear instructions on how to
achieve the organization’ s objectives; the leader might come across as a
‘ know-it-all’ .
MC GREGOR THEORY X AND THEORY OF Y
Managers see workers as…
Sphere THEORY Y
Managers see workers as…
People dislike work, find it boring
and will avoid it if they can.
Attitude People need to work, and want
to take an interest in it. Under
right conditions, they can enjoy
People must be forced, coerced
or bribed to make the right effort.
Direction People will direct themselves
towards a target that they
People would rather be directed
than accept responsibility, which
People will seek and accept
responsibility, under right
8. People are motivated mainly by
money and fears about their job
Under the right conditions,
people are motivated by the
desire to realize their own
Most people have little creativity
– except when it comes to
getting around rules
Highly creative when given
recognition and opportunity
LEADERSHIP USE POWER AND AUTHORITY
Giang (2013) and Essay (2013) defines that power means in many different
things to different people. For some, power is seen as corrupt. For others, the more
power they have, the more successful they feel. For even others, power is of no
interest at all. The 5 bases of power were known by John French and Bertram Raven
within the early 1960’ s through a study that they had conducted on power in
leadership roles. The study showed how different types of power affected one’ s
leadership ability and success in a leadership role.
The 5 bases of power are divided in 2 categories:
A. Position/Formal Power
1. Legitimate power - comes from having a grip of power in an organization,
like being the boss or a key member of a leadership team. This power comes
when workers within the organization acknowledge the authority of the
individual. For example, the chief operating officer who determines the
direction of the company and the resource needs of the corporate.
2. Coercive power - is conveyed through fear of losing one’ s job, being
demoted, receiving a poor performance review, having prime projects taken
9. away, etc. This power is gotten through threatening others. For example, the
VP of Sales who threatens sales people to fulfill their goals or get replaced.
3. Reward power- is sent through rewarding people for compliance with one’ s
desires. This may be done through giving bonuses, raises, a promotion, extra
time off from work, etc. For example, the supervisor who provides employees
comp time when they meet an objective she sets for a project.
B. Personal Power
4. Expert power - comes from one’ s experiences, skills or knowledge. As we
tend to gain expertise above all areas, and become thought leaders in those
areas, we begin to gather expert power that can be utilized to get others to
help us meet our goals. For example, the Project Manager who is an expert at
solving particularly challenging problems to ensure a project stays on track.
5. Referent power -comes from being trusted and respected. We can gain
referent power when others trust what we do and respect us for a way we
have a tendency to handle things. For example, the Human Resource
Associate who is known for ensuring employees is treated fairly and coming
to the rescue of those who are not.
C. Other sources of Power
6. Information Power – when a person possesses needed or wanted
information. This term short-power that doesn’ t necessarily influence or build
10. 7. Connection Power – when a person attains influence by gaining favor or
simply acquaintance with a powerful person. This power is all about
CONTINUUM OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR
Expert Program Management (2018) and Businessballs (2019) shows the
model of Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum on the relationship between the level
of authority you use as a leader and the freedom this allows your team.
1. TELLS – leader that tells is an authoritarian leader. They tell their team what
to try and do and expect them to try and do it.
o The manager will probably have considered how the team will react,
but the team plays no active part in making the decision. The team may
well perceive that the manager has not considered the team's welfare
2. SELLS – leader makes their decision and then explains the logic behind the
decision to their team. They ensure that their team understands the rationale
behind the decision.
o The manager makes the decision, and then explains reasons for the
decision to the team, particularly the positive benefits that the team will
enjoy from the decision. In so doing the manager is seen by the team
to recognize the team's importance, and to have some concern for the
3. SUGGESTS – leaders makes their decision, explains the logic behind the
decision, and then asks team members if they have any questions.
o The manager presents the decision along with some of the
background which led to the decision. The team is invited to ask
11. questions and discuss with the manager the rationale behind the
decision, which enables the team to understand and accept or
agree with the decision more easily
4. CONSULTS – leader that consults presents their provisional decision to their
team and invites comments, suggestions, and opinions.
o The manager discusses and reviews the provisional decision with
the team on the basis that the manager will take on board the views
and then finally decide. This enables the team to have some real
influence over the shape of the manager's final decision. This also
acknowledges that the team has something to contribute to the
5. JOINS – leader who joins presents the problem to their team and then works
with the team in a collaborative manner to make the decision as to how the
problem is going to be solved.
o The manager presents the situation, and maybe some options, to
the team. The team is encouraged and expected to offer ideas and
additional options, and discuss implications of each possible course
of action. The manager then decides which option to take. This
level is one of high and specific involvement for the team, and is
appropriate particularly when the team has more detailed
knowledge or experience of the issues than the manager.
6. DELEGATES – leader that delegates asks their team to make the decision,
within limits that the leader sets.
o At this level the manager has effectively delegated responsibility for
the decision to the team, although within the manager's stated limits.
12. The manager may or may not choose to be a part of the team which
decides. While this level appears to gives a huge responsibility to
the team, the manager can control the risk and outcomes to an
extent, according to the constraints that he stipulates. However, the
team must get the credit for all the positive outcomes from the
decision, while the manager remains accountable for any resulting
problems or disasters.
7. ABDICATES – leader who abdicates lets the team decide what problems to
solve and how to solve them.
o This is obviously an extreme level of freedom, whereby the team is
effectively doing what the manager did in level 1. The team is given
responsibility for identifying and analyzing the situation or problem;
the process for resolving it; developing and assessing options;
evaluating implications, and then deciding on and implementing a
course of action. The manager also states in advance that he/she
will support the decision and help the team implement it. The
manager may or may not be part of the team, and if so then he/she
has no more authority than anyone else in the team. The only
constraints and parameters for the team are the ones that the
manager had imposed on him from above.
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