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OrgCulture_Climate.pptx

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OrgCulture_Climate.pptx

  1. 1. Organizational Culture and Organizational Change 1
  2. 2. Organizational Climate  Different organisations have distinct personalities due to its particular social system  This social system has a CLIMATE that is defined as the “characteristics of the total environments in a organisation building”. 2
  3. 3. Organizational Climate (continued) four dimensions:  Ecology.  Milieu.  Social System (Organization).  Culture. 3
  4. 4. Research on Organizational Culture 4  Theory Z : William Ouchi  Ouchi compared Japanese and U.S. management practices.  He applied Japanese practices in the U.S. and, using McGregor’s concept of Theory X and Y, called it Theory Z.  Theory Z accepts the concepts of human resources development.
  5. 5. Research on Organizational Culture (continued) 5 In Search of Excellence by Tom Peters  Research showed that successful organizations, had a consistent theme: “the power of values and culture in these corporations rather than procedures and control systems, provides the glue that holds them together, stimulates commitment to a common mission, and galvanizes the creativity and energy of their participants.”
  6. 6. Organizational Culture and Climate Compared and Contrasted  Culture “refers to the behavioral norms, assumptions, and beliefs of an organization.”  “the way things are done around here”.  Climate “refers to perceptions of persons in the organization that reflect those norms, assumptions, and beliefs.” 6
  7. 7. Organizational Culture and Climate Compared and Contrasted (continued) 7  Schein’s Model of Levels of Culture describes culture as:  A body of solutions to problems that is believed to be the correct method for perceiving & thinking about problems.  These solutions become assumptions about reality, truth, human relations, etc.  These assumptions become internalized and operate as a set of unconscious assumptions taken for granted.  These assumptions are manifest by artifacts and values that can be studied through qualitative methods.
  8. 8. How Organizational Culture is Created  Culture is developed over time from :  An organization’s history, composed of traditions and rituals that are passed to succeeding generations.  Stories of heroes and heroines are important.  Values and beliefs that are embodied in the traditions and rituals.  Behavioral norms that result (e.g., bell schedules, 7-period day). 8
  9. 9. How Organizational Culture is Created (continued) 9  Organizational culture has a powerful impact on climate:  High performers have a “culture of pride.”  This is found in organizations that are integrative.  This culture fosters a climate of success.
  10. 10. How Organizational Culture is Created (continued)  Sub units within an organization may have cultures of their own resulting in multiple cultures.  Theory X administrators believe this conflicts with their authority.  Theory Y administrators accept them as natural. 10
  11. 11. How Organizational Climate is Created Organizational climate is created by the dynamic interaction of:  Ecology  Milieu  Organizational Structure  Culture 11
  12. 12. How Organizational Climate is Created (continued)  Behavioral Settings: the complex physical and psychological environment of the organization in which individuals interact. 12
  13. 13. How Organizational Climate is Created (continued)  Interaction-Influence System is the central concept in Organizational Behavior.  The structure and processes of interactions among individuals is the interaction-influence system.  Interaction-Influence System includes:  Communication, motivation, leadership goals setting, decisions making, coordination, control and evaluation.  How these work in a school influence and shape behavior.  Describing organizations, therefore, is describing the interaction-influence system. 13
  14. 14. Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness 14  Rensis Likert’s analysis led him to conclude that there are causal variables under a leader’s control that affect climate and organization performance :  Organization structure: bureaucratic or flexible.  Leadership style: authoritative or democratic.  Philosophy of operation: consensus decision making or not.  The choices leaders makes are critical to determining the nature of the management system in the organization. That is, Likert’s System 1, 2, 3, or 4.

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