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The Development Of Modern India

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The Development Of Modern India

  1. 1. The Development of Modern India Imperialism to the 21 st Century
  2. 2. Mughal Empire <ul><li>Founded in 1526 and lasted for 300 years </li></ul><ul><li>The empire united the people of south Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced a golden age under Akbar the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar adopted policies of religious toleration, commissioned the construction of the Taj Mahal blending Islamic and Hindu styles of architecture </li></ul><ul><li>His successors ended the policy of religious toleration against Hindus and civil war broke out throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans begin arriving in India </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Taj Mahal
  4. 4. European Imperialism <ul><li>With the decline of the Mughal Empire, British and French colonists begin arriving in India </li></ul><ul><li>By 1760, the British dominate India </li></ul><ul><li>British East India Company becomes a dominant force in India, collecting taxes from the locals and taking over their land </li></ul>
  5. 5. British Domination <ul><li>Indians were very upset with British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus were outraged when the British outlawed traditional Hindu rituals </li></ul><ul><li>British charge high taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Indians resent the efforts of Christian missionaries trying to convert them </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sepoy Rebellion <ul><li>Sepoys are Indian troops who were forced to serve in the British army </li></ul><ul><li>Sepoys heard rumors that their rifles were greased with beef fat (cows are sacred to Hindus) </li></ul><ul><li>The British passed a new law that required Sepoys to fight for the British in foreign lands </li></ul><ul><li>The Sepoys rebelled in 1857, but their rebellion was quickly put down by the British </li></ul>
  7. 7. India: A British Colony <ul><li>In 1858, the British government officially took over India as a colony </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Effects – improved infrastructure (roads, railroads, and communication systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects – Indians had to buy over priced British goods, cash crops (tea, pepper, and coffee) grown instead of food crops resulting in famine, and schools taught the English language and culture promoting ethnocentrism </li></ul>
  8. 8. Indian Nationalism <ul><li>Nationalistic feelings were the strongest among the British educated Indian elite </li></ul><ul><li>While studying in British schools, they were exposed to the enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu nationalist emerge, wanting to blend Hindu and western culture </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu nationalists gain support from the working class and the peasants (power by numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists reject foreign rule and demand independence </li></ul><ul><li>The INC (Indian National Congress) is established in 1885 to fight for independence </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mohandas Gandhi <ul><li>1920, Gandhi takes over as leader of the nationalist movement </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions begin to emerge between Hindus and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslim League is founded, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah </li></ul><ul><li>By 1930, Jinnah believes that India should be divided into two separate countries, one for Hindus and one for Muslims </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mohandas Gandhi
  11. 11. Gandhi – Cont’d. <ul><li>Gandhi continues to lead the independence movement throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi teaches non-violent protest and civil disobedience (refusal to obey unjust laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi encourages all Indians to boycott British goods </li></ul><ul><li>Leads the Salt March to protest the British tax on salt, marches over 200 miles to the coast to make his own salt from the sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi and 50,000 followers are arrested by the British </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hindu – Muslim Conflict <ul><li>A conflict emerged between Hindus and Muslims in India </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims, led by Jinnah, feared their rights would be denied in a Hindu dominated country </li></ul><ul><li>1946, widespread violence breaks out throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>Fearing a full blown civil war, in 1947 the British pass the Indian Independence Act which ended British rule and divided India into two countries, Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Jawaharal Nehru becomes prime minister of India and Jinnah becomes leader of Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi refused to celebrate India’s independence because of the violence between Hindus and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>In January of 1948, Gandhi was shot and killed by a Hindu extremist </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gandhi <ul><li>Motion Picture Pilot </li></ul>
  14. 14. India and Pakistan
  15. 15. Dividing Forces within India <ul><li>Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Indian government has tried to weaken the traditional caste system and open up opportunities for the lower castes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This often comes with strong opposition from members of higher castes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals in higher castes are usually well educated and have good jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization and modernization has weakened the traditional caste structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh Separatism – a group that has blended Hindu and Muslim culture and wants their own country </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Leaders of India <ul><li>Nehru ruled India for 17 years, hoping to create a casteless India </li></ul><ul><li>In 1966, his daughter Indira Gandhi, is elected as Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Both wanted to modernize and industrialize India </li></ul>
  17. 17. India Today <ul><li>Industry has grown rapidly, especially high-tech industry </li></ul><ul><li>The population is growing rapidly, leaving many unemployed and impoverished </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation systems have been improved, using canals and reservoirs to store water from monsoons </li></ul><ul><li>The Green Revolution of the 1960’s and 1970’s has increased agricultural output (The Green Revolution was a movement that improved farming methods to increase agricultural output) </li></ul>